Skip to main content

Full text of "History of the George Washington bicentennial celebration .."

See other formats


IS TO R \ 



OF THE 



G E OUGE mSHING T ON 
BICENTENNIAL CELEBRATION 



lfa» Pi III ' v 


W 








\&> : C\ 


B 




VOL. u 

A. T\ . 


SKTFt 



United States 



\ I R&i \VaS'HI.NGTON Bl C E 



L -COMMISSION 



HJ55<iTON. r *O.C 



THE UNIVERSITY 

OF ILLINOIS 

LIBRARY 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign 



http://archive.org/details/historyofgeorgew02geor 



"Uncle Sam" Poster 

Drawing by Albert T. Reid 

On the opposite page is a reproduction of a poster used 
in connection with the juvenile activities of the United 
States George Washington Bicentennial Commission. 
This poster was distributed to Boy Scout and Girl Scout 
units throughout the United States, and was also given 
wide general distribution. It is from a drawing by Albert 
T. Reid, the well known artist and cartoonist, and fea- 
tures the Houdon statue of George Washington in the 
Capitol at Richmond, Virginia. 




Drawing by Albert T. Retd 



Reproduction of Poster Used in Connection with Juvenile Activities of 
The United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission. 



{jppMtY 

OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF 1UNQIS 



; •< 



HISTORY 

OF THE 

George Washington 
Bicentennial Celebration 



VOLUME II 

Literature Series 



THE LIBRARY OF THE 
MAY 18 1833 

UNtVfcfrtUX Uf 1LUN01S. 

19 3 2 

United States 

George Washington Bicentennial Commission 

washington, d. c. 



United States George Washington 
Bicentennial Commission 

President of the United States 
Chairman 

Vice President of the United States 

Speaker of the House of Representatives 



United States Senate 

Simeon D. Fess, Vice Chairman 
Ohio 

Arthur Capper 
Kansas 

Carter Glass 
Virginia 

Millard E. Tydings 
Maryland 



House of Representatives 

Willis C. Hawley 
Oregon 

John Q. Tilson 
Connecticut 

Joseph W. Byrns 
Tennessee 

R. Walton Moore 
Virginia 



Presidential Commissioners 



Mrs. Anthony Wayne Cook 
Pennsylvania 

Mrs. John Dickinson Sherman 
Colorado 

Henry Ford 

Michigan 

C Bascom Slemp 

Virginia 



Wallace McCamant 
Oregon 

Albert Bushnell Hart 
Historian 

Massachusetts 

Joseph Scott 
California 



Director 

Representative Sol Bloom 

New York 



116.^1 



THE LfBBARY OF THE 

HAY 18 »833 
UNivtitsiiK «r iktiwois, 



Preface 



THIS is the second of a series of three volumes containing the litera- 
ture prepared and issued by the United States George Washington 
Bicentennial Commission in connection with the Celebration of the Two 
Hundredth Anniversary of the birth of George Washington. 

First in this volume is the address by President Calvin Coolidge at a 
joint session of Congress, February 22, 1927, on the significance of the 
George Washington Bicentennial in 1932. Following is the address by 
President Herbert Hoover at a joint session of Congress, February 22, 
1932, officially opening the Bicentennial Celebration. 

"The United States Congress on George Washington," compiled by 
Myrtis Jarrell, under the direction of H. H. B. Meyer of the Legislative 
Reference Service, Library of Congress, is a comprehensive and valuable 
reference work, listing addresses in honor of George Washington as 
recorded in the proceedings of the United States Congress from 1789 to 
1932; Acts of Congress, Official Documents and other tributes in honor 
of Washington; and extracts from the official papers and writings of 
George Washington, which were read into the record during debates 
in Congress. 

"Selected George Washington Bicentennial Addresses," delivered by 
the Director of the United States George Washington Bicentennial Com- 
mission, include the majority of the addresses broadcast to nation-wide 
audiences. Addresses were made from Independence Hall, Fort Neces- 
sity, the home of Mary Ball Washington, old Pohick Church, Arlington 
National Cemetery, from the home of Francis Scott Key, before the 
Tomb of George Washington at Mount Vernon, and at various other 
shrines. The purpose of these addresses was to make the true character 
of the Father of Our Country better known throughout the nation. A 
radio address entitled "The Mother of George Washington," by Mrs. 
John Dickinson Sherman, former President of the General Federation of 
Women's Clubs, and an address by Honorable R. Walton Moore, former 
President of the Virginia Bar Association and former Representative 
from the Mount Vernon district, are also included. 

"Colonial Gardens," a manuscript prepared by the American Society 
of Landscape Architects, treats on the landscape architecture of George 
Washington's time and received wide distribution. 



835667 



The musical section of the volume is especially interesting. The "Music 
of George Washington's Time," by John Tasker Howard, editor of the 
Commission's Music Division, provided authoritative and comprehensive 
information on the music of the Washington period. The collection of 
patriotic tunes, piano and dance music, songs and operatic airs under the 
title "Music from the Days of George Washington" was made by Dr. 
Carl Engel, Chief, Division of Music, Library of Congress, and the music 
was edited by W. Oliver Strunk, Dr. Engel's assistant. Following these 
is the song written for the American people by George M. Cohan, en- 
titled, "Father of the Land We Love." 

With one out of every four of the total population of our nation in 
school either as student or teacher, the scope of the school activities may 
be realized. Practically every school of the nation participated in the 
Bicentennial Celebration. In the colleges the George Washington 
Appreciation Course has touched the lives of thousands of young men 
and women about to become active in the duties and responsibilities of 
citizenship. The Bicentennial Contests held in schools and colleges were 
avenues through which lessons of patriotism and good citizenship were 
taught by the study of the life of George Washington. The sec- 
tion containing the pamphlets on the Oratorical, Essay and Declama- 
tory Contests in schools and colleges, compiled by Hazel B. Nielson, 
in charge of Educational Activities, is preceded by an address of 
President Calvin Coolidge before the Department of Superintendence of 
the National Education Association in Washington, D. C, February 22, 
1926. Samples of Braille printing for the blind demonstrate the type 
of material issued by the Commission for the sightless. "Sermons on 
George Washington," by ministers of various denominations are 
reprinted. 

"Wakefield," A Folk-Masque of America, Being a Midwinter Night's 
Dream of the Birth of Washington, by Percy MacKaye, is also reprinted, 
as well as the many George Washington pageants which were made avail- 
able for production all over the nation during 1932. 

Sol Bloom, 

Director, 

United States George Washington 

Bicentennial Commission 



Contents 



Page 

Reproduction of Uncle Sam Poster Frontispiece 

United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission iv 

Preface v 

List of Illustrations xvii 

Publications of the United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission . xx 
Address of President Calvin Coolidge at a Joint Session of Congress, February 22, 
1927, on the Significance of the George Washington Bicentennial Cele- 
bration in 1932 1 

Address of President Herbert Hoover at a Joint Session of Congress, February 

22, 1932, on the Opening of the Bicentennial Celebration 9 



THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS 
ON GEORGE WASHINGTON 

Compiled by Myrtis Jarrell 

under the direction of 

H. H. B. Meyer, 

Legislative Reference Service, Library of Congress 

Part I 

Page 
List of addresses in honor of George Washington as recorded 
in the proceedings of the United States Congress from 
1789 to 1932 17 

Part JI 

Acts of Congress, Resolutions, Official Documents and other 
tributes in honor of George Washington from 1789 to 
1932 38 

Part 111 

Extracts from the official papers and writings of George 
Washington read into the Record during debates in the 
United States Congress from 1789 to 1^3 2 86 

SELECTED GEORGE WASHINGTON 
BICENTENNIAL ADDRESSES 

Delivered by Hon. Sol Bloom 
Titles of addresses and dates on which the addresses were made: 
George Washington Bicentennial Celebration in 1932, 

June 15, 1930 95 

George Washington, the Mason, February 23, 1931 97 

At Historic Fredericksburg, Va., May 6, 1931 101 

Mothers' Day, May 10, 1931 104 

Memorial Day, May 30, 1931 105 

George Washington and His Relationship to the South, 

June 5, 1931 107 

National Security League, June 23, 1931 109 



Page 

Independence Day, July 4, 1931 Ill 

Invitation to American Farmers, August 15, 1931 114 

Fort Necessity Ground-Breaking Ceremony, September 29, 

1931 116 

George Washington, the Builder, December 8, 1931 118 

At the Home of Mary Ball Washington, January 1, 1932 123 

To the People of Somerville, Mass., January 1, 1932 12 5 

At Pohick Church, February 21, 1932 126 

An Appreciation, February 23, 1932 129 

The Date of George Washington's Birth, February 23, 1932 131 

Colonial Garden Tribute, March 17, 1932 132 

One Hundredth Anniversary of the Death of Goethe, 

March 22, 19)2 134 

At York, Pa., April 6, 1932 13 5 

Before the National Security League, April 9, 1932 138 

Under the Cherry Blossoms, Washington, D. O, 

April 11, 1932 139 

At New Bern, N. C, April 17, 1932 141 

At Washington's First Headquarters, April 21, 1932 142 

Unveiling Joseph Hewes Memorial, April 28, 1932 145 

Before the Tomb of George Washington, May 2, 1932 147 
Why George Washington Was the First President of the 

United States, May 11, 1932 149 

Memorial Day at Arlington, Va., May 30, 1932 150 

From the Home of Francis Scott Key, June 14, 1932 151 

Washington, the Every Day Man, June 30,1932 153 

American Farm Bureau Federation Independence Day Ad- 
dress, July 4, 1932 155 

Two Hundred and Tenth Anniversary of the Birth of Ad- 
miral Comte de Grasse, September 13, 1932 157 

Re-enactment of Laying of the Cornerstone of the National 

Capitol, September 17, 1932 161 

One Hundred and Fifty-third Anniversary of the Death of 

Casimir Pulaski, October 11, 1932 163 



CONTENTS— Continued 



THE MOTHER OF 
GEORGE WASHINGTON 

By Mrs. John Dickinson Sherman 



Page 



Radio address from Washington, D. C, on Mothers' Day, 
May 11, 1930; also given on Mothers' Day, 1932, at the 
Washington Cathedral and broadcast nationally 165 

GEORGE WASHINGTON AS A JUDGE 

By Hon. R. Walton Moore 
Address reprinted from the Congressional Record of March 



4, 1932 



169 



THE CHARACTER OF WASHINGTON 

By Daniel Webster 

Speech delivered at public dinner, February 22, 1832, in 
honor of the one hundredth anniversary of the birth of 
George Washington 175 

COLONIAL GARDENS 

THE LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE OF 
GEORGE WASHINGTON'S TIME 

Prepared by 

American Society of Landscape Architects 

Preface 182 

Chapter I 
Introduction 183 

Chapter II 

The Colonial Garden: Its History and Meaning, 

Bradford Williams 185 

Chapter III 

Mount Vernon and Other Colonial Places of the South, 
Arthur A. Shurcliff 190 

Chapter IV 
Gardens and Places of Colonial Philadelphia, 

Robert Wheelwright 195 

Chapter V 
Homes and Gardens of Old New York, 

Richard Schermerhorn, Jr 203 

Chapter VI 
Gardens of Old Salem and the New England Colonies, 
Arthur A. Shurcliff 210 

Chapter VII 
Colonial Gardens of Charleston and the Far South, 

Bradford Williams 215 

Chapter Vlll 

The Colonial Garden Today, Fletcher Steele 219 

Bibliography 223 

Quotation of George Washington 226 



THE MUSIC OF 
GEORGE WASHINGTON'S TIME 

By John Tasker Howard, 

Editor, Music Division 

Page 

Preface and Acknowledgments 228 

I. The Music of George Washington's Time 229 

1. The Musical Background 229 

Musical conditions in Early America; Early Con- 
certs; Popular Songs in the Eighteenth Century; 
The Dances of Washington's Time; Musical In- 
struments; Military Bands of the Revolution. 

2. Music Associated with Historic Events 233 

The Music of Pre-Revolutionary Episodes; Songs 
Showing Early Resentment of England's Attitude 
on Taxation; Dickinson's Liberty Song, and its 
Parodies; Yankee Doodle Becomes an American 
Song; Adaptations of God Save the King; Bill- 
ing's Chester; The Music of Yorktown; Music to 
Celebrate Peace with England; The Washington 
Marches; Miscellaneous Songs in Honor of Wash- 
ington; Music of the Inaugural Tours; The Presi- 
dents March; Music Performed during the New 
England Tour of 1789; Songs in Honor of 
Other Revolutionary Characters; Music of the 
1798 Trouble with France; Hail Columbia; Adams 
and Liberty; Music Composed to Mourn the 
Death of Washington. 

II. A Catalogue of Authentic Eighteenth Century Music 

in Modern Editions 249 

1. Music Published and Distributed by the United States 

Commission for the Celebration of the Two Hun- 
dredth Anniversary of the Birth of George Wash- 
ington 249 

2. Music Issued by Music Publishers 249 

Concert Songs Composed in America 250 

Concert Songs from Abroad, Known in America ... 2 50 

Arrangements for Chorus 251 

English Ballad Operas 2 51 

Piano Music Composed in America 251 

Instrumental Music from Abroad 251 

Religious Music 251 

Marches 251 

Books Containing Instructions for Historic Dances. 251 

Historic National Airs 251 

America 251 

Hail Columbia 252 

The Star Spangled Banner 252 

Yankee Doodle 252 

Potpourri and Collections Containing Historic 

National Airs 2 52 



CONTENTS— Continued 



Page 

III. A Catalogue of Modern Music Commemorating George 
Washington or Otherwise Appropriate for Use in 
Washington Celebrations 253 

Compositions Written for the United States Com- 
mission for the Celebration of the Two Hun- 
dredth Anniversary of the Birth of George Wash- 
ington 253 

Music Commemorative of George Washington and 

His Time 253 

Cantatas - 2 54 

Operettas 2 54 

Religious Music 2 54 

IV. Musical Program Suggestions for Bicentennial Celebra- 
tions 255 

1. Suggested Music to be Used with Programs for the 

Nation- Wide Celebration in 1932 of the Two Hun- 
dredth Anniversary of the Birth of George Washington 25 5 

2. Miscellaneous Patriotic Music Especially Suited to Clubs, 

Colleges and Patriotic Organizations 255 

3. Miscellaneous Patriotic Music Especially Suited to Junior 

Organizations (Schools, Clubs, Boy and Girl Scouts, 
etc.) 258 

GEORGE WASHINGTON AS A FRIEND 
AND PATRON OF MUSIC 

Taken from "The Musical Side of Our First President," 
contained in "Essays in Music" by the late O. G. Sonncck, 
former Chief, Division of Music, Library of Congress. 

Introduction 260 

Music Written in Honor of George Washington 261 

Washington Did Not Play His Musical Instruments 261 

Music of the Theatre 261 

A Washington Relic 262 

The Armonica Invented by Benjamin Franklin 262 

Restrictions Against Drama 263 

Concerts of Music 263 

Washington's Favorite Opera 263 

Nelly Custis Plays Her Grandfather's Favorite Old Melody 264 

Washington a Concert Goer 264 

MUSIC FROM THE DAYS OF 
GEORGE WASHINGTON 

Collected ami Provided With An Introduction by 

Carl Engel 

Chief, Division of Music, Library of Congress 

The Music Edited by 

W. Oliver Strunk 

Assistant, Division of Music, Library of Congress 



Preface 



267 



Introduction 269 



Page 

Military and Patriotic Music: 

The President's March, Philip Phile 276 

Arranged by James Hewitt 

Washington's March 277 

The Toast (to Washington), Francis Hopkinson 278 

General Burgoyne's March 279 

Brandy wine Quick-Step 280 

Successful Campaign 281 

The Battle of Trenton, a Favorite Historical Military Son- 
ata. Dedicated to General Washington (1797), James 
Hewitt 282 

Concert and Dance Music: 

Sonata (First Movement), Alexander Reinagle 296 

Minuet and Gavotte, Alexander Reinagle 306 

Two Minuets, Pierre Landrin Duport 308 

Danced before General and Mrs. Washington (1792) 
Rondo (1787), William Brown 310 

Songs and Operatic Music: 

Beneath a Weeping Willow's Shade, Francis Hopkins . . 314 

From the "Seven Songs." Dedicated to Washington 
(1788) 

Delia (1793), Henri Capron 318 

The Mansion of Peace (1790?), Samuel Webbe 324 

Lullaby ( 1792) , Stephen Storace 328 

From the Opera "The Pirates" 
The Bud of the Rose (1782), William Shield 330 

From the Opera "Rosina" 
The Wayworn Traveller (1793), Samuel Arnold 332 

From the Opera "The Mountaineers" 

FATHER OF THE LAND WE LOVE 

Written by George M. Cohan 

for the American People 

To commemorate the Two Hundredth Anni- 
versary of the Birth of George Washington. 

Painting contributed by James Montgomery Flagg 337 

The Story of Washington 338 

Song 339 

GEORGE WASHINGTON 
AND EDUCATION 

By President Calvin Coolidge 

An address before the Department of Superintendence, Na- 
tional Education Association, Washington, D. O, Febru- 
ary 22, 1926 341 



CONTENTS— Continued 



ORATIONS AND ESSAYS OF THE 
GEORGE WASHINGTON BICENTEN- 
NIAL NATION-WIDE ORATORI- 
CAL, ESSAY, AND DECLAMA- 
TORY CONTESTS IN SCHOOLS 
AND COLLEGES 

Coin piled by 

Hazel B. Nielson 

Director of Educational Activities 

Page 
Nation-wide Bicentennial Contests, By Sol Bloom, Director, 
United States George Washington Bicentennial Commis- 
sion 349 

Program, George Washington Bicentennial National Ora- 
torical Contest 3 51 

Group I — Orations — First Place Awards in State Bicen- 
tennial Oratorical Contests in Colleges and Universi- 
ties, Also Names of Students Awarded Second and Third 
Places in Their Respective States 353 

National Winner — 

James R. Moore, Somerset, Kentucky, Washington 
and Lee University, Lexington, Virginia, Washing- 
ton: Nation Builder 353 

Regional Winners — 

East Central — James R. Moore, Washington and Lee 
University, Lexington, Virginia, Washington: Na- 
tion Builder 3 5 3 

South Central — Felicien Lozes, Loyola University, 
New Orleans, Louisiana, First in Peace 3 54 

Middle Atlantic — Martin J. Tracey, Fordham Uni- 
versity, New York City, The Spirit of Washington 3 5 5 

Northeastern — Margaret G. Degnan, New Haven 
State Normal School, New Haven, Connecticut, 
Washington: Exemplar of American Ideals 3 56 

Southeastern — J. Milton Richardson, Jr., University 
of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, Washington: Exem- 
plar of American Ideals 357 

Central — John W. Crawford, Northwestern Univer- 
sity, Evanston, Illinois, The Spirit of Washington 3 58 

North Central — Donald Holand, University of 
North Dakota, Grand Forks, North Dakota, 
Washington: Nation Builder 359 

Southwestern — Fred Coucy, Colorado State Teachers 
College, Greeley, Colorado, First in Peace 3 60 

Northwestern — Bryson Hays, Columbia University, 
Portland, Oregon, George Washington's Under- 
standing of Men 361 

State Winners — 

Alabama — Margaret Allen Wallis, Alabama College, 
Montevalla, Washington: Exemplar of American 
Ideals 3 62 



Page 

Arizona — Clarence Flood, State Teachers College, 
Flagstaff, The Spirit of Washington 3 63 

Arkansas — Ross Borders, College of the Ozarks, 
Clarksville, The Spirit of Washington 364 

Colorado — Fred Couey, Colorado State Teachers Col- 
lege, Greeley (Southwestern Region) 360 

Connecticut — Margaret G. Degnan, New Haven 
State Normal School, New Haven (Northeastern 
Region) 356 

District of Columbia — Jerome J. Downey, George- 
town University, Washington: Exemplar of 
American Ideals 365 

Florida — William A. McRae, Jr., University of 
Florida, Gainesville, The Spirit of Washington 566 

Georgia — J. Milton Richardson, Jr., University of 
Georgia, Athens (Southeastern Region) 3 57 

Idaho — Ralph Olmstead, University of Idaho, Mos- 
cow, The Spirit of Washington 367 

Illinois — John W. Crawford, Northwestern Univer- 
sity, Evanston (Central Region) 358 

Kansas — Irwin Luthi, Kansas State Teachers College, 
Pittsburg, Washington: Exemplar of American 
Ideals '. 3 67 

Kentucky — J. R. Gillespie, Asbury College, Wilmore, 
Washington the Courageous 367 

Louisiana — Felicien Lozes, Loyola University, New 
Orleans (South Central Region) 3 54 

Montana — Virginia Randolph, Montana State Nor- 
mal College, Dillon, The Spirit of Washington . . 368 

Nevada — Bernard Mergen, University of Nevada, 
Reno, Washington: Exemplar of American Ideals 370 

New Mexico — Francis D. Burke, University of New 
Mexico, Albuquerque, Washington the Courageous 370 

New York — Martin J. Tracey, Fordham University, 
(Middle Atlantic Region) 35 5 

North Dakota — Donald Holand, University of 
North Dakota (North Central Region) 3 59 

Oregon — Bryson Hays, Columbia University, Port- 
land (Northwestern Region) 361 

South Dakota — Owen King, Jr., Northern Normal 
and Industrial School, Aberdeen, The Spirit of 
Washington 371 

Tennessee — Joe Williams Worley, State Teachers 
College, Johnson City, The Spirit of Washington 372 

Texas — Mary Lynn Orgain, Temple Junior College, 
Temple, The Spirit of Washington 373 

Virginia — James R. Moore, Washington and Lee Uni- 
versity, Lexington (National Winner) 353 

West Virginia — Noel Cook, West Virginia Univer- 
sity, Morgantown, The Spirit of Washington . ... 374 



CONTENTS— Continued 



Page 

Names of Students Awarded Second and Third Places in 

Their Respective State Oratorical Contents 377 

Group II — Essays — First Place Awards in the State Bi- 
centennial Essay Contests in High Schools. Also Names 
of Students Awarded Second and Third Places in Their 
Respective States 379 

National Winner — 

Betty Ann Troy, Sacred Heart Academy, Stamford, 
Connecticut, The Many-sidedness of George Wash- 
ington 379 

State Winners — 

Alabama — Herman Pfaff, Phillips High School, Bir- 
mingham, Washington's Balance of Character 3 80 

Arizona — Sylvia Postert, Loretto Academy, Bisbee, 
Washington's Balance of Character 3 80 

Arkansas — Gertrude Schuster, Saint Scholastica 
Academy, Fort Smith, The Many-sidedness of 
George Washington 381 

California — Rose Adele Gianella, Holy Names Cen- 
tral High School, Oakland, Washington's Balance 
of Character 3 82 

Colorado — Edwin Van Cisc, East High School, Den- 
ver, George Washington: Statesman and Soldier . 3 82 

Connecticut — Betty Ann Troy, Sacred Heart Acad- 
emy, Stamford (National Winner) 379 

Florida — Elizabeth Allen, Landon High School, Jack- 
sonville, George Washington, the Farmer at Mount 
Vernon 3 83 

Georgia — Ethel Mae Beavers, Commercial High 
School, Atlanta, George Washington: Statesman 
and Soldier 3 83 

Hawaii — Elizabeth Archer, Sacred Hearts Academy, 
Honolulu, Washington's Influence on Our Life 
Today 3 84 

Idaho— Beth Ilium, Malad City High School, Malad 
City, George Washington, the Farmer at Mount 
Vernon 3 84 

Illinois — Frances Galati, Notre Dame Academy, 
Belleville, Washington's Balance of Character . 38 5 

Indiana — Martha Spille, Union City High School, 
Union City, The Many-sidedness of George Wash- 
ing/on 3 86 

Kansas — Jessie Hines, Pleasanton High School, Pleas- 
anton, Washington's Influence on Our Life Today 386 

Kentucky — Elvis Stahr, Hickman High School, 
Hickman, Washington's Balance of Character 3 87 

Louisiana — Mary Belle Hatcher, Longstreet High 
School, Longstreet, George Washing/on, the 
Farmer at Mount Vernon 3 88 

Maryland — Eleanor Bounds, Laurel High School, 
Laurel, George Washington, the Farmer at Mount 
Vernon 388 



Page 

Missouri — Ellen Gallagher, St. Philomena Technical 
School, St. Louis, George Washington: Statesman 
and Soldier 3 89 

Montana — Leclerc Page, Washington Junior High 
School, Butte, The Many-sidedness of George 
Washington 389 

Nevada — Katherine O'Brien, Carson City High 
School, Carson City, Washington's Balance of 
Character 390 

New Jersey — Philip Hindes, South River High 
School, South River, The Many-sidedness of 
George Washington 391 

New Mexico — Sam Montoya, Pena Blanca High 
School, Pena Blanca, George Washington: States- 
man and Soldier 391 

New York — Kathleen O'Hare, Convent School, Syra- 
cuse, The Many-sidedness of George Washington . 392 

North Carolina — Frank McKee, Gastonia High 
School, Gastonia, George Washington's Sense of 
Duty 392 

North Dakota — Edna Mae Skaar, Williams High 
School, Croff, The Many-sidedness of George 
Washington 393 

Oregon — Irene E. Soehrcn, St. Helen's Hall, Port- 
land, Washington's Influence on Our Life Today 394 

South Carolina — Elinor Rittenberg, Ashley Hall, 
Charleston, The Many-sidedness of George Wash- 
ington 394 

South Dakota — Ralph Glenn, Washington High 
School, Sioux Falls, George Washington: States- 
man ami Soldier 395 

Tennessee — David Cheatham, Central High School, 
Pulaski, George Washington's Sense of Duty. . . . 395 

Texas — Edna Dato, Sam Houston Senior High 
School, Houston, George Washington: Statesman 
and Soldier 396 

Utah — Evelyn Young, Wasatch High School, Heber, 
The Many-sidedness of George Washingon 397 

Vermont — Mary Elizabeth Lawsing, Randolph High 
School, Randolph, George Washington, the Farmer 
at Mount Vernon 397 

Virginia — Elizabeth Walton, Clifton Forge High 
School, Clifton Forge, The Many-sidedness of 
George Washington 398 

Washington — Susie L. Roley, Washougal High 
School, Washougal, Washington's Influence on 
Our Life Today 399 

West Virginia — Vera Broyles, Princeton High School, 
Princeton, George Washington's Sense of Duty 599 

Wyoming — Helen Mills, Wheatland High School, 
Wheatland, Washington's Influence on Our Life 
Today 400 



CONTENTS— Continued 



Page 
Names of Students Awarded Second and Third Places in 

Their Respective State Essay Contests 401 

Group III — Declamations — Names of Students Awarded 
First, Second, and Third Places in the State 
Declamatory Contests in Elementary Schools .... 402 

ORGANIZATION AND REGULATIONS 

OF THE DECLAMATORY, ESSAY, 

AND ORATORICAL CONTESTS 

Prepared by Hazel B. Nielson 
Director of Educational Activities 

Preface 404 

Letter from President Hoover to the Teachers and Youth of 

Our Land 405 

Kindle New Fires of Patriotism, by Sol Bloom, Director . . 406 
National Contests, by William John Cooper, Commissioner, 

United States Office of Education 406 

The Spirit of George Washington 407 

Regulations 407 

State Contest Committee 407 

Type and Scope of the Nation-wide Series of Educational 

Contests 407 

Declamatory Contest in Elementary Schools 408 

Essay Contest in High Schools 408 

Oratorical Contest in Institutions of Higher Learning ... 408 

Reference to Materials 409 

Selected Books Relating to George Washington 409 

Membership of State Contest Committee 411 

SELECTIONS RELATING TO GEORGE 
WASHINGTON FOR DECLAMA- 
TORY CONTESTS IN THE 
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

Compiled by Hazel B. Nielson, 
Director of Educational Activities 

Preface 418 

State Contest Committee 419 

Type and Scope of the Nation-wide Series of Educational 

Contests 419 

Early Celebrations of George Washington's Birthday 419 

GROUP I— GRADES 1 AND 2 

Anonymous — Land of Washington 420 

Anonymous — Our Very Best 420 

Cleator, Alice Jean — A Young Patriot 420 

Irish, Marie (Collection) — To Washington 420 

Irish, Marie (Collection) — So Shall I 420 

Irish, Marie (Collection) — Washington's Success 420 



Page 

Sangster, Margaret E. — Washington's Birthday 420 

Washington, George — Rules of Civility and Decent Behavior 420 

GROUP II— GRADES 3 AND 4 

Foss, Sam Walter — I'm the Little Red Stamp 421 

Menihan, Thomas M. — Washington 421 

Prescott, William H. — Washington 421 

Sangster, Margaret E. — Washington's Birthday 421 

Turner, Nancy Byrd — Washington 421 

Washington, George — Rules of Civility and Decent Behavior 421 

GROUP III— GRADES 5 AND 6 

Reed, Andrew — Washington 422 

Burdick, Arthur J. — Washington's Birthday 422 

Day, William — Mount Vernon, The Home of Washington 422 

Durbin, Eliza W. — Our Washington 422 

Dwight, Timothy — The Glory of Washington 423 

Howland, George — Washington's Birthday Ever Honored. . 423 
Marshall, Representative John — To the Memory of Washing- 
ton 423 

Senate of the United States, December 23, 1799 — Letter in 

Memory of George Washington 423 

Washington, George — Rules of Civility and Decent Behavior 423 
Washington, George — Letter Addressed to the Governors 

of All the States at the End of the War 424 

Washington, George — Farewell Address to the People of the 

United States 424 

Washington, George — Farewell Address to the People of the 

United States 424 

Whittier, John Greenleaf — The Vow of Washington 424 

GROUP IV— GRADES 7 AND 8 

Bryant, William Cullen — The Twenty-Second of February 42 5 

Butterworth, Hezekiah — Crown Our Washington 42 5 

Cleveland, Grover — Character of Washington 42 5 

Coolidge, Calvin — Washington and Education 425 

Green, John Richard — Character and Position of Washington 42 5 

Holmes, Oliver Wendell — Ode for Washington's Birthday 426 
Lee, Representative Henry — Commemorative Address Before 

Congress 426 

Lowell, James Russell — Washington 426 

Monroe, Harriet — Washington 426 

Prentice, John A. — Washington 427 

Sangster, Margaret E. — Washington's Birthday 427 

Washington, George — Letter Addressed to the Governors of 

All the States at the End of the War 427 

Washington, George — Farewell Address to the People of the 

United States 427 



CONTENTS— Continued 



Page 

Webster, Daniel — Character of Washington 427 

Winthrop, Robert C. — National Monument to Washington 428 

Anonymous — Washington's Monument 42 8 

Markham, Edwin — Bicentennial Poem, Washington The 
Nation-Builder 429 

CHARACTERISTIC ACTIVITIES 
OF SCHOOLS 

Typical School Programs of the George Washington Bicen- 
tennial Celebration 43 

Orange County, N. C, Schools Report of County Activities 
in Celebration of the Washington Bicentennial 43 2 

Letters from Two Prominent Educators 43 2 

Comments on Educational Activities of the Bicentennial 
Celebration from Executives, Superintendents, and 
Teachers 432-A 

FLAGS OF AMERICAN LIBERTY 

Chart of Flags .43 3 

SAMPLES OF BRAILLE PRINTING 
FOR THE BLIND 

As issued by the Braille Department of the United States 
George Washington Bicentennial Commission 

/// Charge of Dorothea E. Ji nnings 
Introduction 43 S 

Sample of Braille Printing for the Blind With Translation 43 9 

SERMONS ON GEORGE WASHINGTON 

{Listed Alphabetically According to Names of Ministers) 
Title 

Foreword 444 

Sermon on the Life of George Washington 516 

Rev. Joseph Baer Baker, D.D., York, Pa. 
The Inspirations of a Great Life 445 

Albert W. Beaven. President, The Colgate-Rochester Divinity 
School, Rochester, N. Y. 

Washington, The Inspired Workman 447 

Reverend W. Herbert Burk. D.D., Founder and Rector of the 

Washington Memorial Chapel, Valley Forge 

Sermon on the Bicentennial of the Birth of George Wash- 
ington 523 

The Reverend S. Parks Cadman, D.D., LL.D., Radio Minister of 
the Federal Council of Churches of Christ in America 

George Washington: Pioneer, Patriot, and President 500 

Reverend William Carter, D.D., LL.D., Pastor of the Throop 
Avenue Presbyterian Church, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Washington, The Man 450 

Reverend Edward O. Clark, Chevy Chase, Md. 
George Washington 451 

Dr. Henry H. Crane, Maiden, Mass. 



Page 
459 



Title 

The Thoroughness of Washington 

Right Reverend Thomas Frederick Davies, D.D., Bishop of 

Western Massachusetts 

Washington 461 

Dr. Solomon B. Freehof, K. A. M. Temple, Chicago, 111. 

"Behold the Upright" 454 

Right Reverend James E. Freeman, D.D., LL.D., Bishop of 
Washington, National Cathedral, Washington, D. C. 

Washington's Spirit Must Live 484 

Reverend Franklin Clark. Fry, Pas/or, Evangelical Lutheran 
Church of the Holy Trinity, Akron, Ohio 

Sermon on the Two Hundredth Anniversary of the Birth of 
George Washington 486 

Thomas I. GaiLOR, D.D., Bishop of the Episcopal Church in 
Tennessee 

Sermon on George Washington 48 8 

Reverend Peter Guilday, Ph.D., Professor of Church History, 
The Catholic University of America. Washington, D. C. 

Centennial Celebration of Washington's Inauguration 492 

Honorabli Peter Hendrickson, Bat/err D. Armory, Chicago, 
1889 

George Washington — The Symmetry of His Character 495 

Rivirend Edward M. Jefferys, S. T. D., Rector of St. Peter's 
Church, Philadelphia 

Washington the Valorous 512 

Reverend r'n<,\K P. Win Jones, 1XD., Minister, Central Wood- 
ward Christian Church, Detroit, Michigan 

A Leader and Commander of the People 462 

Dr. Hugh Thomson Ki rr. Pas/or of the Shadyside Presbyterian 
Church, Pittsburgh. Pa. 

George Washington 5 03 

Nathan Kk\^s. ( ongregation Emanu-El of the Citj of New York 
George Washington ,\nd the Test of True Greatness 496 

A. \V. LEONARD, D.D., LL.D., Resident Bishop, Buffalo Area. 
Methodist Episcopal Church 

The Spirit of Washington 465 

Reverend Charles Edgar Liebegott, St. Paul's Lutheran 
Church. Akron. Ohio 

Religious Liberty 507 

Rabbi David Philipson, D.D., Cincinnati, Ohio 
What Washington Won 467 

Daniel A. Poling, D.D., I.L.D., The Marble Collegiate Reformed 
Church, New York City 

George Washington and Religious Liberty 521 

The Reveri no D. de Sola Pool. Ph.D., Spanish and Portuguese 
Synagogue Shearith Israel, New York, N. Y, 

The Religious Life of George Washington 470 

Noel Porter, Arch Deacon of California, San Francisco, Calif. 

The Religious Undertone in the Life of George Washington 5 09 
Reverend Samuel Judson Porter, D.D., Litt.D., Pastor, First 
Baptist Church, Washington, D. C. 

A Plea for the Heroic in American Citizenship 472 

Reverend Hamilton Schuyler, Litt.D., Honorary Canon of 
Trinity Cathedral, Trenton, N. J. 

The Greatness of Washington 474 

The Reverend Frederick F. Shannon, Litt.D., LL.D., Min- 
ister of Central Church, Chicago, 111. 

Sermonette on George Washington 478 

Right Reverend Ernest V. Shayler, Bishop of Nebraska 

America's Calvary 479 

Reverend Fulton J. Sheen, Ph.D., Catholic University, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 



CONTENTS— Continued 



Title 



Page 



Washington and the American Tradition 457 

Rabbi Abram Simon, Ph.D., Washington Hebrew Congregation, 
Washington, D. C. 

George Washington and the Second Mile 480 

Reverend James I. Vance, D.D., Pastor of the First Presbyterian 
Church, Nashville, Tenn. 

George Washington, A Man of Four Dimensions 482 

Reverend Frederick J. Weertz, St. John's Evangelical Lutheran 
Church, Des Moines, Iowa 

The Man of Mount Vernon 518 

Reverend Marshall Wingfield, Cincinnati, Ohio 

Washington Supreme 52 5 

Dr. Stephen S. Wise, Rabbi of the Free Synagogue, Netv York, 
and President of the Jewish Institute of Religion, in honor of 
Washington's Bicentennial Celebration, before a joint session of 
the Legislature of the State of Rhode Island, at Providence 

Washington's Worth to America 505 

Right Reverend Charles E. Woodcock, DD., L.L.D., Louisville, 
Ky. 

Thanksgiving Blessings 526 

A COLLECTION OF 
GEORGE WASHINGTON POETRY 

Compiled by Beatrix Reynolds and James Gabelle 

Foreword 528 

George Washington, Anonymous 529 

Epitaph on Washington, Anonymous 529 

Man and Mountain, Claribcl Weeks Avery 5 29 

Washington in Wall Street, Arthur Guiterman 530 

Washington, Thomas Marshall 530 

Washington, May Folwell Hoisington 530 

Washington, Harriet Markham Gill 5 30 

Our Washington, C. H. Harrington 531 

Acrostic, The Rev. Samuel Tomb, 1800 531 

Washington in Art, Gaetano Frederici 5 31 

To George Washington, Robert C. Winthrop 5 31 

To Washington, Elkanah East Taylor 532 

Washington, The Lonely Man, Annie Souther ne Tardy . . 5 32 

Washington's Statue, Henry Theodore Tuckerman 53 2 

Elegy on the Death of George Washington, Rev . Peter Whit- 
ney, A. M 5 3 3 

The Trip to Cambridge (July 3, 1775), Unknown 533 

What He Means To Me, Phyllis-marie Arthur 5 34 

Washington, Nonrcddin Addis 5 34 

Washington, Our Country's Pride and Fame, Henry Fclton 

Huse 5 34 

Washington the Beloved, Leroy Elmer Bentley 535 

Washington, Isabelle V. Hayivard 5 3 5 

For Liberty, Lyman Bradley 53 5 

Elegaic Verses, John Searson, 1800 53 5 

Hero Immortal, James M. Stewart 5 36 

Masonic Hymn, George Richards 536 

Washington, Rev. Dennis O'Crowley 5 36 

A Jeweled Name, Myra Belle Dungan 5 36 



Page 

George Washington, Schuyler E. Sears 537 

Mount Vernon, Grace Evelyn Brown 537 

Washington, Edwin Thomas Whiff en 537 

December, 1783, B. Phillip Freneau 5 37 

The Unrevealed, Louis Crenshaw Ray 538 

The Cornerstone, Beatrix Reynolds 538 

From "Age of Bronze," Lord Byron 538 

Washington, Rosa A. Langtry 538 

Washington, Jessica Morehead Young 539 

Washington, Nell Mace Wolfgang 5 39 

The Light Perpetual, James Gabelle 539 

A Man!, Clinton Scollard 5 39 

Tribute to Washington, From a London Newspaper 5 39 

To George Washington (Pater Patriae), Clarence L. Haynie 540 

Washington, Lillian Winters 540 

Washington Crosses the Delaware (December, 1776), 

Clinton Scollard 540 

"George Washington We Honor You," /. Milton Sivartz . . . 540 

Young Washington, Arthur Guiterman 541 

War and Washington, Jonathan Mitchell Seivall 541 

George Washington, Mrs. Elsie J. Cosier Campbell 541 

At the Tomb of Washington, Clinton Scollard 541 

Our Cincinnatus, James Gabelle 542 

George Washington, Harry Elmore Hurd 542 

The Cherry Tree, Lydia Chafton 542 

Washington, William Cullen Bryant 542 

Washington at Trenton, Edmund Clarence Stedman 542 

Washington's Tomb, Ruth Lawrence 543 

Acrostic, Mabel Adams Ayer 543 

An Episode in the Life of Washington, Virginia Waiuwright 543 

Washington, Francis Arden 543 

Washington, Mary Wingate 543 

Washington, Lord Byron 544 

Washington, G. B. Smith 544 

Washington, Elizabeth Toldridge 544 

Washington Relics, William H. Ranch fuss 544 

George Washington, Gertrude Perry West 544 

Washington Monument by Night, Carl Sandburg 544 

Nor Shame His Dream, Virginia Spates 545 

A Paean to Washington, £. Dorcas Palmer 545 

From an Ode on the Death of George Washington, Samuel 



I .in 



545 



Stuart's Washington, Irene Shirley Moran 54 5 

George Washington, Bessie Price Owen 546 

A Day at Mt. Vernon, 178 8, Beulah May. 546 

George Washington, 1732-1932, Lillian M. Perkins 546 

Cause for Pride, Dr. Joseph H. Keuna 547 

Extract from the Portrait, John Pier pout, 1812 547 



CONTENTS— Continued 



Page 

Washington, Marguerite MacAlman 547 

Washington, Phronsie Irene Marsh 547 

Washington, James Jeffrey Roche 547 

Washington, Elijah Parish, 1800 548 

George Washington, Ramona Moore 548 

George Washington, Alice Wescott Marks 548 

Washington, Geraldine Meyrich 548 

George Washington, Florence Riley Rad cliff e 548 

Washington, S. Louise Marsh 549 

Washington, Sylvia B. Malagisi 549 

Washington's Tomb at Mt. Vernon, Anna Lloyd 549 

In Washington's Death Chamber, Kate Randlc Mencfee . . . 549 

George Washington, John Hall Ingham 549 

The New-Come Chief, James Russell Lowell 5 50 

Mount Vernon Bells, M. B. C. Slade 5 50 

Sons of Washington, Maude Frazer Jackson 5 50 

GEORGE WASHINGTON ACTIVITIES 
FOR 4-H CLUBS 

By Belva Cuzzort 

Introduction 553 

I. Foreword 5 54 

II. George Washington Acquaintance Day Program ... 554 

The Magic Square 556 

George Washington, Country Boy and Man 561 

Music — The Battle of Trenton 5 63 

Washington Hurdles 563 

Dance — The Minuet of George Washington's Time . 5 64 

A 4-H'er's Biography of Young Washington 564 

The Next Step in the 4-H Memorial to George Wash- 
ington 56 5 

III. George Washington Experiences 56 5 

IV. George Washington Achievement Day for 4-H Clubs 570 
A Special George Washington Program for Achievement 

Day 570 



570 



V. A Selected List of Publications of the United States 
George Washington Bicentennial Commission 

PROGRAM OF WAKEFIELD 
A FOLK-MASQUE OF AMERICA 

Program of Presentation 571 

Production Staff 572 

Cooperating Organizations 573 

Synopsis of the Masque 575 

Persons and Groups of the Actions and Tableaux 5 78 



WAKEFIELD, A FOLK-MASQUE 
OF AMERICA 

Being a Midwinter Night's Dream of the Birth of 

WASHINGTON 

By Percy MacKaye 

Page 

The Masque 583 



INTRODUCTORY 



Preface 


585 


Persons and Groups of the Actions 


588 


Persons and Groups of the Tableaux 


588 


Choruses 


589 




589 


Dances 


589 



Orchestral Compositions 589 

The Masque Structure 590 

The Setting 5 90 

The Planes of Action 590 

TEXT OF THE MASQUE 
In Thirty-Three Actions and Five Tableaux 

PROLOGUE— B1R T H 

1. New World 591 

2. The Imbuing Presence (Washington) 591 

3. The Four Winds 592 

PART ONE— GROWTH AND DRIFT 

4. Cedar, Rock and Star 592 

5. The Thirteen Stars 593 

6. Wakefield 594 

7. Folk-Say 595 

8. The Fairy Ring 596 

9. Free 597 

10. The Ambush of Drift 598 

11. Brave 600 

12. The Crumpled Horn 602 

13. New World Venture 603 

14. Log-Fire Wonder 604 

15. The Black Plot 605 

16. The Mask of Shakespeare 605 

17. Magna Charta 607 

18. Revelation 607 

19. The Net of Drift 608 

20. Midwinter's Night 608 

INTERLUDE— RE-BIRTH 

Chorus of the Ages 609 



CONTENTS— Continues 



PART TWO— SELF-HEAL 



21. 

22. 
23. 
24. 
25. 
26. 

27. 

II. 
28. 
III. 
29. 
IV. 
3 0. 

V. 



The Wrecked Circle 

The Fountain of Youth 
Childhood 



Page 

609 

610 

611 

The Thirteen Songs 612 

Home 613 

Visions of Remembrance 614 

Will: The Delaware 614 

Brother and Brother 615 

Fortitude: Valley Forge 615 

Candle-Flame 615 

Self-abnegation: Kingship Refused 616 

Federation 616 

Poise: The Constitution 617 

The Noblest Task 617 

"Improvements on the Earth": Mount Vernon . 618 



EPILOGUE— DAWN 

3 1 . Morning Star 618 

32. New Day 618 

3 3. "Reflect" 619 

COMMENTARIES 

Three Monographs on Production 

1. The Masque. Percy MacKaye 620 

II. The Illustration-Designs. Arvia MacKaye 623 

III. The Music. John Tasker Hoivard 624 

DATA AND RECORDS 

IV. Synopsis of the Music 626 

V. Words of Folk-Songs with Translations 628 

VI. Words of Choruses 634 

VII. Note on the Thirteen Folk-Songs 634 

VIII. Note on the Music for the Five Tableaux 634 



Page 

IX. Contents of Choruses for "Wakefield" 63 5 

X. Contents of Orchestral Music for "Wakefield" . ... 635 
XL List of Properties 635 

GEORGE WASHINGTON PAGEANTS 

Introduction 638 

The Redbud Tree, by Olive M. Price 639 

From Picture Book Towne, by Olive M. Price 645 

Through the Calendar to Mount Vernon, by Edna M. 

Dubois 648 

Childhood Days in Washington's Time, by Florence C. Fox 6 52 

Washington Returns, by Kathleen Read Coontz 666 

The Boys' George Washington, by M. Elizabeth Salois . ... 689 
Living Pages from Washington's Diary, by Kathleen Read 

Coontz 694 

The Father of His Country, by Esther C. and Lawrence A. 

Averill 703 

Many Waters, By Marietta Miunigerode Andrews 712 

HOW TO PRODUCE A PAGEANT IN 
HONOR OF GEORGE WASHINGTON 

By Esther Willard Bates 

Writing a Pageant 724 

Outdoor Sites 724 

Indoor Settings 726 

Costumes 727 

Make-up 727 

Lighting 728 

Music 73 

Dances 73 

Rehearsals 73 

Organization 731 

Types of George Washington Pageants 731 

Suggestions for Episodes 73 2 

Bibliography 732 



List of Illustrations 

Page 
President Calvin Coolidge Delivering an Address on the Significance of the George 
Washington Bicentennial Celebration, at a Joint Session of Congress, Feb- 
ruary 22, 1927 2 

The Capitol After Restoration, 1836 (East Front) 8 

The Capitol, 1836, from Pennsylvania Avenue 8 

President Herbert Hoover Delivering an Address on the Opening of the George 
Washington Bicentennial Celebration at a Joint Session of Congress on Feb- 
ruary 22, 1932 10 

Senate Chamber, 1830 14 

House of Representatives Chamber, 1830 14 

Adoption of the Constitution by the Federal Convention, September 15, 1787 2 5 

Final Inaugural Address of George Washington, at Federal Hall, New York City, 

April 3 0, 1789 3 3 

First Presidential Mansion, Franklin Square, New York City, 1789 43 

President John Adams on December 23, 1799, Made an Address Before the Senate 

Upon the Death of George Washington 5 5 

James Madison, a Representative from Virginia, Reported in the House of Repre- 
sentatives, May 7, 1789, an Address to President George Washington 63 
John Marshall, a Representative from Virginia, on December 19, 1799, Made an 
Address in the House of Representatives Announcing the Death of George 

Washington 75 

George Washington's Bookplate 91 

Brothers, Half Brothers, and Sister of George Washington 92 

Washington Relics of the Alexandria-Washington Lodge of Free Masons at 

Alexandria, Va 98 

One of the Oldest Memorials to George Washington. The Stone Tower, as Restored, 

Erected on South Mountain, Near Boonsboro, Maryland, in 1827 102 

First and Unfinished Monument at the Grave of Mary, the Mother of Washington, 

at Fredericksburg, Va 102 

Fraunces' Tavern in New York City and Plaque Marking the Building 112 

Hall Clock of Mary Ball Washington, Mother of George Washington, Preserved at 

Kenmore, the Home of Her Daughter, Betty Lewis, in Fredericksburg, Va . 122 
The Home of Mary Ball Washington, Mother of George Washington in Fredericks- 
burg, Va 122 

Interior of Christ Church, Alexandria, Va., Where Washington Purchased a Pew in 
1773, and Where He Frequently Worshipped When Living at Mount Vernon, 

Eight Miles Away 127 

Pohick Church, Virginia. The Parish Church of Mount Vernon, Six Miles Distant 

from the Mansion, Where Washington was a Vestryman for Twenty Years 127 

Admiral Comte de Grasse 158 

George Washington Laying the Cornerstone of the Federal Capitol at Washington, 

D. C, With Masonic Ceremonies on September 18, 1793. By De Land 160 

Masonic Ceremony, September 17, 1932, Re-Enacting the Original Ceremony in 
Which George Washington Laid the Cornerstone of the United States Capitol, 
With Masonic Honors, September 18, 1793. The Modern Ceremony was Con- 
ducted Under the Auspices of the Grand Lodge, A. F. and A. M., District of 
Columbia, With the Original Trowel and Gavel Used by George Washington 160 

Masonic Procession at the Laying of the Cornerstone of the National Capitol (1793) 162 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS— Continued 



Page 

Masonic Parade in Washington, D. C, on September 17, 193 2, to Commemorate 
the 139th Anniversary of the Laying of the Cornerstone of the Federal Capi- 
tol on September 18, 1793 162 

Brigadier General Casimir Pulaski 1 64 

Monument Over the Grave of Mary Ball Washington, Mother of George Washing- 
ton, at Fredericksburg, Va 166 

Mount Vernon, the Home and Garden of George Washington 183 

Mount Vernon from the West 185 

Mount Vernon from the East 187 

The Plan of Mount Vernon 189 

The Gardens at Mount Vernon 191 

Stratford 193 

A Typical Town Place in Virginia 194 

Washington's Residence, Philadelphia 195 

A Home of the Old Philadelphia Region 196 

Solitude 197 

Mount Pleasant 198 

The Grange: Clair-voyee on Lower Terrace of Garden 199 

The Grange: Garden Walk on the Upper Terrace 200 

Two Ancient Gardens of the Philadelphia Region 201 

Gardens of New Amsterdam 202 

Maizeland — a Colonial Estate on the Hudson 204 

Two Country Seats of the New York Region 205 

A Boxwood Path 206 

Gardens Characteristic of the Eighteenth Century 207 

An Old Colonial Garden in New Jersey 208 

A Salem Garden 209 

Garden Patterns of the Region of Old Salem 210 

A New England Farmyard 211 

An Estate near Marblehead 213 

A New England Flower Garden 214 

Portions of Plan of St. Augustine, 1763 216 

Old Colonial House with Modern Dooryard Garden 218 

Modern Adaptation of Colonial Garden with Box-edged Rose Beds 220 

The Colonial Grape Arbor Today 221 

Front Yard Garden with Design Copied from Colonial Original 222 

The Music Room at Mount Vernon 262 

Poster of General Washington, by James Montgomery Flagg 337 

First Reading of the Declaration of Independence 340 

The Surrender of Cornwallis 340 

The First Inauguration 340 

George Washington Commemorative Medal 348 

Regional Oratorical Winners at the White House 350 

James R. Moore, Winner of National Oratorical Contest 352 

Washington College Building of Washington and Lee University 352 

Facsimile of Certificate of Award for all types of Contests 375 

State Winners in Bicentennial Oratorical Contests 376 

President Hoover honors the winner of the National Essay Contest 378 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS— Continued 



Page 

George Washington's Bookplate 416 

Washington Family 420 

Washington Resigning His Commission at Annapolis, December 23, 1783 424 

National Monument to Washington 428 

Display of Original Bicentennial School Work 43 

Washington (The Imbuing Presence) 5 84 

The Setting for the Wakefield Masque 5 90 

Polaris 591 

Wind-Angel 593 

Orion 593 

Cassiopeia 593 

Wakefield 5 94 

Folk-Say 596 

Wappocomo 597 

Uncle Remus, Fox, Possum, Rabbit 5 98 

Free 599 

Brave 599 

Drift 600 

Vassals of Drift 601 

Shadows of Logfire Wonder 604 

Sylvia, Holy, Fair and Wise 606 

Revelation 606 

Childhood 606 

Crossing the Delaware 614 

Valley Forge 615 

Kingship Refused 616 

The Constitution 617 

Washington on His Farm at Mount Vernon 617 

Suggested Scenes for George Washington Pageant Episodes 636 

The Queen's Birthnight Ball 695 

The Mother and Her Son 696 

After the Hunt 697 

Washington Accepts his Commission 697 

The Soldier's Return 698 

Christmas at Mount Vernon 699 

Mrs. Washington's Reception 700 

Washington Pew in Christ Church, Alexandria, Va 700 

Music Hour With Nelly Custis 701 

Portrait of George Washington 702 



Publications of the 

United States George Washington 

Bicentennial Commission 



The commemorative volumes issued by the United States George 
Washington Bicentennial Commission contain the complete 
history of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration. 



LITERATURE SERIES 

The literature series, of which this is the second volume, consists of vol- 
umes I, II and III, and contains the publications of the United States 
George Washington Bicentennial Commission, issued in connection with 
the Celebration of the Two Hundredth Anniversary of the Birth of 
George Washington. These volumes present authentic historical infor- 
mation concerning George Washington, which was obtained after the 
most painstaking research. 



FOREIGN PARTICIPATION 

The series on Foreign Participation contains the activities of the Cele- 
bration in 81 foreign countries, divided into sections as follows: Western 
Europe, Eastern Europe, Near East, Far East, Canada, Mexico, Central 
America, South America, West Indies, and Africa. 



ACTIVITIES OF THE CELEBRATION 

The series on the Activities of the Celebration contains the report of the 
National Organizations, States, cities, towns, and communities, including 
municipal activities and programs given by religious, fraternal, patriotic, 
educational and other groups. 



United States 

George Washington Bicentennial Commission 

washington, d. c. 



An Address 

OF 

President Calvin Coolidge 



at a joint session of 
the congress of the united states 



february 22, 1927 
on the Significance 

of the 

George Washington Bicentennial Celebration In 1932 



Address 



OF 



President Calvin Coolidge 

Delivered at a Joint Session of Congress 
February 22, 1927 



My Fellow Americans: On the 2 2d day of February, 193 2, 
America will celebrate the two hundredth anniversary of the 
birth of George Washington. Wherever there are those who love 
ordered liberty, they may well join in the observance of that 
event. Although he belongs to us, yet by being a great Ameri- 
can he became a great world figure. It is but natural that here 
under the shadow of the stately monument rising to his memory, 
in the Capital City bearing his name, the country made inde- 
pendent by his military genius, and the Republic established by 
his statesmanship, should already begin preparations to proclaim 
the immortal honor in which we hold the Father of our Country. 

In recognition of the importance of this coming anniversary, 
more than two years ago the Congress passed a joint resolution 
establishing a commission, which was directed to have this ad- 
dress made to the American people reminding them of the rea- 
son and purpose for holding the coming celebration. It was also 
considered that now would be an appropriate time to inform the 
public that this commission desires to receive suggestions con- 
cerning plans for the proposed celebration and to express the 
hope that the States and their political subdivisions under the 
direction of their governors and local authorities would soon 
arrange for appointing commissions and committees to formu- 
late programs for cooperation with the Federal Government. 
When the plans begin to be matured they should embrace the ac- 
tive support of educational and religious institutions, of the many 
civic, social, and fraternal organizations, agricultural and trade 
associations, and of other numerous activities which character- 
ize our national life. 

It is greatly to be hoped that out of the studies pursued and 
the investigations made a more broad and comprehensive under- 
standing and a more complete conception of Washington, the 
man, and his relation to all that is characteristic of American 
life may be secured. It was to be expected that he would be 
idealized by his countrymen. His living at a time when there 
were scanty reports in the public press, coupled with the inclina- 
tion of early biographers, resulted in a rather imaginary charac- 
ter being created in response to the universal desire to worship 
his memory. The facts of his life were of record, but were not 
easily accessible. While many excellent books, often scholarly 
and eloquent, have been written about him, the temptation has 
been so strong to represent him as an heroic figure composed of 
superlatives that the real man among men, the human being 
subjected to the trials and temptations common to all mortals, 



has been too much obscured and forgotten. When we regard 
him in this character and have revealed to us the judgment with 
which he met his problems, we shall all the more understand 
and revere his true greatness. No great mystery surrounds him; 
he never relied on miracles. But he was a man endowed with 
what has been called uncommon common sense, with tireless 
industry, with a talent for taking infinite pains, and with a mind 
able to understand the universal and eternal problems of man- 
kind. 

Washington has come to be known to the public almost ex- 
clusively as the Virginia colonel who accompanied the unfor- 
tunate expedition of General Braddock, as the commander in 
chief of the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War, 
as the first Prescient of the United States, and as the master 
of the beautiful estate at Mount Vernon. This general esti- 
mate is based to a large extent on the command he held in time 
of war and the public office he held in time of peace. A recital 
of his courage and patriotism, his loyalty and devotion, his self- 
sacrifice, his refusal to be king, will always arouse the imagina- 
tion and inspire the soul of everyone who loves his country. 
Nothing can detract from the exalted place which this record 
entitles him to hold. But he has an appeal even broader than 
this, which today is equally valuable to the people of the United 
States. Net many of our citizens are to be called on to take 
high commands or to hold high public office. We are all nec- 
essarily engaged in the ordinary affairs of life. As a valuable 
example to youth and to maturity, the experience of Washing- 
ton in these directions is worthy of much more attention than 
it has received. 

We all share in the benefits which accrued from the inde- 
pendence he won and the free Republic he did so much to es- 
tablish. We need a diligent comprehension and understanding of 
the great principles of government which he wrought out, but 
we shall also secure a wide practical advantage if we go beyond 
this record, already so eloquently expounded, and consider him 
also as a man of affairs. It was in this field that he developed 
that executive ability which he later displayed in the camp and 
in the council chamber. 

It ought always to be an inspiration to the young people of 
the country to know that from earliest youth Washington 
showed a disposition to make the most of his opportunities. He 
was diligently industrious — a most admirable and desirable, if 
seemingly uninteresting, trait. His father, who had been edu- 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



cated in England, died when his son was 11 years old. His 
mother had but moderate educational advantages. There were 
no great incentives to learning in Virginia in 173 2, and the 
facilities for acquiring knowledge were still meager. The boy 
might well have grown up with very little education, but his 
eager mind and indomitable will led him to acquire learning 
and information despite the handicaps surrounding him. 

His formal schooling, which was of a rather primitive charac- 
ter, ended at the age of 13. His copy and exercise books, still 
in existence, contain forms of bills, receipts, and like documents, 
showing he had devoted considerable time to that branch of his 
studies. He was preparing himself to be a practical business 
man. When his regular instruction ended, his education was 
just beginning. It continued up to his death, December 14, 
1799. If ever there was a self-made man, it was George Wash- 
ington. Through all his later years he was constantly absorb- 
ing knowledge from contact with men, from reading whenever 
time and facilities permitted, and from a wide correspondence. 

When 16 he became a surveyor and for four years earned a 
living and much experience in that calling. Although consider- 
able has been written about it, not many people think of our 
first President as an agriculturist. Those who have studied this 
phase of his life tell us he was probably the most successful owner 
and director of an agricultural estate in his day. A visitor in 
178 5 declared "Washington's greatest pride was to be thought 
the first farmer in America." Toward the end of his life he 
wrote: 

I am led to reflect how much more delightful to an un- 
debauched mind is the task of making improvements on 
the earth than all the vain glory that can be acquired 
from ravaging it by the most uninterrupted career of 
conquests. 

He always had a great affection for Mount Vernon. He 
increased his land holdings from 2,700 to over 8,000 acres, 
3,200 of which he had under cultivation at one time. 

His estate was managed in a thoroughly business-like fashion. 
He kept a very careful set of account books for it, as he did 
for his other enterprises. Overseers made weekly statements 
showing just how much each laborer had been employed, what 
crops had been planted or gathered. While he was absent re- 
ports were sent to him, and he replied in long letters of instruc- 
tion, displaying wonderful familiarity with details. He was one 
of the first converts to the benefits of scientific fertilization and 
to the rotation of crops, for that purpose making elaborate tables 
covering five-year periods. He overlooked no detail in carrying 
on his farm according to the practice of those days, producing on 
the premises most of the things needed there, even to shoes and 
textiles. He began the daily round of his fields at sunrise, and 
often removed his coat and helped his men in the work of the 
day. 

He also showed his business ability by the skillful way in 
which he managed the considerable estates left to his two step- 
children by their father. So successfully was this done that John 
Parke Custis became, at the age of 21, the richest young man 
in the Old Dominion. Prussing tells us that Martha Custis was 
advised to get the ablest man in the colony to manage her estate 



and to pay him any salary within reason. And he adds: "That 
she chose wisely in marrying the young colonel, and got the best 
of a good bargain, is the opinion of many." 

He was engaged in many business enterprises. That of the 
Dismal Swamp, comprising drainage and lumber operations 
south of Norfolk, was handled efficiently by Washington for five 
years subsequent to 1763. In addition to his landholdings, 
wisely chosen, the rise in value of which accounted in no small 
degree for his fortune, Washington participated in a number of 
real estate and transportation companies. As a private citizen 
he was constantly on the outlook for sound investments and for 
ways to increase his capital. In the purchase of frontier lands 
and in the promotion of plans for the building up and develop- 
ment of new parts of the country he was performing important 
public service. 

Dr. Albert Bushnell Hart, distinguished historian and a mem- 
ber of our commission, says: 

Washington has been criticized for buying up land war- 
rants and holding on to his title in the face of squatters. 
Actually no American has ever done so much to open up 
vast tracts of land, first under the British, and then under 
the American flag, fitted to become the home of millions of 
American farmers. 

After 13 years of effort Washington forced the British gov- 
ernment to give to the Virginia veterans of the French and In- 
dian wars the 200,000 acres of western lands promised by the 
governor of that colony. His management and distribution of 
these bounties were carried out in an eminently efficient and 
satisfactory manner. He acquired two large farms in Maryland. 
During a trip in New York State in 1783 he saw the possibilities 
of a waterway from the sea to the Great Lakes by way of the 
Hudson River and the Mohawk Valley — the present route of a 
great barge canal. Because of his business vision he joined with 
General Clinton in the purchase of 6,000 acres near Utica. 

To Washington, the man of affairs, we owe our national 
banks, for had he followed the advice of other leaders, great but 
less enlightened on matters of finance, the plans of Alexander 
Hamilton would not have been realized. As a result of the 
war the country was deeply in debt and had no credit, but the 
solution of our financial difficulties suggested by the first Secre- 
tary of the Treasury was opposed by those from rural communi- 
ties. They argued that the large commercial cities would domi- 
nate to the detriment of other parts of the country. Both Jef- 
ferson, Secretary of State, and Randolph, Attorney General, in 
writing opposed the incorporation by Congress of a national 
bank. They were joined by Madison and Monroe. All argued 
against the constitutionality of this proposition. Hamilton an- 
swered their arguments fully in his famous opinion. But had 
the President not been a man of affairs, had he not been for 
many years a holder of stock in the Bank of England, com- 
ing from the estate of Daniel Parke Custis, he might have yielded 
to the opposition. Because he knew something about bank ac- 
counts and bank credits the bill was signed and the foundation 
of our financial system laid. 

Washington was also a stockholder in the Bank of Alexandria 



Address by President Calvin Coolidge 



and in the Bank of Columbia at Georgetown. In his last will 
and testament he directed that such moneys as should be de- 
rived from the sale of his estate during the lifetime of Mrs. 
Washington should be invested for her in good bank stocks. 

After his retirement from the Presidency in March, 1797, 
Washington spent more than two and a half happy years at 
Mount Vernon. In his last summer he made a will, one of the 
most remarkable documents of its kind of which we have record. 
Again he showed his versatility in disposing of his many prop- 
erties under a variety of bequests and conditions without legal 
advice. It has been called an autobiographic will — it shows in 
its manifold provisions his charitable thoughtfulness for his de- 
pendents and his solicitude for the future welfare of his country. 

As President he was always an exponent of sound and honest 
public finance. He advocated the payment of our debts in full 
to holders of record, and the assumption by the Nation of the 
debts incurred by the various States to carry on the Revolution. 
His support of financial integrity, because it was morally right, 
strengthened the Union. 

This practical business ability and interest in broad and gen- 
eral affairs made him one of the first to realize that the future 
of the American empire lay in the regions beyond the Alle- 
ghenies, in the territory of the Ohio and the Mississippi. Be- 
cause of this belief, he is said to have been the moving spirit 
in the first plans for the organization of our public lands. His 
association with the West may have started in the period 1749- 
1751, when he assisted his brother, Lawrence, in his various busi- 
ness enterprises, among them the Ohio Co., which had a grant 
of 500,000 acres of land on the east side of the Ohio River. The 
French having begun to build forts in the upper Ohio Valley and 
to exclude the English traders, Washington, at the age of 21, 
was sent by the Governor of Virginia to bear a remonstrance. 
The comprehensive report of this young man was considered of 
enough importance to be printed in London and circulated 
widely in Europe, by way of justifying Great Britain in making 
war upon France. In 1763 he organized the Mississippi Co. to 
take the place of the Ohio Co., which was one of the casualties 
of the war. He applied for a grant of 1,000,000 acres of land, 
though he did not receive it. But he made his own investments, 
so that in the schedule of his property attached to his will we 
find western lands appraised at over $400,000 — along the Ohio, 
the Great Kanawha, in western Pennsylvania, in Kentucky, and 
in the Northwest Territory. 

Having a vision of what the West meant in the future pros- 
perity of the new Republic, Washington in 1784 journeyed out 
into the wilds. His diary of the trip is filled with interest and 
enthusiasm over the possibilities of that region. Hulbert, who 
has made a study of it, calls him our first expansionist, the origi- 
nator of the idea of possessing the West through commercial 
relations. 

It was a pioneer idea, instinct with genius, 
this author writes, 

and Washington's advocacy of it marks him as the first 
commercial American, the first man typical of the America 
that was to be. 



Due to his investments, he became the president of the James 
River Co. and of the Potomac River Co., organized in 178 5 to 
look into the possibility of opening navigation through to the 
West. To the Potomac Co., which involved the first interstate 
commerce negotiations in this country, he devoted four years 
of service. It has been thought that these negotiations entered 
into by Washington led up almost directly to the calling of the 
Constitutional Convention. They revealed clearly the difficulty 
under the Articles of Confederation of accomplishing anything 
involving the welfare of all the States, and showed the need of a 
more strongly centralized national government. His ability as 
a business man was the strong support of his statesmanship. It 
made his political ideas intensely practical. 

Washington's Atlantic-Mississippi waterway plan was never 
carried out. But his advocacy of it without doubt had much 
to do with preventing a break in the Union which threatened 
serious consequences. The people who lived in the upper Ohio 
Valley, shut off from the east by mountains, had no outlet to 
the sea other than the Mississippi, and Spain, controlling the 
mouth of this river, levied heavy tribute on all commerce passing 
through it. The settlers, in what is now eastern Tennessee, 
established a separate State and started negotiations for an asso- 
ciation with Spain; but this action was rescinded with the devel- 
opment of economic unionism after Washington put forth his 
waterway plan. 

That he should have been responsible in large measure for the 
opening of the West and for calling attention to the commercial 
advantages the country might derive therefrom is by no means 
the least of his benefactions to the Nation. He demonstrated 
that those who develop our resources, whether along agricultural, 
commercial, and industrial lines or in any other field of en- 
deavor, are entitled to the approval, rather than the censure, of 
their countrymen. 

Washington was a builder — a creator. He had a national 
mind. He was constantly warning his countrymen of the dan- 
ger of settling problems in accordance with sectional interests. 
His ideas in regard to the opening of our western territory were 
thought out primarily for the benefit of the Nation. It has 
been said that he would have been "the greatest man in America 
had there been no Revolutionary War." 

He was largely instrumental in selecting the site for our Na- 
tional Capital, influenced in no small degree by his vision of the 
commercial possibilities of this locality. It included his plan of 
the waterway to the West, through the Potomac, the Monon- 
gahela, and the Ohio Rivers, which he used to speak of as "the 
channel of commerce to the extensive and valuable trade of a 
rising empire." He, of course, could not foresee the develop- 
ment of railway transportation and the great ocean-going ves- 
sels, because of which the seat of our Government became sep- 
arated from active contact with commerce and was left to de- 
velop as the cultural and intellectual center of the Nation. Due 
to the genius of L'Enfant, the great engineer, this city from the 
first has had a magnificent plan of development. Its adoption 
was due in no small degree to the engineering foresight and 
executive ability of Washington. By 1932 we shall have made 
much progress toward perfecting the ideal city planned by him 
in the closing days of the eighteenth century. 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



Washington had the ability to translate ideals into the prac- 
tical affairs of life. He was interested in what he believed con- 
tributed to the betterment of everyday existence. Perhaps be- 
cause he realized the deficiency of his own early education, he 
was solicitous to provide liberal facilities for the youth of the 
future. Because as a man of affairs he knew the everyday uses 
of learning, in an early message to the Congress and in his will 
he sought methods for the establishment of a national university. 
Even in his Farewell Address we find this exhortation: 

Promote, then, as an object of primary importance, in- 
stitutions for the general diffusion of knowledge. In pro- 
portion as the structure of a government gives force to 
public opinion, it is essential that public opinion should 
be enlightened. 

He desired his system of education to be thoroughly American 
and thoroughly national. It was to support the people in a 
knowledge of their rights, in the creation of a republican spirit, 
and in the maintenance of the Union. 

It was with the same clear vision that he looked upon religion. 
For him there was little in it of emotionalism. He placed it on 
a firmer, more secure foundation, and stated the benefits which 
would accrue to his country as the results of faith in spiritual 
things. He recognized that religion was the main support of 
free institutions. In his Farewell Address he said: 

Of all the dispositions and habits which lead to political 
prosperity, religion and morality are indispensable supports. 
In vain would that man claim the tribute of patriotism who 
should labor to subvert these great pillars of human happi- 
ness — these firmest props of the duties of men and citizens. 
The mere politician, equally with the pious man, ought to 
respect and to cherish them. A volume could not trace 
all their connections with private and public felicity. Let 
it simply be asked, Where is the security for property, for 
reputation, for life, if the sense of religious obligation desert 
the oaths which are the instruments of investigation in 
courts of justice? And let us with caution indulge the sup- 
position that morality can be maintained without religion. 

Whatever may be conceded to the influence of refined 
education on minds of peculiar structure, reason and ex- 
perience both forbid us to expect that national morality can 
prevail in exclusion of religious principle. It is substan- 
tially true that virtue or morality is a necessary spring of 
popular government. The rule indeed extends with more or 
less force to every species of free government. Who that is 
a sincere friend to it can look with indifference upon at- 
tempts to shake the foundation of the fabric? 

Without bigotry, without intolerance, he appeals to the high- 
est spiritual nature of mankind. His genius has filled the earth. 
He has been recognized abroad as "the greatest man of our own 
or any age." He loved his fellow men. He loved his country. 
That he intrusted their keeping to a Divine Providence is re- 
vealed in the following prayer which he made in 1794: 



Let us unite in imploring the Supreme Ruler of Nations 
to spread His holy protection over these United States; to 
turn the machinations of the wicked to the confirming 
of our Constitution; to enable us at all times to root our 
internal sedition and put invasion to flight; to perpetuate 
to our country that prosperity which His goodness has 
already conferred; and to verify the anticipations of this 
Government being a safeguard to human rights. 

He was an idealist in the sense that he had a very high stand- 
ard of private and public honor. He was a prophet to the extent 
of being able to forecast with remarkable vision the growth of 
the Nation he founded and the changing conditions which it 
would meet. But essentially he was a very practical man. He 
analyzed the problems before him with a clear intellect. Hav- 
ing a thorough understanding, he attacked them with courage 
and energy, with patience and persistence. He brought things 
to pass. When Patrick Henry was asked in 1774 whom he 
thought was the greatest man in the Continental Congress he 
replied: 

If you speak of eloquence, Mr. Rutledge, of South Caro- 
lina, is by far the greatest orator; but if you speak of solid 
information and sound judgment Colonel Washington is 
unquestionably the greatest man on that floor. 

His accomplishments were great because of an efficiency which 
marked his every act and a sublime, compelling faith in the ulti- 
mate triumph of the right. As we study his daily life, as we 
read his letters, his diaries, his state papers, we come to realize 
more and more his wisdom, his energy, and his efficiency. He 
had the moral efficiency of an abiding religious faith, emphasiz- 
ing the importance of the spiritual side of man; the social ef- 
ficiency shown by his interest in his fellow men, and in his 
realization of the inherent strength of a people united by a sense 
of equality and freedom; the business efficiency of a man of 
affairs, of the owner and manager of large properties; the gov- 
ernmental efficiency of the head of a new Nation, who, taking 
an untried political system, made it operate successfully, of a 
leader able to adapt the relations of the Government to the peo- 
ple. He understood how to translate political theory into a 
workable scheme of government. He knew that we can ac- 
complish no permanent good by going to extremes. The law 
of reason must always be applied. He followed Milton, who 
declared — 

law in a free nation hath ever been public reason, 

and he agreed with Burke that — 

men have no right to what is not reasonable. 

It is a mark of a great man that he surrounds himself by great 
men. Washington placed in the most important positions in his 
Cabinet Jefferson with his advocacy of the utmost degree of 
local self-government and of State rights, and Hamilton whose 
theories of a strong national government led him to advocate the 
appointment of State governors by the President. Either theory 
carried to the extreme soon would have brought disaster to what 
has proved the most successful experiment in liberty under proper 
governmental restraint in the history of the world. 



Address by President Calvin Cooi.idge 



It is due to h : s memory that we guard the sovereign rights of 
the individual States under our Constitution with the same solici- 
tude that we maintain the authority of the Federal Government 
in all matters vital to our cont'nued national existence. 

Such is the background of a man performing the ordinary 
duties of life. As it was George Washington, of course he per- 
formed them extraordinarily well. The principles which he 
adopted in his early youth and maintained throughout his years 
are the source of all true greatness. Unless we understand this 
side of him we shall fail in our comprehension of this true char- 
acter. It was because of this training that he was able to 
assume the leadership of an almost impossible cause, carry it on 
through a long period of discouragement and defeat, and bring 
it to a successful conclusion. In advance of all others, he saw 
that war was coming. With an Army that was never large 
and constantly shifting, poorly supported by a confederation in- 
experienced, inefficient, and lacking in almost all the essential ele- 
ments of a government, he was victorious over the armies of 
seasoned troops commanded by Howe, Burgoyne, Clinton, and 
Cornwallis, supported by one of the most stable and solid of 
governments, possessed of enormous revenues and ample credit, 
representing the first military power of the world. 

As an example of generalship, extending over a series of years 
from the siege of Boston to the fall of Yorktown, the Commander 
in Chief of the Continental Armies holds a position that is un- 
rivaled in the history of warfare. He never wavered, he never 
faltered from the day he modestly undertook the tremendous 
task of leading a revolution to the day when with equal modesty 
he surrendered his commissions to the representatives of the in- 
dependent Colonies. He triumphed over a people in the height 
of their glory who had acknowledged no victor for 700 years. 

Washington has come to personify the American Republic. He 



presided over the convention that framed our Constitution. The 
weight of his great name was the deciding factor in securing its 
adoption by the States. These results could never have been 
secured had it not been recognized that he would be the first 
President. When we realize what it meant to take 13 distracted 
Colonies, impoverished, envious, and hostile, and weld them into 
an orderly federation under the authority of a central govern- 
ment, we can form some estimate of the influence of this great 
man. But when we go further and remember that the Govern- 
ment which he did so much to bring into being not only did 
not falter when he retired from its administration, but, with- 
standing every assault, has constantly grown stronger with the 
passage of time and been found adequate to meet the needs of 
nearly 120,000,000 people occupying half a continent and con- 
stituting the greatest power the world has ever known, we can 
judge something of the breadth and soundness of his statesman- 
ship. 

We have seen many soldiers who have left behind them little 
but the memory of their conflicts; but among all the victors the 
power to establish among a great people a form of self-govern- 
ment, which the test of experience has shown will endure, was 
bestowed upon Washington and Washington alone. Many others 
have been able to destroy. He was able to construct. That he 
had around him many great minds does not detract from his 
glory. His was the directing spirit without which there would 
have been no independence, no Union, no Constitution, and no 
Republic. His ways were the ways of truth. He built for 
eternity. His influence grows. His stature increases with the 
increasing years. In wisdom of action, in purity of character, he 
stands alone. We can not yet estimate him. We can only indi- 
cate our reverence for him and thank the Divine Providence which 
sent his to serve and inspire his fellow men. 




The Capitol After Restoration, 1836 (East Front) 




The Capitol, 18 36, From Pennsylvania Avenue 



An Address 

OF 

Herbert Hoover 

President of the United States 



AT A JOINT SESSION OF 
THE CONGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES 



FEBRUARY 22, 1932 
AT THE 

Opening of the Celebration 

of THE 

Bicentennial of the Birth of George Washington 




10 



Address 

OF 

Herbert Hoover 

President of the United States 

Delivered at a joint Session of Congress February 22, 19} 2 



Just one hundred years ago in this city Daniel Webster, in com- 
memoration of the birth of George Washington, said: 

"A hundred years hence, other disciples of Washington 
will celebrate his birth with no less of sincere admiration 
than we now commemorate it. When they shall meet, as 
we now meet, to do themselves and him that honor, so 
surely as they shall see the blue summits of his native moun- 
tains rise in the horizon, so surely as they shall behold the 
river on whose banks he lived, and on whose banks he rests, 
still flowing on toward the sea, so surely may they see, as 
we now see, the flag of the Union floating on top of the 
Capitol; and then, as now, may the sun in his course visit 
no land more free, more happy, more lovely, than this, our 
own country." 

The time that Webster looked forward to is here. We "other 
disciples of Washington" whom he foresaw are gathered today. 
His prophecy is borne out, his hope fulfilled. That flag "still 
floats from the top of the Capitol." It has come unscathed 
through foreign war and the threat of internal division. Its only 
change is the symbol of growth. The thirteen stars that Wash- 
ington saw, and the twenty-four that Webster looked upon, now 
are forty-eight. The number of those who pay loyalty to that 
flag has multiplied tenfold. The respect for it beyond our 
borders, already great when Webster spoke a hundred years ago. 
has increased — not only in proportion to the power it symbolizes, 
but even more by the measure in which other peoples have em- 
braced the ideals for which it stands. To Webster's express : on of 
hope we may reasonably answer, Yes — "The sun in his course 
visits no land more free, more happy, more lovely, than this, our 
own country." Proudly we report to our forefathers that the 
Republic is more secure, more constant, more powerful, more 
truly great than at any other time in its history. 

Today the American people begin a period of tribute and grati- 
tude to this man whom we revere above all other Americans. 
Continuing until Thanksgiving Day they will commemorate his 
birth in every home, every school, every church, and every com- 
munity under our flag. 

In all this multitude of shrines and forums they will recount 
the life history and accomplishments of Washington. It is a 
time in which we will pause to recall for our own guidance, and 
to summarize and emphasize for the benefit of our children, the 
experiences, the achievements, the dangers escaped, the errors re- 
dressed — all the lessons that constitute the record of our past. 



The ceremonial of commemorating the founder of our country 
is one of the most solemn that either an individual or a nation 
ever performs; carried out in high spirit it can be made one of 
the most fruitful and enriching. It is a thing to be done in the 
mood of prayer, of communing with the spiritual springs of patri- 
otism and of devotion to country. It is an occasion for looking 
back to our past, for taking stock of our present, and, in the light 
of both, setting the compass for our future. We look back that 
we may recall those qualities of Washington's character which 
made him great, those principles of national conduct which he 
laid down, and by which we have come thus far. We meet to 
reestablish our contact with them, renew our fidelity to them. 

From this national revival of interest in the history of the 
American Revolution and of the independence of the United 
States will come a renewal of those inspirations which streng- 
thened the patriots who brought to the world a new concept of 
human liberty and a new form of government. 

So rich and vivid is the record of history, that Washington 
in our day lives again in the epic of the foundation of the Re- 
public. He appears in the imagination of every succeeding gen- 
eration as the embodiment of the wisdom, the courage, the 
patience, the endurance, the statesmanship, and the absence of all 
mean ambition, which transformed scattered communities of the 
forest and the frontiers into a unity of free and independent 
people. 

It is not necessary for me to attempt a eulogy of George Wash- 
ington. That has been done by masters of art and poetry during 
more than a hundred years. To what they have said I attempt 
to make no addition. 

The true eulogy of Washington is this mighty Nation. He 
contributed more to its origins than any other man. The influ- 
ence of his character and of his accomplishments has contributed 
to the building of human freedom and ordered liberty, not alone 
upon this continent but upon all continents. The part which 
he played in the creation of our institutions has brought daily 
harvest of happiness to hundreds of millions of humanity. The 
inspirations from his genius have lifted the vision of succeeding 
generations. The definitions of those policies in government 
wheh he fathered have stood the test of HO years of strain and 
stress. 

From the inspiration and the ideals which gave birth to this 



11 



12 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



Nation, there has come the largest measure of liberty that man 
has yet devised. So securely were the foundations of this free 
Government laid that the structure has been able to adapt itself 
to the changing world relations, the revolutions of invention and 
the revelations of scientific discovery, the fabulous increase of 
population and of wealth, and yet to stand the kaleidoscopic com- 
plexities of life which these changes have brought upon it. 

What other great, purely human institution, devised in the 
era of the stagecoach and the candle, has so marvelously grown 
and survived into this epoch of the steam engine, the airplane, 
the incandescent lamp, the wireless telephone, and the battleship? 

If we are to get refreshment to our ideals from looking back- 
ward to Washington, we should strive to identify the qualities in 
him that made our revolution a success and our Nation great. 
Those were the qualities that marked Washington out for im- 
mortality. 

We find they were not spectacular qualities. He never 
charged with a victorious army up the capital streets of a con- 
quered enemy. Excepting only Yorktown and Trenton, he won 
no striking victories. His great military strength was in the 
strategy of attrition, the patient endurance of adversity, steadfast 
purpose unbent by defeat. The American shrine most associ- 
ated with Washington is Valley Forge, and Valley Forge was not 
a place of victory — except the victory of Washington's fortitude 
triumphant above the weakness and discouragement of lesser men. 
Washington had courage without excitement, determination 
without passion. 

The descriptions of George Washington by his contemporaries 
give us no clear picture of the inner man, the Washington whose 
spiritual force so palpably dominated his whole epoch. As a mir- 
ror, his own writings do him indifferent justice, whilst the writ- 
ings of others are clouded by their awe or are obscured by their 
venom. We must deduce mainly from other records why he 
stood out head and shoulders above all the crowd around him. 
It was an extraordinary crowd, living at white heat, comprising 
men as varied, as brilliant, as versatile as the extraordinary de- 
mands which the times made upon them. They were men flexible 
in intellect, and versed in the ways of the world. Yet in every 
crisis, and for every role, they turned to Washington. They 
forced upon him the command of Indian fighters; they made him 
a general against trained British troops; they demanded that he 
be a constitutionalist and a national statesman; they insisted he 
must guide his country through the skillful ambushes of Euro- 
pean kings; they summoned him to establish the nonexistent 
credit of an insolvent infant nation. Why did his brilliant 
fellow-patriots always thus turn to him? 

The answer of history is unmistakable: They brought their 
problems to Washington because he had more character, a finer 
character, a purer character, than any other man of his time. In 
all the shifting pressures of his generation, all men acknowledged 
that the one irresistible force was the overwhelming impact of 
his moral power. Motives and men were measured by their stat- 
ure when standing in his shadow. Slander fell harmless before 
him, sham hung its head in shame, folly did not risk to look him 
in the face, corruption slunk from his presence, cowardice dared 
not show its quaking knees. 



In his integrity, all our men of genius in his day found their 
one sure center of agreement. In his wisdom and authority they 
found the one sure way to practical fulfillment of their dreams. 

We need no attempt at canonization of George Washington. 
We know he was human, subject to the discouragements and per- 
plexities that come to us all. We know that he had moments of 
deepest anxiety. We know of his sufferings, and the sacrifices 
and anguish that came to him. We know of his resentment of 
injustice and misrepresentation. And yet we know that he never 
lost faith in our people. 

Nor have I much patience with those who undertake the irra- 
tional humanizing of Washington. He had, indeed, the fine 
qualities of friendliness, of sociableness, of humanness, of simple 
hospitality; but we have no need to lower our vision from his 
unique qualities of greatness, or to seek to depreciate the unparal- 
leled accomplishments of the man who dominated and gave birth 
to the being of a great nation. 

What we have need of today in this celebration is to renew 
in our people the inspiration that comes from George Washington 
as a founder of human liberty, as the father of a system of 
government, as the builder of a system of national life. 

It is of primary importance that we of today shall renew that 
spark of immortal purpose which burned within him, shall know 
of the resolution and the steadfastness which carried him for- 
ward to the establishment of a Nation. That establishment was 
not a momentary flash of impulse in a people rebellious and pas- 
sionate under oppression, destined to fade into a dictatorship or 
the chaos so often born of revolutions. On the contrary, it was 
builded upon foundations of principles and ideals which have 
given the power and strength that made this Nation and inspired 
the establishment of ordered liberty in a score of other nations. 

We have need to refresh to the remembrance of the American 
people the great tests and trials of character of the men who 
founded our Republic. We have need to remember the fiber of 
those men who brought to successful conclusion the eight years 
of revolution. We have need again to bring forth the picture 
of the glories and the valor of Lexington and Concord, of Bunker 
Hill, the sufferings and fortitude of Valley Forge, the victory of 
Yorktown. We have need to revive the meaning and the sheer 
moral courage of the Declaration of Independence, the struggle 
of the Continental Congress, the forming of the Constitution, 
We have need at all times to review the early crises of the Repub- 
lic, the consolidation of the Union, the establishment of national 
solidarity, the building of an administration of government, and 
the development of guarantees of freedom. No incident and no 
part in these great events, which have echoed and reechoed 
throughout the world for a century and a half, can be separated 
from the name and the dominant leadership of George Wash- 
ington. 

Upon these foundations of divine inspiration laid by our fore- 
fathers, and led by Washington, our Nation has builded up dur- 
ing this century and a half a new system of life, a system unique 
to the American people. It is hallowed by the sacrifice and glori- 
ous valor of men. It is assured by a glorious charter of human 
rights. 

It comprises a political system of self-government by the ma- 



Address by President Herbert Hoover 



13 



jority, resting upon the duties of individual men to the com- 
munity, and of the local communities to the Nation. It is a 
government designed in spirit to sustain a dual purpose; to pro- 
tect our people among nations by great national power, and to 
preserve individual freedom by local self-government. 

It comprises a social system free of inherited position, based 
upon the ideal of equality of all men before the law, the equal 
privilege of men to strive and to achieve, and the responsibilities 
of men to their neighbors. 

It embraces an economic system based upon the largest degree 
of freedom and stimulation to initiative and enterprise which 
can be permitted and still maintain the ideal of equality of oppor- 
tunity among men. 

Finally, it embraces a system of relationships to other nations 
based upon no thought of imperialism, no desire to dominate; a 
determined national self-reliance in defense and independence in 
action; freedom from all commitment to the unknown future, 
and an aspiration to promote peace and good will among all men. 

Perhaps no single part of this system is different from some 
instance in history or in some part of the world. But in its com- 
posite form it is distinctly unique and distinctly American, a 
system under which we have reached an assured position among 
the most powerful of the nations of the world. 

This destiny of national greatness was clearly foreseen by 
George Washington. More fully than any man of his time was 
he gifted with vision of the future. He spoke habitually of the 
"American Empire," and predicted its expansion from ocean to 
ocean. He planned and wrought for the binding forces of trans- 
portation and peaceful commerce. He thought in terms of 
almost imperial grandeur, and he wrought in terms of republican 
solidity. His far-flung dreams have come true, and he lives today 
in his works, in the names of our towns or cities and our States, 
and in the affectionate reverence of us who so immeasurably 
benefit by his wisdom. 

Our American system of national life is dependent upon a 
trust in the principles of government as established by George 



Washington; a trust in his example to our people; a trust in and 
a devotion to religious faith, which he himself so devoutly prac- 
tised; a trust in that divine inspiration which he so sedulously 
invoked and which is expressed in the common mind of our peo- 
ple; and above all a trust in the Divine Providence which has 
always given guidance to our country. 

From Washington's spirit there has grown an infusion of social 
ideals with the quality of magnanimity: upholding prosperity 
with generosity, dignity with forbearance, security without 
privilege, which has raised our institutions to a level of humanity 
and nobility nowhere else attained. 

We have the faith that Webster expressed, that a hundred 
years hence our countrymen will again celebrate his birth, will 
review the memory of his services with no less sincere admiration 
and gratitude than we now commemorate it, and that they too 
will see, as we now see, "the flag of the Union floating on the 
top of the Capitol." 

From the room where I conduct my high office I hourly see 
the monument which Washington's proud and grateful country- 
men have raised to his memory. It stands foursquare to the 
world, its base rooted steadfast in the solid substance of American 
soil. Its peak rises towards the heavens with matchless serenity 
and calm. Massive in its proportions, as was the character of 
Washington himself, overwhelming in its symmetry, simplicity, 
and sincerity, it most fittingly, beautifully, and nobly proclaims 
the founder of our commonwealth and our acceptance of his 
faith. Around that monument have grown steadily and surely 
the benevolent and beneficent agencies of orderly government 
dedicated to the spirit of Washington. 

Beyond any other monument built by the hand of man out 
of clay and stone, this shaft is a thing of the spirit. Whether 
seen in darkness or in light, in brightness or in gloom, there is 
about it a mantle of pure radiance which gives it the aspect of 
eternal truth. It is a pledge in the sight of all mankind, given 
by Washington's countrymen, to carry forward the continuing 
fulfillment of his vision of America. 




Senate Chamber, 183 







House of Representatives Chamber, 1830 
14 



The United States Congress 

ON 

George Washington 



Part I 

List of addresses in honor of George Washington as 

recorded in the proceedings of the United States 

Congress from 1789 to 1932 

Part II 

Acts of Congress, Official Documents and other 

tributes in honor of George Washington from 

1789 to 1932 

Part III 

Extracts from the official papers and writings of 
George Washington read into the Record during de- 
bates in the United States Congress from 1789-1932 



Compiled b") 

MYRTIS JARRELL 

under the direction of 

H. H. B. MEYER 

Legislative Reference Service 
Library of Congress 



Introduction 



THE legends of other great men of the eighteenth century "slowly 
take shape round their memory," writes a distinguished biographer 

in France; "in the case of Washington it formed itself out of the 
man himself and in his lifetime. . . . The others were obliged to wait 
for the hand of Time; Washington, on the contrary, without having 
either to die or to wait for long years to pass, stepped with firm tread 
into immortality." 

To one who has followed the course of General Washington's 
name, as it constantly recurs throughout the record of official pro- 
ceedings in the United States Congress, these words make an instant 
appeal, because they seem to express so truly what the record reveals. 

In the early weeks of April in 1789, Charles Thomson accom- 
panied General Washington on his journey to New York where he 
was to take the oath of office as first President of the United States, 
and witnessed his triumphant progress, which, Thomson mentions in 
his report to the Senate, "was retarded by the tender and affectionate 
leave ... his neighbors and friends took of him; by the congratu- 
latory addresses ... he was obliged to receive by the way; and by 
the testimonies of public esteem and joy, to which it was necessary 
for him to pay attention, in the several States through which he 
passed." 

John Adams, in a message to Congress in 1799, spoke of him as 
"our excellent fellow-citizen, George Washington, by the purity of 
his character and a long series of services to his country, rendered 
illustrious throughout the world." 

John Marshall — then a member of the House of Representatives — 
declared that "however the public confidence may change, and the 
public affections fluctuate with respect to others, yet with respect to 
him they have, in war and in peace, in public and in private life, been 
as steady as his own firm mind, and as constant as his own exalted 
virtues." 

Benjamin Franklin — upon bequeathing to General Washington . . . 
the friend of mankind his "fine crab-tree walking-stick, with a gold 
head curiously wrought in the form of a cap of Liberty," recorded in 
his Will these lofty words: 

"If it were a scepter, he has merited it and would become it." 

And so it is revealed to those who turn to the record of the Con- 
gress how the fame of George Washington is ever-increasing; how 
from the earliest days of our nation's history even to the present hour, 
the most gifted among our statesmen and jurists delight to do him 
honor; the wisest seek his guidance; and famous men throughout the 
world extol his name. 



16 



The United States Congress 

ON 

GEORGE WASHINGTON 



PART ONE 

List of Addresses in Honor of George Washington as Recorded in the 
Official Proceedings of the United States Congress — 17 89-19} 2 



MKS1 SESSION OF THE FIRST CONGRESS: 1789 
Text of an address by Charles Thomson, Esq., April 14, 1789, 
at Mount Vernon, where, by order of the Senate, he deliv- 
ered to General Washington a certificate of his election 
to the Office of President of the United States. 
American State Papers, Misc., 1:5-6. 

Address of the Senate to George Washington, President of the 
United States — reported, May 7, 1789, from the Select Com- 
mittee appointed to prepare an answer to the President's Ad- 
dress to both Houses of Congress at the opening of the ses- 
sion. 

Annals of Congress, V. 1: pp. 31-32. 
[Journal of the Senate, pp. 22-23.] 

Address of the House of Representatives to George Washing- 
ton, President of the United States, reported, May 5, 1789, 
from the Select Committee appointed for the purpose, by the 
Hon. James Madison, Jr., a Representative from Virginia. 
Annals of Congress, V. 1: pp. 247-248. 
[Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 27-28.] 

SECOND SESSION OF THE FOURTH CONGRESS: 

\796-\797 
Address of the Senate to George Washington, President of the 
United States, adopted, December 10, 1796, as reported from 
the Select Committee appointed to prepare an answer to the 
President's Address to both Houses of Congress at the open- 
ing of the session. 

Annals of Congress, V. 6: pp. 1520-1521. 
[Journal of the Senate, pp. 3 00-301.] 

Address of the House of Representatives to George Washing- 
ton, President of the United States — pronounced, December 
15, 1796, by the Speaker, the Hon. Jonathan Dayton, of 
New Jersey, "when, attended by the House, in a body, he 
waited upon the President." 

Annals of Congress, V. 6: pp. 1673-1674. 
[Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 618- 
619.] 

FIRST SESSION OF THE SIXTH CONGRESS: 1799-1800 
An address by the Hon. John Marshall, a Representative from 
Virginia, December 19, 1799, announcing in the House of 
Representatives the death of George Washington. 
Annals of Congress, V 10: pp. 203-204. 

Address of the Senate to John Adams, President of the United 
States, upon the death of George Washington — reported, 



December 23, 1799, from the Select Committee appointed 
for the purpose by the Hon. Samuel Dexter, a Senator 
from Massachusetts. 

Annals of Congress, V. 10: pp. 17-18. 
[Journal of the Senate, p. 12] 
[American State Papers, Misc., 1:190.] 

Address by John Adams, President of the United States, De- 
cember 23, 1799, in reply to the Address of the Senate upon 
the death of George Washington. 

Annals of Congress, V. 10: pp. 18-19. 
[Journal of the Senate, pp. 12-13.] 
[American State Papers, Misc., 1:190.] 

Address of the House of Representatives to John Adams, Presi- 
dent of the United States, upon the death of General 
Washington — pronounced December 19, 1799, by the 
Speaker, the Hon. Theodore Sedgwick, of Massachusetts, 
"when, attended by the House, in a body, he waited upon 
the President". 

Annals of Congress, V. 10: p. 206. 
[Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 541.] 
[American State Papers, Misc., 1:190.] 
An address by John Adams, President of the United States, De- 
cember 19, 1799, in reply to the address of the House of 
Representatives upon the death of George Washington. 
Annals of Congress, V. 10: p. 206. 
[Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 541.] 
[American State Papers, Misc., 1:190.] 

An oration by Major-General Henry Lee, a Representative 
from Virginia, delivered, December 26, 1799, before the two 
Houses of the United States Congress upon the occasion of 
the funeral of General Washington — and communicated 
to the House of Representatives, December 30, 1799, to be 
recorded in the official proceedings of Congress. 

Annals of Congress, V. 10: Appendix, pp. 1305-1311. 
[American State Papers, Misc., 1:192-194.] 

FIRST SESSION OF THE FOURTEENTH CONGRESS: 

1815-1816 
Speech by the Hon. Benjamin Huger, a Representative from 
South Carolina, delivered in the House of Representatives, 
February 16th and February 17th, 1816, relative to a monu- 
ment to General Washington. 

Annals of Congress, V. 29: pp. 1007-10.08, 1009-1010. 
[American State Papers, Misc. 2:298.] 



17 



The United States Congress 



Speech by the Hon. Erastus Root, a Representative from New 
York, delivered in the House of Representatives, February 
17, 1816, relative to a monument to General Washing- 
ton. 

Annals of Congress, V. 29: pp. 1009-1010. 

FIRST SESSION OF THE SIXTEENTH CONGRESS: 
1819-1820 

Speech by the Hon. James Ervin, a Representative from South 
Carolina, delivered in the House of Representatives, April 6, 
1820, relative to certain resolutions submitted by him pro- 
viding for a monument to General Washington. 
Annals of Congress, V. 36: pp. 1792-1799. 

FIRST SESSION OF THE EIGHTEENTH CONGRESS: 

1823-1824 

Speech by the Hon. James Buchanan, a Representative from 
Pennsylvania, delivered in the House of Representatives, 
January 15, 1824, upon presenting a resolution calling for 
the appointing of a committee to inquire in what manner 
the resolutions of Congress, passed on the 24th of December, 
1799, relative to the erection of a monument to General 
Washington, may be best accomplished. 

Annals of Congress, V. 41: pp. 1044-1046, 1047. 

Speech by the Hon. George Cary, a Representative from Geor- 
gia, delivered in the House of Representatives, January 1 5 , 
1824, on the Buchanan resolution calling for the appoint- 
ment of a committee to report on the propriety of erecting 
a monument or mausoleum to the memory of Washington. 
Annals of Congress, V. 41: pp. 1046-1047. 

Speech by the Hon. David Trimble, a Representative from Ken- 
tucky, delivered in the House of Representatives, January 
15, 1824, relative to the erection of a monument or mauso- 
leum in the Capitol to the memory of Washington. 
Annals of Congress, V. 41: p. 1048. 

FIRST SESSION OF THE NINETEENTH CONGRESS: 
1825-1826 

Debate in the House of Representatives, February 21, 1826, rela- 
tive to a motion by the Hon. John Cocke, a Representa- 
tive from Tennessee, that the House adjourn on the morrow 
in honor of the anniversary of the birth of George Wash- 
ington: 

Debates in Congress, V. 2: Part 1, pp. 1419-1421: 

Hon. John Cocke, of Tennessee. 

Hon. John Forsyth, of Georgia. 

Hon. Sam Houston, of Tennessee. 

Hon. John W. Campbell, of Ohio. 

Hon. John Barney, of Maryland. 

FIRST SESSION OF THE TWENTY-SECOND CONGRESS: 

1831-1832 

Remarks during debate in the Senate, February 13, 183 2, on the 
Report, submitted by the Hon. Henry Clay, of Kentucky, 



from the Joint Committee appointed to make arrangements 
for the celebration of the centennial birthday of George 
Washington. 

Debates in Congress, V. 8: Part 1, pp. 367-377: 

[Journal of the Senate, pp. 129-132.] 

[S. Doc. No. 62 Serial 213] 

Hon. Henry Clay, of Kentucky. 
Hon. John Forsyth, of Georgia. 
Hon. Daniel Webster, of Massachusetts. 
Hon. L. W. Tazewell, of Virginia. 
Hon. George M. Bibb, of Kentucky. 
Hon. John Tyler, of Virginia. 

Speeches during debate in the House of Representatives, Febru- 
ary 13th, 14th, and 16th, 1832 — on the Report submitted 
by the Hon. Philemon Thomas, of Louisiana, from the 
Joint Committee appointed to make arrangements for the 
celebration of the centennial birthday of George Wash- 
ington. 

Debates in Congress, V. 8: Part 2, pp. 1782-1809, 

1810-1813, 1818-1820: 
[S. Doc. No. 62 Serial 213.] 

Hon. William McCoy, of Virginia. 

Hon. Charles F. Mercer, of Virginia. 

Hon. William F. Gordon, of Virginia. 

Hon. Richard Coke, Jr., of Virginia. 

Hon. Edward Everett, of Massachusetts. 

Hon. Wiley Thompson, of Georgia. 

Hon. Charles A. Wickliffe, of Kentucky. 

Hon. William Drayton, of South Carolina. 

Hon. Mark Alexander, of Virginia. 

Hon. Augustin S. Clayton, of Georgia. 

Hon. Joel B. Sutherland, of Pennsylvania. 

Hon. Charles C. Johnston, of Virginia. 

Hon. Tristam Burges, of Rhode Island. 

Hon. Samuel P. Carson, of North Carolina. 

Hon. Churchill C. Cambreleng, of New York. 

Hon. James M. Wayne, of Georgia. 

Hon. John O. Adams, of Massachusetts. 

Hon. William S. Archer, of Virginia. 

Hon. Benjamin C. Howard, of Maryland. 

Remarks during debate in the House of Representatives, Febru- 
ary 17, 1832, on the resolution reported from the Commit- 
tee on Public Buildings by the Hon. Leonard Jarvis, of 
Maine, authorizing the Clerk of the House to employ John 
Vanderlyn, of New York, to paint a portrait of George 
Washington to be placed in the Hall of Representatives: 
Debates in Congress, V. 8: Part 2, pp. 1824-1827: 
[Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 342 and 
p. 3 76.] 

Hon. Aaron Ward, of New York. 

Hon. Churchill C. Cambreleng, of New York. 

Hon. John G. Watmough, of Pennsylvania. 

Hon. Charles F. Mercer, of Virginia. 

Hon. Henry A. S. Dearborn, of Massachusetts. 

Hon. William Drayton, of South Carolina. 



On George Washington 



19 



Hon. Leonard Jarvis, of Maine. 
Hon. Edward Everett, of Massachusetts. 
Hon. John W. Taylor, of New York. 
Hon. Gillian C. Verplanck, of New York. 

Remarks during debate in the House of Representatives, Febru- 
ary 18, 183 2, on the resolution reported from the Commit- 
tee on Public Buildings by the Hon. Leonard Jarvis, a 
Representative from Maine, authorizing the President of the 
United States to employ Horatio Greenough, of Massa- 
chusetts, to execute a full-length pedestrian statute of 
George Washington. 

Debates in Congress, V. 8: Part 2, pp. 1829-1830: 
[H. Rept. No. 459 ... . Serial 226.] 
[H. Doc. No. 45 .... Serial 392.] 
[H. Rept. No. 21 .... Serial 236.] 
Hon. Leonard Jariis, cf Maine. 
Hon. Henry A. S. Dearborn, of Massachusetts. 

Remarks during debate in the Senate, June 2 5, 18 32, on the joint 
resolution (S.J.Res. No. 4) reported from the Committee on 
the Library by the Hon. Asher Robbins, of Rhode Island, 
authorizing the President of the United States to contract 
for a full-length pedestrian statue of George Washington: 
Debates in Congress, V. 8: Part 1, pp. 1126-1127: 
[See H. Rept. No. 459 . . . Serial 226.] 
Hon. John Forsyth, of Georgia. 
Hon. George Poindexter, of Mississippi. 
Hon. Henry Clay, of Kentucky. 

FIRST SESSION OF THE TWENTY-THIRD CONGRESS: 

1833-1834 
Remarks during debate in the House of Representatives, June 26, 
1834, on the bill (H. R. No. 446) reported from the Com- 
mittee on Foreign Affairs by the Hon. William Archer, 
a Representative from Virginia, to enable the Secretary of 
State to purchase the papers and books of General Wash- 
ington. 

Debates in Congress, V. 10: Part 4, pp. 4781-4782: 
[H.Rept.No.iil .... Serial 262.] 
Hon. Richard H. Wilde, of Georgia. 
Hon. Leonard Jarvis, of Maine. 
Hon. William S. Archer, of Virginia. 
Hon. James Parker, of New Jersey. 
Hon. M. T. Haivkins, of North Carolina. 
Hon. James M. Wayne, of Georgia. 

SECOND SESSION OF THE TWENTY-FIFTH CONGRESS: 

1837-1838 
Speech by the Hon. Thomas Morris, a Senator from Ohio, deliv- 
ered in the Senate, 19 June 1838, on the subject of granting 
a portion of public ground in the city of Washington for the 
erection of a monument to George Washington. 
Congressional Globe, V. 6: Part 1, pp. 460-461. 

THIRD SESSION OF THE TWENTY-SEVENTH 
CONGRESS: 1842-1843 
Address by the Hon. George W. Summers, a Representative 
from Virginia, delivered before the House of Representa- 



tives, February 7, 1843, upon presenting to the Nation, 
in the name and on the behalf of Mr. Samuel T. Wash- 
ington, of Kanawha County, Virginia, a sword worn by 
General Washington and a staff which Benjamin 
Franklin gave to Washington. 

Congressional Globe, V. 12: Part 1, p. 2 54. 
[Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 329-332.] 
[H. Doc. No. 144 . . . . Serial 421.] 
Reprinted in the Record, February 22, 1922, by request 
of the Hon. R. Walton Moore, of Virginia, as 
part of his remarks. 

Congressional Record, V. 62: Part 3, pp. 2906- 
2907. 

Address by the Hon. John Quincy Adams, a Representative 
from Massachusetts, delivered before the House of Repre- 
sentatives, February 7, 1843, upon submitting a resolution 
presenting the thanks of Congress to Samuel T. Washing- 
ton, of Kanawha County, Virginia, for the sword worn by 
General Washington and the staff bequeathed to him by 
Franklin. 

Congressional Globe, V. 12: Part 1, pp. 2 54-2 5 5. 

[Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 332- 
333.] 

[H. Doc. No. 144 ... . Serial 421.] 

Address by the Hon. William S. Archer, a Senator from Vir- 
ginia, delivered in the Senate, February 8, 1843, upon his 
motion that the Senate proceed to immediate consideration 
of the resolution (H. J. Res. No. 3 5) received from the 
House for the concurrence of the Senate in extending the 
thanks of Congress to Samuel T. Washington for his 
present to the Nation of General Washington's sword 
and Franklin's staff. 

Congressional Globe, V. 12: Part 1, pp. 25 5-256. 

FIRST SESSION OF THE TWENTY-EIGHTH CONGRESS: 

1843-1844 
Address by the Hon. John Quincy Adams, a Representative 
from Massachusetts, delivered, April 18, 1844, upon present- 
ing to the House of Representatives, in compliance with one 
of the clauses of the last will and testament of Mr. William 
Sydney Winder, of Maryland, the camp chest used by 
General Washington during the Revolutionary War. 
Congressional Globe, V. 13: Part 1, pp. 5 3 3, 5 36. 

Address by the Hon. James A. Pearce, a Senator from Mary- 
land, delivered, April 19, 1844, upon presenting to the 
Senate the camp chest used by General Washington 
during the Revolutionary War, and requesting the concur- 
rence of the Senate in the resolution (H. J. Res. No. 27) 
received from the House accepting the gift in behalf of the 
Nation. 

Congressional Globe, V. 13, Part 1, p. 5 3 7. 

SECOND SESSION OF THE TWENTY-EIGHTH 
CONGRESS: 1844-1845 
Speech by the Hon. John J. Crittenden, a Senator from Ken- 
tucky, delivered in the Senate, January 20, 1845, upon sub- 
mitting a resolution that the Committee on the Library be 



20 



The United States Congress 



instructed to inquire into the expediency of employing 
Luigi Persico to execute for the United States an equestrian 
statue, in bronze of George Washington. 

Congressional Globe, V. 14: Part 1, p. 156. 

FIRST SESSION OF THE TWENTY-NINTH CONGRESS: 
1845-1846 

Remarks by the Hon. Thomas H. Benton, a Senator from Mis- 
souri, during debate in the Senate, January 8th and January 
13th, 1846, relative to the erection of a monument to 
George Washington by the National Monument Asso- 
ciation. 

Congressional Globe, V. 15: Part 1, pp. 161, 189-190. 

FIRST SESSION OF THE THIRTIETH CONGRESS: 

1847-1848 

An oration by the Hon. Robert C. Winthrop, of Massachu- 
setts, Speaker of the House of Representatives, July 4, 1848, 
on the occasion of laying the corner-stone of the National 
Washington Monument. 

S. Doc. No. 224 . . . . Serial 443 6. 1 

SECOND SESSION OF THE THIRTIETH CONGRESS: 

1848-1849 

Speech by the Hon. Richard K. Meade, a Representative from 
Virginia, delivered in the House of Representatives, February 
5, 1849, upon his submitting a resolution that the Com- 
mittee on Public Expenditures inquire into the expediency 
of having a copy of the Washington Statue in the Capitol 
of Virginia reproduced in American marble and placed in 
the Rotunda of the United States Capitol. 

Congressional Record, V. 18: Part 1, p. 454. 

FIRST SESSION OF THE THIRTY-FIRST CONGRESS: 
1849-1850 

Speech by the Hon. James Cooper, a Senator from Pennsyl- 
vania, delivered in the Senate, January 28, 18 50, upon his 
presenting a memorial of Mr. Crawford, an American 
sculptor, proposing to execute for the United States Con- 
gress an equestrian statue, in bronze, of General Wash- 
ington. 

Congressional Globe, V. 19: Part 1, p. 232. 

Speeches by the following Senators during debate in the Senate, 
January 24, 18 50, on the resolution (S.J.Res. No. 3) sub- 
mitted by the Hon. Henry Clay, of Kentucky, relative to 
the purchase of the manuscript of Washington's Farewell 
Address: 

Congressional Globe, V. 19: Part 1, pp. 226-228: 
Hon. Henry Clay, of Kentucky. 
Hon. Henry S. Foote, of Mississippi. 



This oration by the Hon. Robert C. Winthrop was hardly accessible 
until, on motion by Mr. Gallinger, a Senator from New Hampshire, 
February 6, 1903, (57th Congress, 2nd Session) the History of the 
Washington Monument was ordered to be printed as a Senate docu- 
ment. This oration will be found on pages 113-130 of the document 
cited above. 



Hon. Daniel Webster, of Massachusetts. 
Hon. Jefferson Davis, of Mississippi. 

Speeches by the following Members of the House of Representa- 
tives during debate in the House, January 29, 18 50, and 
February 6, 18 50, on the Clay resolution (S.J.Res. No. 3) 
authorizing the purchase of the manuscript of Washing- 
ton's Farewell Address: 

Congressional Globe, V. 19: p. 243, and pp. 296-298: 

Hon. Andrew Johnson, of Tennessee. 
Hon. Alexander H. Stevens, of Georgia 
Hon. Joseph R. Chandler, of Pennsylvania. 
Hon. David K. Cartter, of Ohio. 
Hon. Samuel W. Inge, of Alabama. 

Remarks by the Hon. Henry Clay, a Senator from Kentucky, 
upon his presenting to the Senate, January 24, 18 50, a peti- 
tion from citizens in the State of Pennsylvania, requesting 
Congress to purchase Mount Vernon. 

Congressional Globe, V. 19: Part 1, p. 22 5. 

SECOND SESSION OF THE THIRTY-SECOND 
CONGRESS: 18 52-18 53 

Debate in the House of Representatives, January 17, 18 53, on 
the bill (H.R. No. 343) authorizing the President of the 
United States to employ Clark Mills, the American artist, 
to erect at the capital of the Nation an equestrian statue of 
George Washington: 

Congressional Globe, V. 22: Part 1, pp. 323-32 5: 

Hon. Gilbert Dean, of New York. 

Hon. George W. Jones, of Tennessee. 

Hon. Abraham W. V enable, of North Carolina. 

Hon. Richard H. Stanton, of Kentucky. 

Hon. Alexander H. Stephens, of Georgia. 

Hon. John C. Breckinridge, of Kentucky. 

Remarks by the Hon. James Shields, a Senator from Illinois, 
upon reporting from the Committee on the District of Co- 
lumbia, January 18, 18 53, the bill (H.R. No. 343) author- 
izing the President of the United States to employ Clark 
Mills, the American artist, to erect at the capital of the 
Nation an equestrian statue of George Washington. 

Congressional Globe, V. 22: Part 1, p. 329. 

SECOND SESSION OF THE THIRTY-THIRD CONGRESS: 

1854-1855 

Remarks by the Hon. Henry May, a Representative from Mary- 
land, upon submitting to the House of Representatives, Feb- 
ruary 17, 185 5, and February 22, 185 5, a Report from the 
Select Committee appointed to consider the subject of a 
National Monument to George Washington. 

Congressional Globe, V. 24: Part 1, pp. 79 5-796, 900. 

FIRST SESSION OF THE THIRTY-FIFTH CONGRESS: 

1857-1858 

Remarks by the Hon. Albert Gallatin Brown, a Senator from 
Mississippi, during debate in the Senate, April 15, 1858, on 



On George Washington 



21 



the bill (S. No. 15 2), proposing to incorporate the Wash- 
ington National Monument Society. 

Congressional Globe, V. 27: Part 2, pp. 15 97-15 98. 

Remarks in the House of Representatives, May 24, 185 8, on the 
Senate bill (S. No. 152) to incorporate the Washington Na- 
tional Monument Society: 

Congressional Globe, V. 27: Part 3, p. 2372: 

Hon. Edward Dodd, of New York. 
Hon. Elihu B. Washburne, of Illinois. 
Hon. William Smith, of Virginia. 
Hon. Thomas B. Florence, of Pennsylvania. 
Hon. Warner L. Underwood, of Kentucky. 
Hon. William O. Goode, of Virginia. 

FIRST SESSION OF THE THIRTY-SIXTH CONGRESS: 
1859-1860 
Speeches in the Senate, February 16, 1860, during debate on the 
joint resolution, submitted by the Hon. Albert G. Brown, 
a Senator from Mississippi, relative to the appointment of a 
committee to make arrangements "for the inauguration of 
the equestrian statue of George Washington": 

Congressional Globe, V. 29: Part 1, pp. 797-800: 

Hon. James A. Pearcc, of Maryland. 

Hon. Albert G. Broun, of Mississippi. 

Hon. William P. Fessenden, of Maine. 

Hon. James H. Hammond, of South Carolina. 

Hon. Jefferson Davis, of Mississippi. 

Hon. John P. Hale, of New Flampshire. 

Hon. John C. Ten Eyck, of New Jersey. 

Remarks by the following Senators, February 20, 1860, during 
debate on the resolution (H.J. Res. No. 8) providing an ap- 
propriation "for the inauguration of the equestrian statue of 
General Washington": 

Congressional Globe, V. 29: Part 1, pp. 8 3 6-837: 

Hon. James H. Hammond, of South Carolina. 
Hon. Jefferson Davis, of Mississippi. 
Hon. William P. Fessenden, of Maine. 
Hon. Hannibal Hamlin, of Maine. 
Hon. John J. Crittenden, of Kentucky. 
Hon. George Ellis Pngh, of Ohio. 

SECOND SESSION OF THE THIRTY-SEVENTH 
CONGRESS: 1861-1862 
Remarks by the Hon. Andrew Johnson, a Senator from Ten- 
nessee, upon presenting, in the Senate, February 11, 1862, 
a memorial of the mayor and other citizens of Philadelphia, 
praying that George Washington's Farewell Address to 
the People of the United States may be read to both Houses 
of Congress and to the Army and Navy of the United States 
on the approaching 22nd day of February. 

Congressional Globe, V. 32: Part 1, p. 73 8. 
[Journal of the Senate, pp. 193-194.] 

Remarks by the Hon. John J. Crittenden, a Representative 
from Kentucky, upon presenting, in the House of Repre- 
sentatives, February 10, 1862, a memorial of the mayor and 



other citizens of Philadelphia, praying that George Wash- 
ington's Farewell Address to the people of the United 
States may be read to both Houses of Congress and to the 
Army and Navy of the United States on the approaching 
22nd day of February. 

Congressional Globe, V. 32: Part 1, pp. 726-727, 83 5. 

[Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 28 8, 311, 
339, 372, 421.] 

THIRD SESSION OF THE FORTIETH CONGRESS: 
1868-1869 
Speech by the Hon. Thomas L. Jones, a Representative from 
Kentucky, delivered in the House of Representatives, March 
3, 1869, on the resolution reported by Mr. Covode, of 
Pennsylvania, from the Committee on Public Buildings and 
Grounds, relative to certain articles — once the property of 
the Washington family — which were taken from Arling- 
ton House by the Federal authorities. 

Congressional Globe, V. 4: Appendix, pp. 29 5-297. 
[H. Kept. No. 36 . . . . Serial 1437.] 

THIRD SESSION OF THE FORTY-SECOND CONGRESS: 

1872-1873 
Speech by the Hon. Norton P. Chipman, Delegate from the 
District of Columbia, delivered in the House of Representa- 
tives, February 18, 1873, on the bill (H.R. No. 1179) in- 
troduced by him in the preceding Session — providing for an 
appropriation to complete the Washington Monument. 
Congressional Globe, V. 46; Appendix, pp. 96-99. 
[H. Rept. No. 48 .... Serial 1528.] 

Remarks by the Hon. Norton P. Chipman, Delegate from the 
District of Columbia, January 27, 1873, upon his submit- 
ting a resolution that a Select Committee of thirteen be 
appointed by the Speaker to confer with the officers and 
members of the Washington National Monument Society 
upon the practicability of completing the Washington Mon- 
ument by the approaching centennial. 

Congressional Globe, V. 46: Part 2, p. 891. 

Report from the Select Committee of Thirteen was 

submitted by Mr. Chipman, February 22, 1873. 
Congressional Globe, V. 46: Appendix, pp. 114-117. 

FIRST SESSION OF THE FORTY-THIRD CONGRESS: 
1873-1874 
Speech by the Hon. Richard C. McCormick, Delegate from 
the Territory of Arizona, June 4, 1874 — the House having 
under consideration the Report submitted from the Select 
Committee on the Washington National Monument. 
Congressional Record, V. 2: Appendix, p. 504. 
[H. Rept. No. 485 . . . . Serial 1625.] 

FIRST SESSION OF THE FORTY-FOURTH CONGRESS: 

1875-1876 
Speech by the Hon. Levi A. Mackey, Representative from Penn- 
sylvania, delivered in the House of Representatives, April 29, 
1876, on the Washington National Monument. 

Congressional Record, V. 4: Appendix, pp. 63-67. 



22 



The United States Congress 



Remarks during debate in the Senate, July 22, 1876, on the 
Sherman bill (S. No. 982) providing for the completion of 
the Washington Monument. 

Congressional Record, V. 4: Part 5, pp. 4811-4816: 
Hon. John Sherman, of Ohio. 
Hon. Justin Morrill, of Vermont. 
Hon. George F. Edmunds, of Vermont. 
Hon. Thomas F. Bayard, of Delaware. 
Hon. William P. Whyte, of Maryland. 

Remarks by the Hon. Charles Foster, a Representative from 
Ohio, July 27, 1876, upon submitting a Report from the 
Committee on Appropriations on the Senate bill (S. No. 
982) providing for the completion of the Washington 
Monument. 

Congressional Record, V. 4: Part 5, pp. 4906-4907. 

SECOND SESSION OF THE FORTY-FIFTH CONGRESS: 

1877-1878 

Remarks in the House of Representatives, April 2, 1878, during 

debate on the resolution (H.J. Res. No. 152) to enable the 

Joint Commission to carry into effect the Act of Congress 

providing for the completion of the Washington Monument. 

Congressional Record, V. 7: Part 3, pp. 2203-2206: 

Hon. Charles Foster, of Ohio. 

Hon. Omar D. Conger, of Michigan. 

Hon. Etigene Hale, of Maine. 

Hon. Samuel S. Cox, of New York. 

Hon. Benjamin F. Butler, of Massachusetts. 

Hon. Hiester Clymer, of Pennsylvania. 

Speeches during debate in the Senate, May 10, 1878, on the reso- 
lution (H.J.Res. No. 152) to enable the Joint Commission 
to carry into effect the Act of Congress providing for the 
completion of the Washington Monument. 

Congressional Record, V. 7: Part 4, pp. 33 50-3 3 53. 
Hon. Henry L. Dawes, of Massachusetts. 
Hon. Roscoe Conkling, of New York. 

Speech by the Hon. Henry L. Dawes, a Senator from Massa- 
chusetts, during debate in the Senate, June 10, 1878, on the 
conference report on the resolution (H.J.Res. No. 152) to 
enable the Joint Commission to carry into effect the Act of 
Congress providing for the completion of the Washington 
Monument. 

Congressional Record, V. 7: Part 5, pp. 43 51-43 52. 

THIRD SESSION OF THE FORTY-FIFTH CONGRESS: 

1878-1879 

Speeches during debate in the Senate, February 28, 1879, on that 
provision of the Sundry Civil Appropriation bill (H.R. 
6471) authorizing necessary funds for the completion of 
the Washington Monument . 

Congressional Record, V. 8: Part 3, pp. 2094-2096: 

Hon. Henry L. Dawes, of Massachusetts. 

Hon. Roscoe Conkling, of New York. 

Hon. Eli Saulsbury, of Delaware. 

lion. Daniel W. Voorhees, of Indiana. 

Hon. Allen G. Tburman, of Ohio. 



FIRST SESSION OF THE FORTY-SIXTH CONGRESS: 
1879 

Remarks by the Hon. John T. Harris, a Representative from 
Virginia, June 10, 1879, requesting unanimous consent of 
the House to submit a resolution (H.J.Res. No. 94) author- 
izing an appropriation for a monument to mark the birth- 
place of George Washington. 

Congressional Record, V. 9: Part 2, p. 1890. 

Remarks by the Hon. Daniel W. Voorhees, a Senator from 
Indiana, June 10, 1879, on the resolution (H.J.Res. No. 
94) authorizing an appropriation for building a monument 
to mark the birthplace of George Washington. 
Congressional Record, V. 9: Part 2, p. 1888. 

THIRD SESSION OF THE FORTY-SIXTH CONGRESS: 
1880-1881 

Remarks during debate in the Senate, February 22, 1881, on the 

resolution (H.J.Res. No. 315) amending and re-enacting a 

joint resolution, approved June 14, 1879, providing for a 

monument to mark the birthplace of George Washington.. 

Congressional Record, V. 11: Part 3, pp. 1913-1918: 

Hon. Francis M. Cockrell, of Missouri. 

Hon. Eli Saulsbury, of Delaware. 

Hon. John J. lngalls, of Kansas. 

Hon. Roscoe Conkling, of New York. 

Hon. George F. Hoar, of Massachusetts. 

Hon. John W. Johnston, of Virginia. 

Hon. John J. Morgan, of Alabama. 

FIRST SESSION OF THE FORTY-EIGHTH CONGRESS: 

1883-1884 

Remarks by the Hon. Fetter S. Hoblitzell, of Maryland, De- 
cember 14, 1883, relative to a resolution (H.J.Res. No. 65) 
submitted by him to the House of Representatives, request- 
ing the President of the United States to issue a Proclama- 
tion urging all religious denominations throughout the coun- 
try to commemorate the one-hundredth anniversary of thr 
surrender by George Washington of his commission as 
Commander-in-chief of the patriotic forces of America on 
the 2}rd of December, 1783, at Annapolis, Maryland. 
Congressional Record, V. 15: Part 1, pp. 145-146. 

SECOND SESSION OF THE FORTY-EIGHTH 
CONGRESS: 1884-1885 

Remarks by the Hon. John Sherman, a Senator from Ohio,, 
upon reporting to the Senate, February 10, 188 5, a bill (S. 
No. 2615) to authorize medals commemorating the com- 
pletion and dedication of the Washington Monument. 
Congressional Record, V. 16: Part 2, pp. 1477-1478. 

Remarks by the Hon. William Dorsheimer, of New York, 
January 29, 188 5, upon submitting to the House of Repre- 
sentatives the Report of the Joint Commission, appointed 
under a Joint Resolution of Congress approved May 13, 
18 84, relative to ceremonies to be authorized at the dedica- 
tion of the Washington Monument. 

Congressional Record, V. 16: Part 2, pp. 1052-1053. 



On George Washington 



2 3 



An address by the Hon. George F. Edmunds, of Vermont, 
President pro-tempore of the Senate, introductory to cere- 
monies held in the Hall of Representatives, United States 
Capitol, February 21, 188 5, upon the completion and dedi- 
cation of the Washington Monument. 

Congressional Record, V. 16: Part 3, p. 1992. 
[S. Misc. Doc. No. 56 . . Serial 2267.] 
[S. Doc. No. 224 . . . . Serial 4436.] 

An oration by the Hon. Robert C. Winthrop, of Massachu- 
setts, upon the dedication of the Washington Monument — 
read in the Hall of Representatives, United States Capitol, 
February 21, 188 5, by the Hon. John D. Long, a Repre- 
sentative from the State of Massachusetts. 

Congressional Record, V. 16: Part 3, pp. 1992-1998. 
[S. Misc. Doc. No. 5 6 . . Serial 2267.] 
[S. Doc. No. 224 ... . Serial 4436.] 

An oration by the Hon. John W. Daniel, a Senator from Vir- 
ginia, delivered in the Hall of Representatives, United States 
Capitol, February 21, 188 5, upon the completion and dedi- 
cation of the Washington Monument. 

Congressional Record, V. 16: Part 3, pp. 1998-2003. 
[S. Misc. Doc. No. 56 . . Serial 2267.] 
[S. Doc. No. 224 ... . Serial 4436.] 

Remarks during debate in the House of Representatives, Feb- 
ruary 26, 188 5, on the resolution — accompanying the Report 
of the Joint Commission appointed to arrange appropriate 
ceremonies at the dedication of the Washington Monument — 
that Congress extend a vote of thanks to Brigadier-Gen- 
eral Thomas Lincoln Casey, Corps of Engineers, United 
States Army, and to his assistants, for their admirable work 
in the completion of the monument to the name and fame 
of George Washington. 

Congressional Record, V. 16: Part 3, pp. 2200-2203. 

SECOND SESSION OF THE FORTY-NINTH CONGRESS: 

1886-1887 
Speeches by the following Senators, February 2, 1887, during de- 
bate on the bill (H.R. 5097) to regulate the use of the 
grounds about the Washington Monumc:/. 

Congressional Record, V. 18: Part 2, pp. 12 84-1287: 
Hon. John C. Spooner, of Wisconsin. 
Hon. John J. Ingalls, of Kansas. 
Hon. Justin S. Morrill, of Vermont. 

FIRST SESSION OF THE FIFTIETH CONGRESS: 

1887-1888 
Remarks during debate in the Senate, April 11, 1888, on the 
bill (S. No. 2 564) authorizing the Secretary of War to 
purchase from Miss Virginia Taylor Lewis a sword worn 
by General Washington when he resigned his commis- 
sion at Annapolis, and at public receptions while President. 
Congressional Record, V. 19: Part 3, pp. 2892-2893: 
Hon. William Ecarts, of New York. 
Hon. Daniel W. Voorhees, of Indiana. 
Hon. George F. Hoar, of Massachusetts. 
Hon. George Graham Vest, of Missouri. 
Hon. John H. Reagan, of Texas. 



FIRST SESSION OF THE FIFTY-FIRST CONGRESS: 
1889-1890 

An oration by Melville W. Fuller, Chief-Justice of the 
United States, delivered, December 11, 1889, in the Hall of 
the House of Representatives, in commemoration of the in- 
auguration of George Washington, the first President of 
the United States. 

Congressional Record, V. 21: Part 1, pp. 147-153. 
[H. Mis. Doc. No. 168 . . Serial 2768.] 

SECOND SESSION OF THE FIFTY-SIXTH CONGRESS: 

1900-1901 

An address by the Hon. George F. Hoar, a Senator from 
Massachusetts, delivered in the Hall of the House of Rep- 
resentatives, December 12, 1900, before the Senate and 
House in joint convention assembled to celebrate the one 
hundredth anniversary of the establishment of the perma- 
nent seat of Government in the District of Columbia. 
Report of the Joint Committee, pp. 126-129. 
[//. Doc. \'o. 5 52 . . . . Serial 4207.] 

Speech by the Hon. George F. Hoar, a Senator from Massa- 
chusetts, February 15, 1901, in support of the McMillan 
bill (S. No. 4142) proposing an appropriation for the pur- 
chase of a replica of the bronze equestrian statue of Gen- 
eral Washington by Daniel Chester French and Ed- 
ward C. Pottlr. 

Congressional Record, V. 34: Part 3, pp. 2442-2443. 

SECOND SESSION OF THE FIFTY-SEVENTH 
CONGRESS: 1902-1903 

Remarks by the Hon. Jacob H. Gallinger, a Senator from. 
New Hampshire, and the Hon. George F. Hoar, a Sena- 
tor from Massachusetts, February 6, 1903, relative to print- 
ing, as a Senate document, certain pages, then out of print, 
relating to the history of the Washington Monument. 
Congressional Record, V. 36: Part 2, p. 1776. 
[S. Doc. No. 224 ... . Serial 4436.] 

SECOND SESSION OF THE FIFTY-EIGHTH CONGRESS: 
1903-1904 

Remarks by the Hon. Shelby M. Cullom, a Senator from Illi- 
nois, upon reporting from the Committee on Foreign Rela- 
tions, January 28, 1904, the resolution (S.J. Res. No. 36) 
accepting a reproduction of the bust of General Wash- 
ington by David d'Angers from certain citizens of the- 
Republic of France. 

Congressional Record, V. 38: Part 2, p. 1299. 
[S. Doc. No. 78 .... Serial 4588.] 
[S. Doc. No. 78, Fart 2 . . Serial 4588.] 

THIRD SESSION OF THE FIFTY-EIGHTH CONGRESS: 

1904-1905 

Remarks by the Hon. George Peabody Wetmore, a Senator 
from Rhode Island, March 3, 1905, upon submitting from 
the Joint Committee on the Library the Report of Proceed- 



24 



The United States Congress 



ings in connection with the formal presentation, February 
22, 1905, of a reproduction of a bust of Washington by 
certain citizens of the Republic of France. 

Congressional Record, V. 39: Part 4, p. 3929. 

[S. Kept. No. 4397 . . . Serial 4778.] 

[S. Doc. No. 5 05 . . . . Serial 4916.] 
Text of the address by M. Jusserand, the French Ambassador, 
delivered, February 22, 1905 — upon the formal presentation 
of a reproduction of the bust of Washington from certain 
citizens of the Republic of France — will be found in the 
Report of Proceedings, pp. 6-9. 

[S. Rept. No. 4197 . . . Serial 4778.] 
Text of the address of the Hon. George Peabody Wetmore, a 
Senator from Rhode Island, delivered February 22, 1905 — 
accepting, on the part of the Senate, a reproduction of the 
bust of Washington from certain citizens of the Republic 
of France — will be found in the Report of Proceedings, pp. 
9-12. 

[S. Rept. No. 4197 . . . Serial 4778.] 
Text of the address of the Hon. James T. McCleary, a Repre- 
sentative from Minnesota, delivered, February 22, 1905 — ac- 
cepting, on the part of the House of Representatives, a re- 
production of the bust of Washington from certain citi- 
zens of the Republic of France — will be found in the Report 
of Proceedings, pp. 13-19. 

[S. Rept. No. 43 97 . . . Serial 4778.] 

Remarks by the Hon. Theodore E. Burton, a Representative 
from Ohio, February 22, 1905, calling the attention of Mem- 
bers of the House to the example George Washington left 
us of unselfishness and patriotism, which was the delight and 
the wonder of his time. 

Congressional Record, V. 39: Part 3, p. 3 079. 

FIRST SESSION OF THE FIFTY-NINTH CONGRESS: 

1905-1906 
Remarks by Mr. Keifer, of Ohio, and Mr. Payne, of New York, 
February 22, 1906, on non-observance in the House of Rep- 
resentatives on that day of Washington's birthday anni- 
versary. 

Congressional Record, V. 40: Part 2, pp. 2874, 2878. 

FIRST SESSION OF THE SIXTIETH CONGRESS: 
1907-1908 
Remarks by the Hon. Richard Wayne Parker, a Representa- 
tive from New Jersey, February 22, 1908, on the subject 
of Washington's Farewell Address. 

Congressional Record, V. 42: Part 3, p. 23 5 4. 
Remarks by the Hon. James R. Mann, a Representative from 
Illinois, March 17, 1908, on the resolution (H.J.Res. No. 
124) authorizing the transfer of the statue of President 
Washington, now located in the Capitol grounds, to the 
Smithsonian Institution. 

Congressional Record, V. 42: Part 4, pp. 3461-3462. 

Report submitted in House by Mr. McCall, of Mas- 
sachusetts, February 14, 1908, Part 3, p. 2051. 



[H. Rept. No. 900 



Serial 5 22 5.] 



Report submitted in Senate by Mr. Wetmore, of 

Rhode Island, May 15, 1908, Part 7, p. 6307. 
[S. Rept. No. 543 ... . Serial 5219.] 

SECOND SESSION OF THE SIXTIETH CONGRESS: 
1908-1909 

Remarks by the Hon. William Sulzer, a Representative from 
New York, February 22, 1909, requesting that an editorial 
in the New York American of the 21st of February, 1909, 
entitled Washington's Inspiration be read before the House, 
and printed in the Record as part of his remarks. 

Congressional Record, V. 43: Part 3, pp. 2912-2913. 

FIRST SESSION OF THE SIXTY-FIRST CONGRESS: 
1909 

Speech by the Hon. Charles C. Carlin, a Representative from 
Virginia, April 22, 1909, relative to the celebration in Alex- 
andria, Virginia, on the 3 0th of April, 1909, of the one 
dred and twentieth anniversary of President Washing- 
ton's first inauguration. 

Congressional Record, V. 44: Part 2, pp. 1477-1478. 

Remarks by the Hon. Michael E. Driscoll, a Representative 
from New York, April 22, 1909, accepting on behalf of the 
Speaker and Members of the House of Representatives an 
invitation to attend the celebration in Alexandria, Virginia, 
on the 3 0th of April, 1909, of the one hundred and twenti- 
eth anniversary of President Washington's first inaugu- 
ration. 

Congressional Record, V. 44: Part 2, p. 1478. 

SECOND SESSION OF THE SIXTY-FIRST CONGRESS: 
1909-1910 

An address by the Hon. Frank Mellen Nye, a Representative 
from Minnesota, delivered in the House of Representatives, 
February 22, 1910, in which he pays homage to the life and 
character of George Washington, the great Father of his 
Country. 

Congressional Record, V. 45: Part 2, pp. 2228-2230. 

THIRD SESSION OF THE SIXTY-FIRST CONGRESS 
1910-1911 

An address by the Hon. Morris Sheppard, a Representative 
from Texas, delivered in the House of Representatives, Feb- 
ruary 22, 1911, in eulogy of George Washington, the 
great statesman, pre-eminent among the illustrious founders 
and preservers of States, empires, and nations. 

Congressional Record, V. 46: Part 4, pp. 3130-3131. 

SECOND SESSION OF THE SIXTY-SECOND CONGRESS: 
1911-1912 

Remarks by the Hon. James R. Mann, a Representative from 
Illinois, February 29, 1912, with regard to the reading of 
George Washington's Farewell Address to the people of 



On George Washington 



25 



the United States before the House of Representatives on the 
anniversary of the birth of Washington. 

Congressional Record, V. 48: Part 3, pp. 2640-2641. 

An address by the Hon. Oscar W. Underwood, a Representa- 
tive from Alabama, delivered, February 22, 1912, at the an- 
nual banquet of the Pennsylvania State Society of the Cin- 
cinnati, held in Philadelphia, on Washington's birthday — 
printed in the Record, March 8, 1912, by request of the 
Hon. William Schley Howard, of Georgia. 

Congressional Record, V. 48: Part 3, pp. 3056-3059. 

Remarks during debate in the Senate, April 15, 1912, on the bill 
(S. No. 5494) to provide a site for the erection of a build- 
ing to be known as the George Washington Memorial Build- 
ing. 

Congressional Record, V. 48: Part 5, p. 4799: 

[S. Rept. No. 552 .... Serial 6121.] 

Hon. George Sutherland, of Utah. 
Hon. Lee S. Overman, of North Carolina. 
Hon. Augustus O. Bacon, of Georgia. 

Remarks during debate in the House of Representatives, May 20, 
1912, on the bill (S. No. 5494) to provide a site for the 
erection of a building to be known as the George Washington 
Memorial Building. 

Congressional Record, V. 48: Part 7, pp. 6846-6847: 
[H. Rept. No. 105 5 . . . Serial 6133.] 

Hon. James R. Mann, of Illinois. 

Hon. Richard W. Austin, of Texas. 



Hon. John E. Raker, of California. 
Hon. Finis J. Garrett, of Tennessee. 

FIRST SESSION OF THE SIXTY-THIRD CONGRESS: 
1913 
An address by Edwin D. Mead, entitled The Principles of the 
Founders, delivered, July 4, 1903, in Faneuil Hall, Boston — 
and printed in the Record, July 13, 1913, by request of the 
FIon. Richard Bartoldt, of Missouri, under the title 
Washington, Jefferson, and Franklin on War. 

Congressional Record, V. 50: Appendix, pp. 200-202. 

SECOND SESSION OF THE SIXTY-THIRD CONGRESS: 
1913-1914 
Remarks by the Hon. Thomas R. Marshall, Vice President of 
the United States, February 23, 1914, introductory to the 
reading, in the Senate, of Washington's Farewell Address 
to the People of the United States. 

Congressional Record, V. 51: Part 4, p. 3783. 
Addresses delivered, October 1, 1914, at the Washington Monu- 
ment, upon the dedication of a memorial stone placed in the 
Monument by the State of Washington — and printed in the 
Record, October 5, 1914, by request of the Hon. Miles 
Poindexter, a Senator from Washington. 

Congressional Record, V. 51: Part 16, pp. 16171- 
16178: 

Hon. Franklin K. Lane, Secretary of the Interior. 
Colonel William W. Harts, United States Army — 
Director of the Office of Public Buildings and 
Public Parks in the National Capital — accepting 







i 


} 


'^Llv^^i 


l> mir ** im 


a * *,y 




-4 


-,\ «Qj 




^S 



Adoption of the Constitution by the Federal Convention, September 15, 1787 



26 



The United States Congress 



the memorial stone from the State of Washing- 
ton. Hon. Wesley Jones, a Senator from the 
State of Washington. 

Hon. William E. Humphrey, a Representative 
from the State of Washington. 

Brigadier-General John M. Wilson, United States 
Army, retired. 

Hon. William L. LaFolletfe, a Representative from 
the State of Washington. 

Hon. James W. Bryan, a Representative from the 
the State of Washington. 

Hon. J. A. Falconer, a Representative from the 
State of Washington. 

Hon. Albert Johnson, a Representative from the 
State of Washington. 

Mr. Frederick L. Harvey, secretary of the Wash- 
ington National Monument Society. 

Hon. Miles Poindexter, a Senator from the State of 
Washington. 

THIRD SESSION OF THE SIXTY-THIRD CONGRESS: 
1914-1915 
Remarks by the Hon. Thomas R. Marshall, Vice-President of 
the United States, February 22, 1915, introductory to the 
reading, in the Senate, of George Washington's Farewell 
Address to the people of the United States on the 17th of 
September, 1796. 

Congressional Record, V. 52: Part 4, pp. 4260-4261. 
Historical account of the authorship of George Washington's 
Farewell Address to the people of the United States by the 
Hon. Simeon D. Fess, a Representative from Ohio — printed 
in the Record, February 22, 1915, by request of the Hon. 
Clarence E. Miller, of Minnesota. 

Congressional Record, V. 52: Appendix, pp. 441-443. 
Speech by the Hon. Kenneth D. McKellar, a Representative 
from Tennessee, February 22, 1915, on military training 
schools, reminding Members of the House, on this especial 
day, that General Washington, in one of his addresses, 
urged the Congress to prepare a better system for training 
officers — and West Point was created. 

Congressional Record, V. 52: Part 4, pp. 4334, 433 5- 
4336. 

FIRST SESSION OF THE SIXTY-FOURTH CONGRESS: 
1915-1916 
An address by the Hon. Henry Cabot Lodge, a Senator from 
Massachusetts, delivered, February 22, 1916, at Morristown, 
New Jersey, before the Washington Association of New Jer- 
sey, on Washington's policies of neutrality and national 
defense. 

[S. Doc. No. 343 ... . Serial 6952.] 
Remarks by the Hon. Thomas R. Marshall, Vice-President of . 
the United States, February 22, 1916, introductory to the 
reading, in the Senate, of Washington's Farewell Address 
to the people of the United States, September 17, 1796. 
Congressional Record, V. 53: Part 3, p. 2922. 
Remarks by the Hon. James E. Martine, a Senator from New 
Jersey, on Saint Patrick's Day, March 17, 1916 — requesting 



that three letters written by George Washington to the 
Irish people to be read before the Senate, and printed in the 
Record. 

Congressional Record, V. 53: Part 5, pp. 4274-4275. 

SECOND SESSION OF THE SIXTY-FOURTH CONGRESS: 

1916-1917 
Remarks by the Hon. Blair Lee, a Senator from Maryland, Feb- 
ruary 22, 1917, calling the attention of Senators to the text 
of President Washington's Farewell Address to the Senate 
and House, in joint session, December 7, 1796, dealing ex- 
clusively with the question of national defense. 

Congressional Record, V. 54: Part 4, p. 3 892. 

Remarks by the Hon. Claude Kitchen, a Representative from 
North Carolina, February 17, 1917, requesting unanimous 
consent that immediately after the reading of the Journal 
on February the 22nd, Washington's Farewell Address to 
the People of the United States, September 17, 1796, be 
read before the House by Mr. Neely, a Representative from 
West Virginia. 

Congressional Record, V. 54: Part 4, p. 3 541. 

An address by the Hon. Horace M. Towner, a Representative 
from Iowa, delivered in the House of Representatives Febru- 
ary 22, 1917, on Washington and American Neutrality. 
Congressional Record, V. 54: Part 4, pp. 3913-3916. 

An address by the Hon. William H. Coleman, a Representa- 
tive from Pennsylvania, February 22, 1917, entitled Wash- 
ington. 

Congressional Record, V. 54: Appendix, pp. 499-503. 

FIRST SESSION OF THE SIXTY -FIFTH CONGRESS: 
1917 
Addresses delivered at the tomb of Washington, April 29, 1917, 
upon the visit to Mount Vernon of the British and the 
French War Missions to the United States — printed in the 
Record, March 30, 1917, from a current issue of the Wash- 
ington Post, by request of the Hon. W. Frank James, a 
Representative from Michigan. 

Congressional Record, V. 5 5: Part 2, pp. 1567-1568: 
M. Rene Viviani, Head of the French War Mission. 
M. Joseph Joffre, Marshal of France. 
Hon. Arthur James Balfour, Head of the British 

War Mission. 
Hon. Henry Carter Stuart, Governor of Virginia. 

An address by M. Rene Viviani, May 3, 1917, upon the visit 
of the French War Commission to the House of Repre- 
sentatives. 

Congressional Record, V. 5 5: Part 2, p. 175 5. 
Text in French with accompanying translation in Eng- 
lish printed in the Record by request of the Sec- 
retary of State, July 7, 1917, Part 4, p. 3274. 

An address by M. Jusserand, ambassador from France to the 
United States, May 3, 1917, upon the visit of the French 
War Commission to the House of Representatives. 
Congressional Record, V. 5 5: Part 2, p. 175 5. 



On George Washington 



27 



An address by the Hon. Josephus Daniels, Secretary of the 
Navy, August 26, 1917, delivered at the tomb of Wash- 
ington upon the visit to Mount Vernon of the Imperial 
Japanese Mission to the United States. 

[S. Doc. No. 85 . . . . Serial 7265.] 

An address by Viscount Ishii, ambassador extraordinary and 
plenipotentiary from Japan, 26 August 1917, upon the visit 
to the tomb of Washington of the Imperial Japanese Mis- 
sion of the United States. 

[S. Doc. No. 85 . . . . Serial 7265.] 

Address by the Hon. Champ Clark, of Missouri, Speaker of 
the House of Representatives, delivered, June 19, 1917, at 
the dedication of the Washington Memorial Arch at Valley 
Forge, Pennsylvania — printed in the Record, June 30, 1917, 
by request of the Hon. Henry Watson, of Pennsylvania. 
Congressional Record, V. 55: Appendix, pp. 364-367. 

Address by the Hon. Martin G. Brumbaugh, Governor of 
Pennsylvania, delivered, June 19, 1917, at the dedication of 
the Washington Memorial Arch at Valley Forge, Pennsyl- 
vania — printed in the Record, June 30, 1917, by request of 
the Hon. Henry W. Watson, of Pennsylvania. 
Congressional Record, V. 5 5: Appendix, p. 367. 

SECOND SESSION OF THE SIXTY-FIFTH CONGRESS: 
1917-1918 

An address by the Hon. Warren G. Harding, a Senator from 
Ohio, delivered, February 22, 1918, at a celebration on 
Washington's Birthday, held in the city of Washington 
under the auspices of the Sons of the American Revolu- 
tion — and printed in the Record, February 2 5, 1918, by 
request of Senator Pomerene, of Ohio; and ordered to be 
printed as a public document. 

Congressional Record, V. 56: Part 3, p. 2 5 86. 
[S. Doc. No. 180 ... . Serial 7329.] 

An address by the Hon. Simeon D. Fess, a Representative from 
Ohio, delivered, February 22, 1918, before the House of 
Representatives on the birthday anniversary of George 
Washington. 

Congressional Record, V. 56: Part 3, pp. 2 524-2 527. 

An address by the Hon. W. Frank James, a Representative 
from Michigan, delivered, February 22, 1918, before the 
Pittsburgh Commercial Club on the birthday anniversary of 
George Washington — and printed in the Record, March 
6, 1918, by request of the Hon. M. Clyde Kelly, of 
Pennsylvania. 

Congressional Record, V. 56: Appendix, pp. 194-199. 

An address by the Hon. Louis W. Fairfield, a Representative 
from Indiana, delivered, February 22, 1918, at Gettysburg, 
Pennsylvania, on the birthday anniversary of George 
Washington — and printed in the Record, March 23, 1918, 
by request of the Hon. William R. Wood, of Indiana. 
Congressional Record, V. 56: Appendix, pp. 243-246. 

An address by Woodrow Wilson, President of the United 
States, delivered before the Members of the Diplomatic 



Corps, July 4, 1918, at the tomb of George Washington 
at Mount Vernon in the State of Virginia. 

Congressional Record, V. 56: Part 9, p. 8671. 

[S. Doc. No. 2 58 . . . . Serial 73 30.] 

THIRD SESSION OF THE SIXTY-FIFTH CONGRESS: 
1918-1919 

An address by the Hon. Henry Cabot Lodge, a Senator from 
Massachusetts, delivered in the Senate, December 21, 1918, 
on The Coming Treaty of Peace, in which he reviews the 
Messages of President Washington with regard to the 
treaty-making power in the United States, the precedent es- 
tablished by him in this respect and followed by Presidents 
who succeeded him. 

Congressional Record, V. 57: Part 1, pp. 728-734. 

[S. Doc. No. 104 . . . . Serial 4230.] 

An address by the Hon. Henry Cabot Lodge, a Senator from 
Massachusetts, delivered in the Senate, February 28, 1919, 
on the Constitution of the League of Nations, in which he 
pays homage to George Washington as not only a very 
great man but also very wise, and warns against abandon- 
ing the policy laid down by such a man in his Farewell 
Address — a political testament which has been of living 
force down to the present instant. 

Congressional Record, V. 57: Part 5, pp. 4520-4524, 
4525-4528. 

SECOND SESSION OF THE SIXTY-SIXTH CONGRESS: 
1919-1920 

An address in the House of Representatives by the Hon. James 
G. Monahan, a Representative from Wisconsin, February 
23, 1920, in memory of the late Mr. Lawrence Washing- 
ton, a great-great-grandnephew of General Washing- 
ton. 

Congressional Record, V. 59: Part 4, pp. 33 5 5-3 3 56. 

An address in the House of Representatives by the Hon. R. 
Walton Moore, a Representative from Virginia, February 
23, 1920, in memory of the late Mr. Lawrence Washing- 
ton, a great-great-grandnephew of General Washing- 
ton. 

Congressional Record, V. 59: Part 4, pp. 3356-3357. 

An address by the Hon. Roscoe C. McCulloch, a Representa- 
tive from Ohio, February 12, 1920, at Defiance, Ohio — 
printed in the Record, March 4, 1920, by request of Mr. 
Kearns, a Representative from Ohio. 

Congressional Record, V. 59: Appendix, pp. 8892- 
8893. 

THIRD SESSION OF THE SIXTY-SIXTH CONGRESS: 
1920-1921 

An address by the Hon. Philip P. Campbell, a Representa- 
tive from Kansas, delivered in the House of Representa- 
tives, February 22, 1921, on Government under the Con- 
stitution of the United States. 

Congressional Record, V. 60: Part 4, pp. 3621-3623. 



2S 



The United States Congress 



SECOND SESSION OF THE SIXTY-SEVENTH 
CONGRESS: 1921-1922 

Remarks by the Hon. Hamilton Fish, Jr., a Representative 
from New York, February 22, 1922, calling the attention 
of Members of the House to the views of George Wash- 
ington on the subject of adjusted compensation for the 
officers and men of the Revolutionary Army. 

Congressional Record, V. 62: Part 3, p. 2908. 

An address by the Hon. Henry W. Watson, a Representa- 
tive from Pennsylvania, delivered, February 22, 1922, be- 
fore the House of Representatives, on the Battle of Trenton 
and General Washington's conduct of the campaign 
leading to that engagement. 

Congressional Record, V. 62: Part 3, pp. 2900-2902. 

Remarks by the Hon. R. Walton Moore, a Representative 
from Virginia, February 22, 1922, relative to the resolu- 
tion (S. J. Res. No. 137) transferring to the Smithsonian 
Institution the sword of Washington, the staff which 
Franklin gave to Washington, and the sword of An- 
drew Jackson. 

Text of an address by the Hon. George W. Summers, a 
Representative from Virginia, delivered, February 7, 
1843, in the House of Representatives, upon the pre- 
sentation to the United States Government of Washing- 
ton's sword and Franklin's staff — reprinted in the 
Record, February 22, 1922, by request of the Hon. R. 
Walton Moore, as part of his remarks. 

Text of an address by the Hon. Lewis Cass, a Senator 
from Michigan, delivered in the Senate, February 26, 
18 5 5, in which he pays tribute to General Washing- 
ton "who in life was first in the affections of his coun- 
trymen and in death is now first in their memory" — re- 
printed in the Record, February 22, 1922, by request of 
the Hon. R. Walton Moore as part of his remarks. 
Congressional Record, V. 62: Part 3, pp. 2906-2908. 

Speech by the Hon. Thomas E. Watson, a Senator from 
Georgia, delivered, June 21, 1922, in the United States 
Senate, on the Attitude of George Washington toward 
a bonus for soldiers. 

Congressional Record, V. 62: Part 9, p. 9100. 

FOURTH SESSION OF THE SIXTY-SEVENTH 
CONGRESS: 1922-1923 

Remarks in the House of Representatives by the Hon. Schuy- 
ler O. Bland, a Representative from Virginia, February 
22, 1923, in the interest of the restoration of Kenmore, 
the home of Betty Lewis, sister of George Washington. 
Congressional Record, V. 64: Part 4, pp. 4269-4270. 

Speech by the Hon. Frederick C. Hicks, a Representative 
from New York, delivered, February 24, 1923, in the 
House of Representatives, on behalf of the George Wash- 
ington Memorial Association. 

Congressional Record, V. 64, Part 5, pp. 45 56-4 5 59. 



An address by the Hon. Andrew J. Montague, a Representa- 
tive from Virginia, delivered, February 22, 1923, at the 
Washington Day exercises at the University of Pennsyl- 
vania — printed in the Record, March 3, 1923, by request 
of the Hon. H. Garland Dupre, of Louisiana. 

Congressional Record, V. 64, Part 6, pp. 5 524-5 526. 

FIRST SESSION OF THE SIXTY-EIGHTH CONGRESS: 

1923-1924 

An address by the Hon. B. G. Lowrey, a Representative from 
Mississippi, delivered, February 22, 1924, at the Masonic 
Temple in Washington, District of Columbia, on the sub- 
ject George Washington the Citizen — printed in the Rec- 
ord, February 23, 1924, by request of the Hon. James W. 
Collier, of Mississippi. 

Congressional Record, V. 6 5, Part 3, pp. 2973-2974. 
An address by the Hon. Royal S. Copeland, a Senator from 
New York, delivered, February 22, 1924, at Memorial Hall 
in Washington, District of Columbia, on the subject 
George Washington, First in Peace — printed in the Rec- 
ord, March 14, 1924, by request of Senator Robinson, 
of Arkansas. 

Congressional Record, V. 65: Part 4, pp. 4122-4124. 
Speech by the Hon. Schuyler O. Bland, a Representative 
from Virginia, delivered, March 28, 1924, during debate 
in the House on the War Department Appropriations bill 
(H.R. 7877), relative to the appropriation for repair and 
maintenance of Wakefield, Virginia, the birthplace of 
George Washington. 

Congressional Record, V. 65: Part 5, p. 518 5. 
Addresses delivered, April 15, 1924, at the Washington Monu- 
ment upon the dedication of a memorial stone placed in 
the Monument by the State of Arizona — and printed in 
the Record, April 23, 1924, by request of Senator Cam- 
eron, of Arizona: 

Congressional Record, V. 65: Part 7, pp. 697i-6975. 
Hon. Ralph H. Cameron, a Senator from Arizona. 
Mrs. Hoval A. Smith, State regent, Arizona, Daugh- 
ters of the American Revolution — presenting the 
memorial stone on behalf of the State of Arizona. 
Lieut. -Colonel Clarence O. Sherrill, United States 
Army — Director of the Office of Public Build- 
ings and Public Parks in the National Capital. 
Hon. Henry F. Ashurst, a Senator from Arizona. 
Mrs. Anthony Wayne Cook, President-General of 
the National Society of the Daughters of the 
American Revolution. 
Hon. Carl Hayden, a Representative from Arizona. 
Calvin Coolidgc, President of the United States. 

SECOND SESSION OF THE SIXTY-EIGHTH CONGRESS: 

1924-1925 

An address by the Hon. Frederick W. Dallinger, a Repre- 
sentative from Massachusetts, delivered, February 21, 1925, 
in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, before the Pennsylvania State 
Society of the Sons of the American Revolution, at a cele- 
bration of the birthday anniversary of George Washing- 



On George Washington 



29 



ton — and printed in the Record, February 23, 192 J, by re- 
quest of the Hon. M. Clyde Kelly, of Pennsylvania. 

Congressional Record, V. 66: Part 5, pp. 4443-4445. 

An address by the Hon. R. Walton Moore, a Representative 
from Virginia, delivered, February 21, 1925, in Pittsburgh, 
Pennsylvania, at the annual Washington banquet of the Sons 
of the American Revolution — and printed in the Record, 
February 23, 192 5, by request of the Hon. M. Clyde 
Kelly, of Pennsylvania. 

Congressional Record, V. 66: Part 5, pp. 4445-4447. 

An address by the Hon. James M. Beck, Solicitor-General of the 
United States, delivered, February 23, 1925, in Carnegie 
Hall, New York City, at the celebration of the birthday 
anniversary of George Washington — and printed in the 
Record, February 24, 1925, by request of Senator Moses, 
of New Hampshire. 

Congressional Record, V. 66: Part 5, pp. 4544-4547. 

Remarks by the Hon. Maurice Thatcher, a Representative 
from Kentucky, February 26, 1925, in the House of Repre- 
sentatives, requesting that a letter written, May 5, 1789, by 
George Washington to Edward Rutledge, of South 
Carolina, on Presidential patronage be printed in the Record. 
Congressional Record, V. 66: Part 5, pp. 4742-4743. 

FIRST SESSION OF THE SIXTY-NINTH CONGRESS: 
1925-1926 

An address by Calvin Coolidge, President of the United States, 
on the subject George Washington: A Great Teacher, deliv- 
ered, February 22, 1926, in the city of Washington, before 
the Department of Superintendence of the National Educa- 
tion Association — printed in the Record, February 23, 1926, 
by request of Senator Fess, of Ohio; and ordered to be 
printed as a public document. 

Congressional Record, V. 67: Part 4, pp. 4370-4373. 
[S. Doc. No. 68 .... Serial ZS 57.] 

Remarks in the Senate by the Hon. Cole L. Blease, a Senator 
from South Carolina, February 22, 1926, requesting that an 
editorial from the Washington Herald on George Washing- 
ton, be printed in the Record. 

Congressional Record, V. 67: Part 4, p. 43 3 0. 

Remarks in the Senate by the Hon. J. Thomas Heflin, a Sen- 
ator from Alabama, February 22, 1926, requesting that a 
poem by Horace C. Carlisle, entitled Washington, be 
printed in the Record. 

Congressional Record, V. 67: Part 4, p. 4329. 

Remarks in the House of Representatives by the Hon. William 
D. Upshaw, of Georgia, February 22, 1926, requesting that 
a place be given in the Record for the printing of a general 
order issued by General George Washington, in New 
York, July, 1776, against profanity in the Army. 
Congressional Record, V. 67: Part 4, p. 4367. 

Remarks in the House of Representatives by the Hon. Emanuel 
Celler, of New York, March 24, 1926, during which he 



refers to George Washington as represented by Paul Lei- 
cester Ford in his book "The True George Washington". 
Congressional Record, V. 67: Part 6, pp. 6186-6187. 

SECOND SESSION OF THE SIXTY-NINTH CONGRESS: 
1926-1927 

Remarks by the Hon. Willis C. Hawley, a Representative from 
Oregon, January 29, 1927, upon submitting to the House of 
Representatives on behalf of the Bi-Centennial Commission 
a resolution (H.Con.Res. No. 49) providing that, on the 
following 22nd day of February, the President of the United 
States address the two Houses of Congress, in joint session, 
on the subject: George Washington. 

Congressional Record, V. 68: Part 3, pp. 2 5 50-2 5 51. 

An address by Calvin Coolidge, President of the United States, 
on George Washington — delivered, February 22, 1927, in 
the Hall of Representatives, before the two Houses of Con- 
gress, the Supreme Court of the United States, Members of 
the Cabinet, the Chief Naval officer, the Chief -of-Staff, 
Commandant of Marines, the Diplomatic Corps, and de- 
scendants of the family of George Washington. 

Congressional Record, V. 68: Part 4, pp. 4457-4459. 
[S. Doc. No. 249 ... . Serial 8709.] 

An address by the Hon. Emanuel Celler, a Representative 
from New York, delivered by radio, February 21, 1927, on 
the True George Washington — and printed in the Record, 
February 22, 1927, under extension of remarks. 

Congressional Record, V. 68: Part 4, pp. 4492-4493. 

Remarks by the Hon. Luther A. Johnson, a Representative 
from Texas, February 22, 1927, in the House of Representa- 
tives — requesting that place be given in the Record for an 
editorial from the London Times of November 9, 1796, an- 
nouncing the contemplated retirement of George Wash- 
ington as President of the United States of America. 
Congressional Record, V. 68: Part 4, p. 4466. 

FIRST SESSION OF THE SEVENTIETH CONGRESS: 
1927-1928 

An address by the Hon. Simeon D. Fess, a Senator from Ohio, 
February 22, 1928, in Alexandria, Virginia, at the celebra- 
tion of the anniversary of the birth of George Washing- 
ton — printed in the Record, February 28, 1928, by request 
of Senator Capper, of Kansas. 

Congressional Record , V. 69: Part 4, pp. 3668-3669. 

Remarks by the Hon. R. Walton Moore, a Representative from 
Virginia, February 10, 1928, in the House of Representa- 
tives, relative to the celebration, in Alexandria, Virginia, on 
the anniversary of the birth of George Washington. 
Congressional Record, V. 69: Part 3, pp. 2847-2848. 

An address by the Hon. Richard Yates, a Representative from 
Illinois, February 22, 1928, before the Association of Oldest 
Inhabitants of the District of Columbia, on the anniversary 
of the birth of George Washington — printed in the Rec- 
ord under extension of remarks. 

Congressional Record, V. 69: Part 3, pp. 3450-34 54. 



30 



The United States Congress 



An address by the Hon. William Tyler Page, Clerk of the 
House of Representatives, delivered by radio, February 22, 
1928, on the celebration of the two hundredth anniversary 
of the birth of George Washington — and printed in the 
Record, March 23, 1928, by request of the Hon. Willis 
C. Hawley, of Oregon. 

Congressional Record, V. 69: Part 5, pp. 5243-5244. 

Remarks by the Hon. Butler B. Hare, a Representative from 
South Carolina, March 29, 1928, in the House of Repre- 
sentatives, relative to the bequest made by George Wash- 
ington for the founding of a national university in the 
District of Columbia. 

Congressional Record, V. 69: Part 5, p. 5 59 5. 

SECOND SESSION OF THE SEVENTIETH CONGRESS: 

1928-1929 

An address by the Hon. James M. Beck, a Representative from 
Pennsylvania, February 22, 1929, before the House of Rep- 
resentatives, on the Political Philosophy of George Wash- 
ington. 

Congressional Record, V. 70: Part 4, pp. 40 5 3-4057. 
[H. Doc. No. 611 . . . . Serial 9021.] 

An address by the Hon. R. Walton Moore, a Representative 
from Virginia, October 14, 1928, in Alexandria, Virginia, 
at the unveiling of a monument to Dr. James Craik, the 
physician and friend of George Washington — printed in 
the Record, February 22, 1929, by request of the Hon. 
John W. Summers, of the State of Washington. 

Congressional Record, V. 70: Part 4, pp. 4062-4063. 

An address by Calvin Coolidge, President of the United States, 
delivered, February 22, 1929, at the Washington Auditor- 
ium, on the Life of George Washington — printed in the 
Record, February 2 5, 1929, by request of Senator Fess, 
of Ohio. 

Congressional Record, V. 70: Part 4, pp. 4103-410 5. 

An address by the Hon. Nicholas Longworth, Speaker of the 
House of Representatives, delivered, February 22, 1929, at 
the University of Pennsylvania, on George Washington 
and the Effect of his Example and Precepts upon the Gov- 
ernment of the United States To-day — printed in the Rec- 
ord, February 2 5, 1929, by request of the Hon. John Q. 
Tilson, of Connecticut. 

Congressional Record, V. 70: Part 4, pp. 42 5 3-42 5 5. 

An address by the Hon. James Hamilton Lewis, of Illinois, 
delivered, February 22, 1929, at Poli's Theater in the City 
of Washington, on the Life and Achievements of George 
Washington — printed in the Record, February 27, 1929, 
by request of Senator Harrison, of Mississippi. 

Congressional Record, V. 70: Part 5, pp. 4 504-45 5. 

An address by Mr. Franklin Ford, of New York, delivered by 
radio, February 22, 1929, on the Anniversary of the birth 
of George Washington — printed in the Record, Febru- 
ary 27, 1929, by request of Senator Heflin, of Alabama. 
Congressional Record, V. 70: Part 5, pp. 4494-4496. 

An address by the Hon. Charles E. Winter, a Representative 
from Wyoming, delivered, February 2 5, 1929, in the House 
of Representatives, on the subject Washington, Lincoln, and 



our National Life — printed in the Record under extension 
of remarks. 

Congressional Record, V. 70: Part 4, pp. 4251-4253.. 

Article by the Hon. John E. Rankin, a Representative from 

Mississippi, entitled Loch at the Tomb of Washington — 

printed in the Record, March 4, 1929, under extension of 

remarks. 

Congressional Record, V. 70: Part 5, pp. 52 3 3-5234. 

FIRST SESSION OF THE SEVENTY-FIRST CONGRESS: 
1929 

An address by the Hon. Simeon D. Fess, a Senator from Ohio, 
delivered by radio, September 7, 1929, on the George 
Washington Bi-Centennial Celebration — and printed in 
the Record, September 9, 1929, by request of Senator. 
Capper, of Kansas. 

Congressional Record, V. 71: Part 3, pp. 3413-3418. 

SECOND SESSION OF THE SEVENTY-FIRST 
CONGRESS: 1929-1930 

Speech by the Hon. Claude A. Swanson, a Senator from Vir- 
ginia, during debate in the Senate, December 19, 1929, on 
the bill (S. No. 1784) appropriating money for improve- 
ments upon Government -owned land at Wakefield, West- 
moreland County, Virginia, the birthplace of George 
Washington. 

Congressional Record, V. 72: Part 1, p. 9 5 5. 

Remarks by the Hon. Simeon D. Fess, a Senator from Ohio,, 
during debate in the Senate, February 1, 1930, and Feb- 
ruary 8, 1930, on the bill (S. No. 3398) providing for the 
publication of the Writings of George Washington as a 
memorial in connection with the George Washington Bi- 
Centennial Commission. 

Congressional Record, V. 72: Part 3, pp. 2812-2813; 
Part 3, pp. 3278-3279. 

An address by the Hon. Guy D. Goff, a Senator from West 
Virginia, delivered at Clarksburg, West Virginia, February 
22, 1930, before the State Society of the Sons of the Revo- 
lution on the subject The Voice of Washington — printed 
in the Record, February 24, 1930, by request of Senator 
Hatfield, of West Virginia. 

Congressional Record, V. 72: Part 4, pp. 413 3-413 5. 

An address by the Hon. Samuel M. Shortridge, a Senator 
from California, delivered in the city of Washington, Feb- 
ruary 22, 1930, before the Federal Bar Association — and 
printed in the Record, February 27, 1930, by request of' 
Senator Ashurst, of Arizona. 

Congressional Record, V. 72: Part 4, pp. 4340-4342. 

Remarks during debate in the House of Representatives, Decem- 
ber 21, 1929, and January 20, 193 0, on the bill (S. No. 
1784) authorizing an appropriation for improvements upon 
the Government-owned land at Wakefield, Westmoreland' 
County, Virginia, the birthplace of George Washington.. 
Congressional Record, V. 72: Part 1, pp. 1078-1081:, 
Part 2, pp. 1991-1995: 

Hon. Schuyler O. Bland, of Virginia. 



On George Washington 



31 



Hon. Louis Cramton, of Michigan. 

Hon. J. Mayhew Wainwright, of New York. 

Hon. William H. Stafford, of Wisconsin. 

Hon. R. Walton Moore, of Virginia. 

Hon. Arthur H. Greenwood, of Indiana. 

Hon. Robert Luce, of Massachusetts. 

Remarks by the Hon. John Q. Tilson, a Representative from 
Connecticut, during debate in the House of Representa- 
tives, February 18, 193 0, on the bill (S. No. 3 398) pro- 
viding for the publication of the Writings of George Wash- 
ington as a memorial in connection with the George 
Washington Bi-Centennial Commission. 

Congressional Record, V. 72: Part 4, pp. 3 898, 3 899, 
3900. 

An address by the Hon. John J. McSwain, a Representative 
from South Carolina, delivered in the House of Represent- 
atives, February 13, 1930, on the subject Washington on 
National Defense; as revealed in an unpublished manu- 
script submittal by General Washington to the Con- 
gress, May 2, 1783, before the demobilization of the Revo- 
lutionary Army. 

Congressional Record, V. 72: Part 4, pp. 3 63 0-3 631. 

An address by the Hon. John Q. Tilson, Representative from 
Connecticut, delivered in the House of Representatives, 
February 22, 1930, on the George Washington Bi-Cen- 
tennial Celebration. 

Congressional Record, V. 72: Part 4, p. 4104. 

Speech in the House of Representatives by the Hon. William 
Tyler Page, Clerk of the House, February 22, 1930, on 
the plans approved and proposed for the George Washing- 
ton Bi-Centennial Celebration. 

Congressional Record, V. 72: Part 4, pp. 4104-4108. 

An address by the Hon. R. Walton Moore, Representative 
from Virginia, delivered in the House of Representatives, 
February 22, 1930, on Some Work of Washington in his 
Home County. 

Congressional Record, V. 72: Part 4, 4108-4111. 

An address by the Hon. C. Ellis Moore, Representative from 
Ohio, delivered in House of Representatives, February 22, 
1930, on Washington as a Pioneer. 

Congressional Record, V. 72: Part 4, pp. 4111-4112. 

An address by the Hon. John J. McSwain, Representative 
from South Carolina, delivered in the House of Represent- 
atives, February 22, 1930, on Washington as a Soldier. 
Congressional Record, V. 72: Part 4, pp. 4112-4114. 

An address by the Hon. Robert Luce, Representative from 

Massachusetts, delivered in the House of Representatives, 

February 22, 1930, on Washington and the Constitution. 

Congressional Record, V. 72: Part 4, pp. 4114-4116. 

An address by the Hon. Louis Cramton, Representative from 
Michigan, delivered in the House of Representatives, Feb- 
ruary 22, 1930, on Washington and the Potomac. 

Congressional Record, V. 72: Part 4, pp. 4116-4119. 

An address by the Hon. Charles H. Sloan, Representative 



from Nebraska, delivered in the House of Representatives, 
February 22, 1930, on Washington the Business Farmer. 
Congressional Record, V. 72: Part 4, pp. 4120-4121. 
An address by the Hon. Henry W. Temple, Representative 
from Pennsylvania, delivered in the House of Representa- 
tives, February 22, 1930, on Washington's Place among 
his Contemporaries. 

Congressional Record, V. 72: Part 4, pp. 4121-4122. 
An address by the Hon. Manuel Roxas, Speaker of the Phil- 
ippine House of Representatives, delivered by radio, Feb- 
ruary 22, 1930, as a tribute to the memory of George 
Washington, the great American liberator — printed in 
the Record, February 27, 1930, by request of the Hon. 
Camilo Osias, Resident Commissioner from the Philip- 
pine Islands. 

Congressional Record, V. 72: Part 4, pp. 4423-4424. 
An address by the Hon. Roscoe Pound, dean of the Law 
School, Harvard University, February 22, 1930, delivered 
at the tenth anniversary dinner of the Federal Bar Associa- 
tion, in the city of Washington, on the subject of Wash- 
ington's Birthday Memorial — and printed in the Record, 
March 18, 1930, by request of the Hon. George R. 
Stobbs, a Representative from Massachusetts. 

Congressional Record, V. 72: Part 5, pp. 5 533-5 53 5. 
An address by the Hon. Thomas A. Yon, Representative from 
Florida, delivered, February 28, 1930, at Seat Pleasant, 
Maryland, on the subject George Washington as Soldier, 
Statesman, and Mason — printed in the Record, March 7, 
1930, by request of the Hon. James V. McClintic, of 
Oklahoma. 

Congressional Record, V. 72: Part 5, pp. 4981-4982. 
An address by the Hon. Sol Bloom, Representative from New 
York, delivered by radio, June 12, 1930, on the George 
Washington Bi-Centennial Celebration in 1932 — and 
printed in the Record, June 16, under extension of remarks. 
Congressional Record, V. 72: Part 10, pp. 10934- 
10936. 
An address by the Hon. R. Walton Moore, of Virginia, de- 
livered in the House of Representatives, June 20, 1930, on 
George Washington's Boyhood Home. 

Congressional Record, V. 72: Part 10, pp. 11344- 
11345. 

THIRD SESSION OF THE SEVENTY-FIRST CONGRESS: 
1930-1931 

An address by the Hon. Schuyler O. Bland, a Representa- 
tive from Virginia, delivered at Richmond, Virginia, on 
the subject Washington the Lover of Trees — and printed 
in the Record, December 15, 1930, under extension of re- 
marks. 

Congressional Record, V. 74: Part 1, pp. 732-734. 

An address by the Hon. Frank M. Ramey, a Representative 

from Illinois, delivered by radio, February 19, 1931, on the 

subject Washington and Lincoln — and printed in the 

Record, February 24, 1931, under extension of remarks. 

Congressional Record, V. 74: Part 6, pp. 5862-5864. 



32 



The United States Congress 



An address by the Hon. James M. Beck, a Representative from 
Pennsylvania, delivered in the House of Representatives, 
February 23, 1931, on the subject Washington's Concep- 
tion of the Union. 

Congressional Record, V. 74: Part 6, pp. 573 5-5741. 
[H. Doc. No. 792 ... . Serial 9367.] 

The address by the Hon. Alben W. Barkley, a Senator from 
Kentucky, delivered in the Senate, February 23, 1931, on 
the subject Washington and his Contemporaries. 

Congressional Record, V. 74: Part 6, pp. 5 693 -5 69 5. 

An address by the Hon. William Borah, a Senator from Idaho, 
delivered in the Senate, February 23, 1931, on the subject 
Washington's Attitude toward the French Revolution. 

Congressional Record, V. 74: Part 6, pp. 5695-5696. 

An address by the Hon. Thomas Campbell Washington, 
great-great-great-grandnephew of General Washington, 
delivered by radio, February 23, 1931, on the subject 
George Washington: His Farewell Address, and its Ap- 
plicability to Present-Day Conditions — printed in the Rec- 
ord, February 28, 1931, by request of Senator McKel- 
lar, of Tennessee. 

Congressional Record, V. 74: Part 7, pp. 6469-6470. 

Remarks by the Hon. Claude A. Swanson, a Senator from 
Virginia, February 23, 1931, requesting that a poem by 
Horace C. Carlisle, entitled Wakefield be printed in the 
Record. 

Congressional Record, V. 74: Part 6, p. 5697. 

Speech by the Hon. Schuyler O. Bland, a Representative 
from Virginia, March 2, 1931, in the House of Represent- 
atives, on the work of the Wakefield Memorial Association 
in the restoration of the birthplace of General Washing- 
ton. 

Congressional Record, V. 74: Part 7, pp. 6882-6883. 

An address by Herbert Hoover, President of the United States, 
May 30, 1931, at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, on the sub- 
ject The Moral Grandeur of General Washington. 
[Printed separately, G. P. O. 1931.] 

FIRST SESSION OF THE SEVENTY-SECOND CONGRESS: 

1931-1932 

An address by the Hon. Charles Curtis, Vice-President of the 
United States, delivered January 26, 1932, at a meeting in 
the city of Washington of the Washington Chamber of 
Commerce — printed in the Record, January 27, 1932, by 
request of the Hon. Simeon D. Fess, a Senator from Ohio. 
Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 3, p. 2770. 

Speech by the Hon. Simeon D. Fess, a Senator from Ohio, Jan- 
uary 16, 1932, tipon submitting to the Senate a report on 
the progress of the Washington Bicentennial celebration to 
be held this year, beginning on the 22nd of February. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 2, pp. 2100-2102, 
2103-2104. 

Remarks by the Hon. James E. Watson, a Senator from In- 
diana, February 19, 1932, relative to arrangements for the 
joint session of the two Houses of Congress in commemora- 



tion of the two hundredth anniversary of the birth of 
George Washington. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 4, p. 433 5; Febru- 
ary 22, 1932, Part 4, p. 4448. 

Remarks during debate in the Senate, January 16, 1932, on that 
clause of the Deficiency Appropriations bill (H. R. 6660) 
which provides an additional amount for the George Wash- 
ington Bi-Centennial Commission . . . 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 2, pp. 2117-2119: 
Hon. Royal S. Copeland, a Senator from New- 
York. 
Hon. Millard E. Tydings, a Senator from Mary- 
land. 
Hon. Wesley L. Jones, a Senator from Washing- 
ton. 
Hon. Ellison D. Smith, a Senator from South 
Carolina. 

Remarks during debate in the House of Representatives, Jan- 
uary 4th and January 5th, 1932, on that clause of the De- 
ficiency Appropriations bill (H. R. No. 6660) which pro- 
vides an additional amount for the George Washington Bi- 
centennial Commission. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 2, pp. 1227-1231; 
1324-1332: 

Hon. Sol Bloom, a Representative from New 

York. 
Hon. Joseph W. Byrns, a Representative from 

Tennessee. 
Hon. George Huddleston, a Representative from 

Alabama. 
Hon. F. H. LaGuardia, a Representative from 

New York. 
Hon. L. C. Dyer, a Representative from Missouri. 
Hon. William H. Stafford, a Representative from 

Wisconsin. 
Hon. Earl C. Michener, a Representative from 

Michigan. 
Hon. A. T. Treadway, a Representative from 

Massachusetts. 
Hon. James M. Beck, a Representative from Penn- 
sylvania. 
Hon. Charles L. Abemethy, a Representative from 

North Carolina. 
Hon. U. S. Guyer, a Representative from Kansas. 
An address by the Hon. M. Clyde Kelly, a Representative 
from Pennsylvania, delivered in Alexandria, Virginia, De- 
cember 14, 1931, at ceremonies held under the auspices of 
the Washington Society of Alexandria in commemoration 
of the two hundred and first birthday anniversary of Dr. 
James Craik, friend of George Washington — printed in 
the Record, December 21, 1931, by request of the Hon. 
William R. Coyle, a Representative from Pennsylvania. 
Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 1, pp. 1018-1019. 

Speech by the Hon. Daniel A. Reed, a Representative from 
New York, delivered in the House of Representatives, De- 
cember 17, 1931, on certain charges made against George 



On George Washington 



33 



Washington in 1794 that may cause men in high places 
to reflect upon their responsibilities as representatives of 
the people. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 1, pp. 731-732. 

An address by the Hon. Sol Bloom, Associate Director of the 
United States George Washington Bi-centennial Commis- 
sion, delivered by radio, January 1, 1932, from the home 
of Mary Ball Washington, the mother of George 
Washington, at Fredericksburg, Virginia — printed in the 
Record, February 23, 1932, under extension of remarks. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 4, pp. 45 23-45 24. 

An address by the Hon. Sol Bloom, Associate Director of the 
United States George Washington Bi-centennial Commis- 
sion, delivered by radio, January 1, 1932, to the people of 
Somerville, Massachusetts, in connection with the George 
Washington Bi-centennial Celebration — printed in the Rec- 
ord, July 15, 1932, under extension of remarks. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 14, pp. 15 547- 
15548. 

Speech by the Hon. James M. Beck, a Representative from 
Pennsylvania, delivered in the House of Representatives, 
January 18, 193 2, on Benjamin Franklin, greatest con- 



temporary of George Washington, and his contribution 
to the foundation of the American commonwealth. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 2, pp. 2169-2172. 

Statement by Dr. George C. Havenner, Executive Vice- 
Chairman of the District of Columbia Commission, George 
Washington Bi-centennial, relative to the program for the 
observance, in the National Capital, of the bi-centennial of 
George Washington's birth — printed in the Record, Jan- 
uary 11, 1932, by request of the Hon. Gordon Brown- 
ing, a Representative from Tennessee. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 2, pp. 1720-1727. 

Statement by the Hon. Clifton A. Woodrum, a Representa- 
tive from Virginia, January 20, 1932, upon submitting to 
the House of Representatives, on behalf of the Joint Com- 
mittee, the Order of Arrangements for ceremonies on the 
part of the United States Congress, February 22, 1932, in 
commemoration of the two-hundredth anniversary of the 
birth of George Washington — printed in the Record, 
January 20, 1932, under extension of remarks. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 3, pp. 2342-2343. 

An address by the Hon. Sol Bloom, Associate Director of the 
U fitted States George Washington Bi-centennial Commis- 
sion, delivered by radio from Pohick Church in Virginia, 




Final Inaugural Address of George Washington, at Federal Hall, New York City, April 30, 1789 



34 



The United States Congress 



February 21, 193 2, on Sunday Reflections at Old Pobick 
Church where George Washington and his Family Wor- 
shipped — printed in the Record, February 23, 1932, under 
extension of remarks. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 4, pp. 4524-4 52 5. 

Addresses in Commemoration of the Two-Hundredth Anniver- 
sary of the Birth of George Washington, February 22, 1932, 
/;/ Joint Session of the House and Senate: 

Introductory address by the Hon. Simeon D. Fess, Vice-Chair- 
man of the United States George Washington Bi-centennial 
Commission, upon presenting the President of the United 
States. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 4, p. 4449. 

An address by Herbert Hoover, President of the United States, 
paying homage to George Washington, upon the bicen- 
tennial of his birthday, as one who contributed more to 
the origins of this mighty Nation than any other man, and 
the influence of whose character and achievements has 
contributed to the building of human freedom through- 
out the world. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 4, pp. 4449-4451. 

Addresses in Commemoration of the Two-Hundredth Anniver- 
sary of the Birth of George Washington, February 22, 1932, 
at the East Front of the United States Capitol: 

Address of welcome delivered by Dr. Luther H. Reichelder- 
fer, president of the Board of Commissioners of the Dis- 
trict of Columbia, before the throng attending the cere- 
monial in honor of Washington's birthday. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 4, pp. 4451-4552. 

An address by the Hon. James M. Beck, a Representative from 
Pennsylvania, paying homage to George Washington, 
upon the bi-centennial of his birthday, as the founder of 
this great Republic, which is his noblest monument, and 
which will remain as long as his people are faithful to his 
ideals of government. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 4, pp. 45 52-45 53. 

Other Tributes in Commemoration of the Two-Hundredth An- 
niversary of the Birth of George Washington: 

An article by Calvin Coolidge, former President of the United 
States, published in the Philadelphia Inquirer, February 21, 
1932, on the genius of George Washington in business 
and practical affairs — printed in the Record, February 22, 
1932, by request of the Hon. Bertrand H. Snell, a Repre- 
sentative from New York. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 4, pp. 44 5 3-445 5. 

A tribute to the character and the achievements of George 
Washington by Lord Brougham — read into the Record, 
February 23, 1932, by request of the Hon. William E. 
Borah, a Senator from Idaho. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 4, pp. 4479-4480. 

An address by Daniel Webster, a Senator from Massachusetts, 
delivered at a public dinner in the city of Washington, 
February 22, 1832, in honor of the one-hundredth birth- 
day of George Washington — printed in the Record, 



February 23, 1932, by request of the Hon. Simeon D. 
Fess, a Senator from Ohio. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 4, pp. 4480-4482. 

An address by the Hon. David I. Walsh, a Senator from Mass- 
achusetts, delivered at Wakefield and Somerville in Massa- 
chusetts, February 22, 1932, upon the occasion of the offi- 
cial opening of the bi-centennial celebration of George 
Washington's birth — printed in the Record, March 24, 
193 2, by request of the Hon. Simeon D. Fess, a Senator 
from Ohio. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 6, pp. 6784-6786. 



An address by the Hon. Sol Bloom, Associate Director of the 
United States George Washington Bi-centennial Commis- 
sion, delivered by radio from Washington, February 23, 
1932, upon the formal opening of the George Washington 
bi-centennial celebration — printed in the Record, under the 
extension of remarks. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 4, pp. 4525-4526; 
Part 14, p. 15 543. 

An address by the Hon. Allen T. Treadway, a Representa- 
tive from Massachusetts, February 22, 1932, at Alexan- 
dria-Washington Lodge No. 22, A. F. and A. M., at Alex- 
andria, Virginia, on the Opinions of great Men about 
Washington and his Life as a Mason — printed in the Rec- 
ord, February 23, 1932, by request of the Hon. Clifton 
A. Woodrum, a Representative from Virginia, under ex- 
tension of remarks. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 4, pp. 4517-4519. 

An address by Mr. John H. Newvahner, entitled George 
Washington the Mason, delivered, February 22, 1932, at 
the Masonic Banquet in Jackson, Ohio — printed in the Rec- 
ord, July 7, 1932, by request of the Hon. Thomas A. 
Jenkins, a Representative from Ohio. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 13, pp. 14828- 
14830. 

An address by the Hon. William N. Rogers, a Representative 
from New Hampshire, delivered before the New England 
Society, in the city of Washington, February 22, 1932, on 
George Washington the Statesman — printed in the Rec- 
ord, February 23, 1932, under extension of remarks. 
Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 4, p. 4513. 

An address by the Hon. Camilo Osias, Resident-Commissioner 
from the Philippine Islands, entitled "If Washington were 
here," delivered before the Maryland State Society of the 
Sons of the American Revolution, February 22, 1932, at a 
dinner in Baltimore, in commemoration of the two-hun- 
dredth anniversary of Washington's birthday — printed in 
the Record, February 23, 1932, by request of the Hon. 
J. Charles Linthicum, a Representative from Maryland. 
Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 4, pp. 4513-4515. 

An address in the House of Representatives by the Hon. Sol 
Bloom, Associate Director of the United States George 
Washington Bi-centennial Commission, February 23, 1932, 
in Explanation of the Date and Day of George Washing- 
ton's Birth, February 11, 1731, and how it corresponds 



On George Washington 



35 



with February 22, 1932, the Date we Celebrate — printed in 
the Record, March 12, 1932, under extension of remarks. 
Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 4, p. 4526. 

Tributes throughout the Union on dates other than the twenty- 
second of February recorded in the Official Proceedings of 
the United States Congress in Commemoration of the Bi-cen- 
tennial of the Birth of George Washington: 

An article by the Hon. R. Walton Moore, a former Member 
of the House of Representatives from the State of Virginia, 
published in the March issue of the journal of the American 
Bar Association under the title George Washington as a 
Judge — printed in the Record, March 4, 1932, by request 
of the Hon. Simeon D. Fess, a Senator from Ohio. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 5, pp. 523 6-5 23 8. 
[Journal of the American Bar Association, V. XVIII: 
No. 3, pp. 151-155.] 

Remarks in the Senate by the Hon. Simeon D. Fess, Vice- 
Chairman of the United States George Washington Bi-cen- 
tennial Commission, March 8, 1932, on the subject of the 
George Washington bi-centennial historical loan exhibition 
of portraits of George Washington and his associates, at 
the Corcoran Gallery of Art, in the city of Washington, 
from the 5th of March through the 24th of November, 
1932. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 5, pp. 5433-5434. 

An address on George Washington, written jointly by three 
high-school boys — printed in the Record, March 21, 1932, 
by request of the Hon. Royal S. Copeland, a Senator 
from New York. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 6, pp. 6528-6529. 

An address by the Hon. Simeon D. Fess, Vice-Chairman of the 
United States George Washington Bi-centennial Commis- 
sion, May 2, 1932, in which he reviews, in connection with 
the one hundred and forty-third anniversary of the inaug- 
uration of the first President of the United States, the 
opinions of British statesmen as to George Washington's 
contribution to the civilization of the world. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 8, p. 9297; Part 9, 
pp. 9372-9373. 

Remarks in the Senate, May 2, 193 2, with reference to the pro- 
posed publication of an edition of Selected Works of 
George Washington for general distribution through- 
out the United States. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 9, pp. 9373-9374: 
Hon. William E. Borah, a Senator from Idaho. 
Hon. Simeon D. Fess, z Senator from Ohio. 
Hon. Hcnrik Shipstead, a Senator from Minnesota. 

An address by the Hon. Harry L. Haines, a Representative 
from Pennsylvania, delivered at Whitehall, Maryland, Feb- 
ruary 27, 1932, on the Life of Washington and the Bi- 
centennial Celebration — printed in the Record, March 2, 
193 2, by request of the Hon. William P. Cole, a Repre- 
sentative from Maryland. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 5, pp. 5126-5128. 



An address by the Hon. Sol Bloom, Associate Director of the 
United States George Washington Bi-centennial Commis- 
sion, delivered by radio, March 17, 193 2, on the planting 
of flowers in memory of George Washington — printed 
in the Record, July 15, 1932, under extension of remarks. 
Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 14, p. 15 544. 

An address by the Hon. Sol Bloom, Associate Director of the 
United States George Washington Bi-centennial Commis- 
sion, delivered in the House of Representatives, March 22, 
193 2, on the centenary of the death of Johann Wolf- 
gang von Goethe, asking that Americans extend to the 
German people a fitting return for the honors they have 
tendered the memory of George Washington /';/ this bi- 
centennial year of his birth. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 6, p. 665 8. 

An address by the Hon. Sol Bloom, Associate Director of the 
United States George Washington Bi-centennial Commis- 
sion, delivered, April 6, 1932, before the Veterans of For- 
eign Wars, at York, Pennsylvania — printed in the Record, 
July 15, 1932, under extension of remarks. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 14, pp. 15 541- 
15542. 

An address by the Hon. Scott Leavitt, a Representative from 
Montana, delivered in Carnegie Hall, New York City, April 
12, 193 2, on Prosperity Preparedness, in which he declares 
"that much of the steadiness of thought and conduct of 
the American people in these trying days is due to the 
turning of the Nation's thought in this bi-centennial year 
to the steadfast character of Washington" — printed in 
the Record, April 21, 1932, by request of the Hon. Addi- 
son T. Smith, a Representative from Idaho. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 8, pp. 8607-8609. 

An address by the Hon. Sol Bloom, Associate Director of the 
United States George Washington Bi-centennial Commission, 
delivered by radio before the National Security League, April 
9, 193 2, on George Washington and National Security — 
printed in the Record, July 15, 1932, under extension of 
remarks. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 14, pp. 15 546- 
15547. 

An address by the Hon. Sol Bloom, Associate Director of the 
United States George Washington Bi-centennial Commis- 
sion, delivered under the Japanese cherry trees — at the 
Tidal Basin, Washington, April 13, 1932, after having in- 
troduced His Excellency the Japanese Ambassador — printed 
in the Record, July 15, 1932, under extension of remarks. 
Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 14, p. 15 539. 

An address by the Hon. Robert S. Hall, a Representative from 
Mississippi, April 18, 1932, on the proposed purchase of 
Mount Vernon by the Federal Government — printed in the 
Record under extension of remarks. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 8, pp. 8444-8446. 

An address by the Hon. John L. Cable, a Representative from 
Ohio, delivered in the House of Representatives, April 19, 



36 



The United States Congress 



1932, on George Washington to whom we owe American 
citizenship — our greatest heritage. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 8, pp. 8 52 5-8 527. 

An address by the Hon. Sol Bloom, Associate Director of the 
United States George Washington Bi-centennial Commission, 
delivered in Edenton, North Carolina, April 28, 1932, at the 
Unveiling of a Monument to Joseph Hewes, signer of the 
Declaration of Independence — printed in the Record, April 
30, 1932, by request of the Hon. Lindsay "Warren, a 
Representative from North Carolina. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 8, pp. 9304-930 5. 

An address by the Hon. C. O. Case, superintendent of public 
instruction for the State of Arizona, delivered April 30, 
1932, upon the presentation of the bust of George Wash- 
ington presented to that State by the United States Com- 
mission for the Celebration of the Two-Hundredth Anniver- 
sary of the Birth of George Washington — printed in the 
Record, May 10, 1932, by request of the Hon. Henry F. 
Ashurst, a Senator from Arizona. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 9, p. 9880. 

An address by His Excellency, George W. P. Hunt, Governor 
of Arizona, April 30, 1932, upon accepting on behalf of the 
State, the bust of George Washington presented by the 
United States George Washington Bi-centennial Commis- 
sion — printed in the Record, May 10, 1932, by request of 
the Hon. Henry F. Ashurst, a Senator from Arizona. 
Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 9, pp. 9880-9881. 

An address by the Hon. Sol Bloom, Associate Director of the 
United States George Washington Bi-centennial Commission, 
delivered at the Tomb of George Washington, Mount 
Vernon, Virginia, May 2, 193 2, under the auspices of the 
American Conference on Institutions for the Establishment 
of International Justice — printed in the Record under ex- 
tension of remarks. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 9, pp. 9448-9449. 

An address by the Hon. William L. Tierney, a Representative 
from Connecticut, delivered, May 3, 1932, before the Polish 
societies at Saint Michael's Church Hall in Bridgeport, Con- 
necticut, upon the joint anniversary of the first constitution 
of Poland and the bi-centennial of George Washington — 
printed in the Record, June 3, 193 2, under extension of re- 
marks. 

Congressional Record, V '. 75: Part 11, pp. 11903-11904. 

An address by the Hon. Sol Bloom, Associate Director of the 
United States George Washington Bi-centennial Commission, 
delivered at historic Fredericksburg, Virginia, May 6, 1931 — 
printed in the Record, July 15, 1932, under extension of 
remarks. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 14, pp. 15 5 54- 
15555. 

An address by the Hon. Sol Bloom, Associate Director of the 
United States George Washington Bi-centennial Commission, 
delivered by radio from Washington, May 10, 1931, on the 
Mother's Day Program in connection with the George Wash- 



ington Bi-centennial Celebration — printed in the Record, 
February 23, 1932, under extension of remarks. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 4, p. 4519. 

An address by the Hon. Sol Bloom, Associate Director of the 
United States George Washington Bi-centennial Commission, 
delivered by radio from Arlington Memorial Amphitheatre, 
on Memorial Day, May 3 0, 1931, in connection with the 
George Washington Bi-centennial Celebration — printed in 
the Record, July 15, 1932, under extension of remarks. 
Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 14, p. 155 53. 

An address by the Hon. Sol Bloom, Associate Director of the 
United States George Washington Bi-centennial Commission, 
delivered by radio from Washington, June 5, 1931, on 
George Washington and His Relationship to the South — 
printed in the Record, July 15, 1932, under extension of 
remarks. 

Congressional Record, V. 7 '5: Part 14, pp. 15552-15553. 

An address by the Hon. Sol Bloom, Associate Director of the 
United States George Washington Bi-centennial Commission, 
delivered by radio from the home of Betsy Ross in Philadel- 
phia, June 14, 1931, on the Observance of Flag Day in con- 
nection with the George Washington Bi-centennial Celebra- 
tion — printed in the Record, February 23, 1932, under ex- 
tension of remarks. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 4, pp. 4519-4520. 

An address by the Hon. Sol Bloom, Associate Director of the 
United States George Washington Bi-centennial Commission, 
delivered by radio from Independence Hall, Philadelphia, July 
4, 1931, on Independence Day Observance in connection 
with the George Washington Bi-centennial Celebration — 
printed in the Record, February 23, 1932, under extension 
of remarks. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 4, pp. 4520-4522. 

An address by the Hon. John M. Nelson, a Representative 
from Wisconsin, delivered July 17, 1931, at Madison, Wis- 
consin, upon the presentation of the bust of George Wash- 
ington presented to that State by the United States George 
Washington Bi-centennial Commission — printed in the 
Record, May 3, 1932, under extension of remarks. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 9, pp. 948 5-9487. 

An address by His Excellency, Philip F. LaFollette, Governor 
of the State of Wisconsin, July 17, 1931, upon accepting on 
behalf of the State the bust of George Washington — 
printed in the Record, May 3, 1932, by request of the Hon. 
John M. Nelson, a Representative from Wisconsin. 
Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 9, p. 9487. 

An address by the Hon. Sol Bloom, Associate Director of the 
United States George Washington Bi-centennial Commission, 
delivered by radio from Washington, August 15, 1931, for 
the National Grange on George Washington the Planter — 
printed in the Record, July 15, 1932, under extension of 
remarks. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 14, pp. 15550-155 51. 

An address by the Hon. Sol Bloom, Associate Director of the 
United States George Washington Bi-centennial Commission, 
delivered by radio from Fort Necessity in Pennsylvania, 



On George Washington 



37 



September 29, 1931, at the Fort Necessity ground-breaking 
ceremony, commemorating George Washington's first 
experience in battle — printed in the Record, February 23, 
1932, under extension of remarks. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 4, pp. 4522-4523. 

An address by the Hon. Sol Bloom, of New York, Associate Di- 
rector of the United States George Washington Bi-centennial 
Commission, delivered, December 8, 1931, before the Na- 
tional Rivers and Harbors Congress at the Willard Hotel in 
the city of Washington, under the title George Washington 
the Builder — printed in the Record, July 1 5, 1932, under ex- 
tension of remarks. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 14, pp. 15 565-15 567. 

An address by the Hon. Sol Bloom, Associate Director of the 

George Washington Bi-centennial Commission, delivered in 

the House of Representatives, May 11, 1932, under the title 

Washington was the First President of the United States. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 9, pp. 10040-10041. 

An address by the Hon. Clyde Kelly, a Representative from 
Pennsylvania, May 21, 1932, on the Washington Bi-cen- 
tennial and Post Office Day, July 26, 1932 — printed in the 
Record under extension of remarks. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 10, pp. 108 5 8-10864. 

An address by the Hon. Scott Leavitt, a Representative from 
Montana, delivered May 2 5, 193 2, upon the occasion of Me- 
morial Services in the House of Representatives — paying 
tribute to departed colleagues in this bi-centennial year 
especially set apart and dedicated to the memory of the im- 
mortal Washington "as being still of his devoted company 
in the eternal service of our country." 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 10, pp. 11155-11157. 

An address by the Hon. Hamilton Fish, Jr., a Representative 
from New York, delivered, May 28, 1932, at Temple Hill 
in the State of New York upon the occasion of the State- 
wide George Washington Bi-centennial Celebration — printed 
in the Record, June 3, 1932, under extension of remarks. 
Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 11, pp. 11906-11907. 

An address by the Hon. James A. Reed, a former United States 
Senator from the State of Missouri, delivered on Memorial 
Day, May 30, 1932, at Arlington National Cemetery upon 
the occasion of National Memorial Services in honor of the 
War-Dead — printed in the Record, May 31, 1932, by re- 
quest of the Hon. Clement C. Dickinson, a Representa- 
tive from Missouri. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 10, p. 11673. 

An address by the Hon. Sol Bloom, Associate Director of the 
United States George Washington Bi-centennial Commission, 
delivered by radio on Memorial Day, May 30, 1932, from 
Arlington National Cemetery under the title Remember the 
Soldiers of Long Ago — printed in the Record, June 8, 1932, 
by request of the Hon. Edward B. Almon, a Representa- 
tive from Alabama. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 11, p. 12362. 

An address by Commander William Seaman Bainbridge, de- 
livered on Memorial Day, May 30, 1932, upon the dedication 



of the Revolutionary Cemetery at Morristown, New Jersey, 
headquarters of General Washington's Army — printed 
in the Record, July 9, 1932, by request of the Hon. W. 
Warren Barbour, a Senator from New Jersey. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 14, pp. 14943-14944. 

An address by the Hon. Augustine Lonergan, a Representative 
from Connecticut, delivered in the House of Representa- 
tives, June 10, 1932, on John Hanson, President of the 
Continental Congress — printed in the Record under exten- 
sion of remarks. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 11, pp. 12584-12585. 

An address by the Hon. Sol Bloom, of New York, Associate 
Director of the United States George Washington Bi-cen- 
tennial Commission, delivered by radio, June 14, 1932, from 
the home of Francis Scott Key, in Georgetown, District 
of Columbia, on the significance of Flag Day in this year in 
which we celebrate the two-hundredth anniversary of the 
birth of George Washington — printed in the Record, 
June 18, 1932, under extension of remarks. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 12, pp. 13425-13426. 

An address by Mr. George Seibel, of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 
entitled "George Washington Among His Books" — 
printed in the Record, June 24, 1932, by request of the 
Hon. Gerald P. Nye, a Senator from North Dakota. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 13, pp. 13815-13816. 

An address by the Hon. Sol Bloom, Associate Director of the 
United States George Washington Bi-centennial Commission, 
delivered, June 30, 1932, before the Kiwanis Club and other 
civic groups in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, on Washington 
The Everyday Man — printed in the Record, July 6, 1932, 
by request of the Hon. C. Murray Turpin, a Representa- 
tive from Pennsylvania. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 13, pp. 14715-14717. 

An address by the Hon. Samuel B. Pettengill, a Representa- 
tive from Indiana, delivered in the House of Representatives, 
July 1, 1932, on Pulaski and Washington — printed in the 
Record under extension of remarks. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 13, p. 145 12. 

An address by the Hon. Charles A. Eaton, a Representative 
from New Jersey, delivered, July 4, 1932, at the Centennial 
Celebration in Buffalo, New York, under the title George 
Washington's Message to Modem America — printed in the 
Record, July 5, 1932, under extension of remarks. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 13, pp. 14611-14612. 

An address by the Hon. Anthony J. Griffin, a Representative 
from New York, delivered, July 4, 1932, at Saint Ann's 
Church in the Bronx, New York City, upon the Unveiling 
of a Memorial to Gouverneur Morris, friend and associate 
of George Washington — printed in the Record, July 5, 
193 2, under extension of remarks. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 13, pp. 14610-14611. 

An address by the Hon. Sol Bloom, of New York, Associate Di- 
rector of the United States George Washington Bi-centennial 
Commission, delivered by radio, July 4, 193 2, as part of the 



38 



The United States Congress 



Nation-wide Independence Day program of the American 
Farm Bureau Federation, /// commemoration of the two- 
hundredth anniversary of the birth of George Washing- 
ton — printed in the Record, July 15, 1932, under extension 
of remarks. 

Congressional Record , V '. 75: Part 14, pp. 15 532-15 5 33. 



An address by the Hon. Charles A. Wolverton, a Representa- 
tive from New Jersey, delivered in the House of Repre- 
sentatives, July 16, 1932, on General Casimir de Pulaski 
— A Polish Patriot in the Cause of American Independence — 
printed in the Record under extension of remarks. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 14, pp. 15766-15768. 



PART TWO 

Acts of Congress, Resolutions, Official Documents and Other Tributes 
in Honor of George Washington, 1789-1932 



FIRST SESSION OF THE FIRST CONGRESS: 

1789 

Ordered by the Senate of the United States, 6 April 1789, that 
Charles Thomson, Esq., wait upon George Washing- 
ton, Esq., with a certificate of his election to the office of 
President of the United States, and that Mr. Sylvanus 
Bourn wait upon John Adams, Esq., with a certificate of 
his election to the office of Vice-President of the United 
States. 

Journal of the Senate, pp. 8-9. 
[Annals of Congress, V. 1: p. 18.] 

Report — submitted to the Senate by Charles Thomson, Esq., 
2 5 April 1789, upon his return from Mount Vernon where, 
by order of the Senate, he delivered to General Washing- 
ton a certificate of his election to the office of President of 
the United States. 

American State Papers, Mis., V. 1: pp. 5-6. 

FIRST SESSION OF THE SECOND CONGRESS: 

1791-1792 

Resolution — moved in the House of Representatives, 6 December 
1791, and adopted: 
That Mr. Benson, Mr. Gerry, and Mr. Smith, of South 
Carolina, be appointed a committee on the part of this House, 
jointly with such committee as shall be appointed on the part 
of the Senate, to consider and report to Congress the most 
eligible manner for carrying into effect the resolution of the 
United States in Congress assembled, of the 7th of August 
1783, directing that an equestrian statue of General 
Washington should be erected. 

journal of the House of Representatives, p. 468. 

Journal of the Senate, p. 349. 

[Annals of Congress, V. 3: pp. 41-228.] 

FIRST SESSION OF THE SIXTH CONGRESS: 

1799-1800 

Message from John Adams, President of the United States, 19 
December 1799, transmitting to the Congress a letter from 
Tobias Lear, announcing the death of George Wash- 
ington. 

journal of the House of Representatives (5th and 6th 

Congresses), pp. 540-541. 
Journal of the Senate (6th, 7th, and 8th Congresses), 
p. 11. 



[Annals of Congress, V. 10: pp. 16, 205-206.] 
[American State Papers, Mis. V. 1: pp. 189-190.] 

From an Alexandria Paper of 21 December 1799: 

Statement signed by Dr. James Craik, attending physician 
and Dr. Elisha C. Dick, consulting physician, during the 
last illness and death of General Washington — printed, 
23 December 1799, in the record of Proceedings in the 
House of Representatives. 

Annals of Congress, V. 10: pp. 205-206. 

Resolutions upon receiving intelligence of the death of George 
Washington — submitted to the House of Representatives 
by the Hon. John Marshall, a Representative from Vir- 
ginia, 19 December 1799, and unanimously adopted: 

1. That this House will wait on the President of the United 
States in condolence of this national calamity. 

2. That the Speaker's chair be shrouded with black, and 
that the members and officers of the House wear mourning 
during the session. 

3. That a joint committee of both Houses be appointed to 
report measures suitable to the occasion 

Journal of the House of Representatives (5th and 6th 

Congresses) , p. 540. 
Journal of the Senate (6th, 7th, and 8th Congresses), 

p. 11. 
[Annals of Congress, V. 10: pp. 16-17, 204.] 

Joint Resolutions — reported to the Senate by the Hon. Jona- 
than Dayton, a Senator from New Jersey, 23 December 
1799, from the Joint Select Committee appointed, on the 
part of the Senate, 19 December 1799, on the receipt of the 
intelligence of the death of General George Washing- 
ton, to report measures suitable to the occasion. 
Journal of the Senate, p. 13. 
[Annals of Congress, V. 10: p. 19.] 
[American State Papers, Mis., V. 1: p. 191.] 

Joint Resolutions — reported to the House of Representatives by 
the Hon. John Marshall, a Representative from Virginia, 
2 3 December 1799, from the Joint Select Committee ap- 
pointed, on the part of the House, 19 December 1799, to 
report measures suitable to the occasion, and expressive of 
the profound sorrow with which Congress is penetrated on 
the loss of their highly valued fellow-citizen, George Wash- 
ington. 

Journal of the House of Representatives (5th and 6th 
Congresses), pp. 542-543. 

[Annals of Congress, V. 10: pp. 207-208.] 



On George Washington 



39 



Resolution — unanimously adopted by the House of Representa- 
tives, on motion made and seconded, 27 December 1799: 
That the Speaker present the thanks of this House to Major- 
General Lee, a Member of the House from the State of 
Virginia, for the oration delivered by him to both Houses 
of Congress on Thursday, the twenty-sixth instant, con- 
formably to the resolution of Congress, in honor of the 
memory of George Washington, late General of the 
Armies of the United States; and request that he will permit 
a copy thereof to be taken for publication. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 545. 
[Annals of Congress, V. 10: pp. 211-212.] 

Letter of the Hon. Theodore Sedgwick, Speaker of the House 
of Representatives, in pursuance of the resolution unani- 
mously adopted by the House, 27 December 1799, to make 
known to Major-General Henry Lee how highly they 
had been gratified with the manner in which he had per- 
formed the service assigned to him in preparing and deliver- 
ing an oration on the death of General Washington; and 
to request a copy of the oration for publication. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 545-546. 

[Annals of Congress, V. 10: pp. 222-223.] 

[American State Papers, Mis., V. 1: p. 192.] 
Resolution — reported to the House of Representatives by the 
Hon. John Marshall, a Representative from Virginia, 30 
December 1799, from the Joint Select Committee appointed 
to prepare and report measures in honor of the memory of 
George Washington, proposing that it be recommended 
to the people of the United States to assemble on the 22nd 
day of February, next, to testify publicly their grief for the 
death of General George Washington by suitable 
eulogies, orations, and discourses, or by public prayers . . . 
And . . . that the President of the United States be re- 
quested to recommend the same by proclamation 

Journal of the House of Representatives (5th and 6th 
Congresses), p. 547. 

Journal of the Senate (6th, 7th, and 8th Congresses), 
p. 16. 

[Annals of Congress, V. 10: pp. 22, 223.] 

Message from John Adams, President of the United States, 8 
January 1800, transmitting to the Congress a letter from 
Mrs. Washington in answer to the entreaty of the Presi- 
dent, in compliance with the resolution adopted by the 
Congress, 23 December 1799, that she assent to the inter- 
ment of General Washington's remains in the United 
States Capitol. 

Journal of the Senate, pp. 18-19. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 5 54-5 5 5. 

[Annals of Congress, V. 10: pp. 24, 284-285.] 

[American State Papers, Mis., V. 1: p. 19 5.] 
Resolution — adopted by the Senate, on motion made and sec- 
onded, 21 February 1800: 

Resolved, That the Senate will tomorrow, at half -past twelve 
o'clock, meet at the Senate chamber, and from thence walk 
in procession to the German Calvinist Church in Race street, 
to hear the eulogium pronounced on the character of 
General Washington. 



Journal of the Senate, p. 3 3. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 600. 

[Annals of Congress, V. 10: pp. 50, 536.] 

House bill (H.R. No. 230) — submitted to the House of Repre- 
sentatives by the Hon. Henry Lee, a Representative from 
Virginia, 28 March 1800, extending to Martha Washing- 
ton the privilege of franking letters and packages for and 
during her life. — Approved, 3 April 1800. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 644, 646, 

648, 650, 651, 652. 
[Annals of Congress, V. 10: pp. 147, 148, 647, 649.] 

Resolutions — reported by the Hon. Henry Lee, a Representa- 
tive from Virginia, 3 May 1800, from the Joint Select Com- 
mittee appointed to prepare and report measures in honor of 
the memory of George Washington. 

Resolved, That the resolution of Congress, passed in 1783, 
respecting an equestrian statue of General Washington, 
be carried into immediate execution, and that the statue be 
placed in the centre of an area to be formed in front of the 
Capitol. 

Resolved, That a marble monument be erected by the 
United States in the Capitol at the city of Washington in 
honor of General Washington. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 703, 704. 
[Annals of Congress, V. 10: p. 708.] 
[American State Papers, Mis., V. 1: p. 214.] 

House bill (H.R. No. 268) — submitted in the House of Repre- 
sentatives by the Hon. Thomas Evans, a Representative 
from Virginia, 9 May 1800, authorizing the erection of a 
mausoleum for George Washington in the City of Wash- 
ington. — Postponed in the Senate. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 70 5, 709, 

714. 
[Annals of Congress, V. 10: pp. 178, 181, 711, 712.] 

SECOND SESSION OF THE SIXTH CONGRESS: 
1800-1801 

House bill (H.R. No. 270) — reported to the House of Repre- 
sentatives by the Hon. Henry Lee, a Representative from 
Virginia, 2 December 1800, from the Joint Select Commit- 
tee appointed to prepare and report measures in honor of the 
memory of George Washington, directing that a mauso- 
leum be erected in his honor. 1 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 73 3, 73 8. 
[Annals of Congress, V. 10: pp. 796, 799, 817, 818.] 

House bill (H.R. No. 274) reported by the Hon. Henry Lee, a 
Representative from Virginia, 19 December 1800, from the 
Joint Select Committee to whom was re-committed the bill 
(H.R. No. 270) for the erection of a Mausoleum for Gen- 



by Mr. Champlin, of Rhode Island, this bill was re-commit- 
ted to the Joint Select Committee, 10 December 1800, with instruc- 
tions to inquire into the expediency of adopting measures to carry 
into effect a resolution passed by Congress, 7 August 1783, directing 
that an equestrian statue of General Washington be erected at the 
place where the residence of Congress shall be established. Accordingly 
Major-General Henry Lee reported another bill (H. R. No. 274) 
as cited above. 



40 



The United States Congress 



eral Washington — recommending an adherence to the 
plan heretofore adopted by the House of Representatives for 
the erection of a monument and an equestrian statue in honor 
of General Washington. — Postponed in the Senate. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 743, 746, 

749, 785, 839, 842. 
{Annals of Congress, V. 10: (House) pp. 837, 8 5 5, 
874, 875, 1003, 1071-1072; (Senate), pp. 732, 733. 
735, 736, 737, 738, 758.] 
[American State Papers, Mis., V. 1: pp. 215-216.] 

FIRST SESSION OF THE FOURTEENTH CONGRESS: 
1815-1816 
Report — submitted in the House of Representatives by the Hon. 
Benjamin Huger, a Representative from South Carolina, 
14 March 1816, from the Joint Committee appointed under 
a resolution of the 16th of February 1816 to examine into 
the proceedings of a former Congress, tipon the death of 
General Washington, and to take into consideration what 
further measures it may be expedient to adopt at the present 
time in relation to that solemn and interesting subject. 
[Annals of Congress, V. 29: pp. 1212, 145 8.] 
[American State Papers, Mis., V. 2: p. 298.] 

SECOND SESSION OF THE FIFTEENTH CONGRESS: 

1818-1819 
Resolution — submitted in the Senate by the Hon. Robert H. 
Goldsborough, a Senator from Maryland, 2 5 November 
1818, proposing to erect a monument over the remains of 
General Washington where they now lie. 

Journal of the Senate, pp. 32, 41, 44, 134, 160, 2 52- 

253. 
{Annals of Congress, V. 33: pp. 23, 26, 31, 3 3, 111- 

112, 162, 164, 228, 229.] 
[S. Doc. No. 7 Serial 14.] 

FIRST SESSION OF THE SIXTEENTH CONGRESS: 

1819-1820 
Resolutions — submitted in the House of Representatives by the 
Hon. James Ervin, a Representative from South Carolina, 
6 April 1820, requesting that the President of the United 
States take measures to have the remains of the late General 
Washington brought to the Capitol, that he cause to be 
erected over them a suitable mausoleum, and that he cause 
to be procured an equestrian statue of bronze, to be placed 
on the top of the said mausoleum. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 3 83-3 84. 
[Annals of Congress, V. 36: pp. 1792-1793.] 

FIRST SESSION OF THE EIGHTEENTH CONGRESS: 
1823-1824 
Joint Resolution — submitted in the Senate by the Hon. Rich- 
ard M. Johnson, a Senator from Kentucky, 23 March 
1824, authorizing the President of the United States to pro- 
cure an equestrian portrait of Washington. 
journal o) the Senate pp. 243, 245. 
[ Annals of Congress, V. 41: pp. 417-418.] 
Resolution — submitted in the House of Representatives by the 
Hon. James Buchanan, a Representative from Pennsyl- 



vania, 15 January 1824, proposing that a committee be ap- 
pointed to inquire in what manner the resolution of Con- 
gress passed, 23 December 1799, relative to the erection of 
a marble monument, in the Capitol, at the city of Wash- 
ington, in honor of General Washington may be best 
accomplished. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 148. 

[Annals of Congress, V. 41: p. 1044.] 

FIRST SESSION OF THE NINETEENTH CONGRESS: 

1825-1826 

Report — submitted to the House of Representatives by the Hon. 
Louis McLane, a Representative from Delaware, 28 April 
1826, from the Committee on Ways and Means, accom- 
panied by a bill authorizing the Washington Monument 
Association of Massachusetts to import into Boston, free of 
duty, from the city of London, a statue of George Wash- 
ington by Chantrey. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 379, 483, 

558, 561, 618, 630, 632, 634. 
[H. Rept. No. 181 . . . . Serial 142] 

FIRST SESSION OF THE TWENTY-FIRST CONGRESS: 

1829-1830 

Resolution — adopted in the House of Representatives, on motion 
by the Hon. George Edward Mitchell, a Representative 
from Maryland, 22 February 1830: 

Resolved, That the resolutions of the Congress of the United 
States unanimously adopted on the 23rd of December, 1799, 
and the Message of President Adams on the 8 th of January, 
1800, 1 to the Congress, respecting the entombment of the 
remains of General George Washington in this Capitol, 
be referred to a select committee, and that the said commit- 
tee be authorized to report by bill or otherwise. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 3 27. 

Report — submitted to the House of Representatives by the Hon. 
George Edward Mitchell, a Representative from Mary- 
land, 15 March 183 0, from the Select Committee upon the 
subject of a national entombment of the remains of the late 
General George Washington in the United States Capi- 
tol, and the erection of a full-length pedestrian statue in his 
honor. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 327, 441. 
[H. Rept. No. 318 .... Serial 201.] 

FIRST SESSION OF THE TWENTY-SECOND CONGRESS: 

1831-1832 

Joint Resolution — submitted in the Senate by the Hon. Henry 
Clay, a Senator from Kentucky, 13 February 183 2, author- 
izing the President of the Senate and the Speaker of the 
House of Representatives to make application to Mr. John 
A. Washington, of Mount Vernon, for the body of 
George Washington to be removed and deposited in the 






These papers are embodied in the Report of the Select Committee; and, 
also, printed 22 February 1830 in the House journal. 



On George Washington 



41 



Capitol, at the city of Washington on the 22nd day of Feb- 
ruary 1832. 

Journal of the Senate, p. 131. 

Debates in Congress, V. 8: Part 1, pp. 369, 390-391, 
414. 

Report — submitted to the Senate by the Hon. Henry Clay, a 
Senator from Kentucky, 13 February 1832, from the Joint 
Committee appointed to make arrangements for the pur- 
pose of celebrating the centennial birthday of George 
Washington. 2 

Journal of the Senate, pp. 117, 129-131. 

[Debates in Congress, V. 8: Part 1, pp. 295-296, 367- 

369.] 
[S. Doc. No. 62 ... . Serial 213.] 

Joint Resolution — adopted in the Senate, 20 February 183 2, on 
motion by Mr. Clay, of Kentucky, and by unanimous con- 
sent: 

That, in respect to the centennial birthday of George 
Washington, the two Houses will adjourn frcm the 21st 
to the 23 rd of the present month. . . . 

Journal of the Senate, p. 144. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 3 92. 

Joint Resolution — submitted in the House of Representatives by 
the Hon. Philemon Thomas, a Representative from 
Louisiana, 3 February 1832, that, if the Senate concur herein, 
a joint committee of the two Houses be appointed for the 
purpose of making arrangements for the celebration of the 
centennial birthday of George Washington. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 249, 283, 

302. 
[Debates in Congress, V. 8: Part 2, pp. 1732-1733.] 

Report — submitted to the House of Representatives by the Hon. 
Philemon Thomas, a Representative from Louisiana, 13 
February 1832, from the Joint Committee appointed to 
make arrangements for the purpose of celebrating the cen- 
tennial birthday of George Washington. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 339-340, 

343, 350, 351, 366, 392, 393. 
[Debates in Congress, V. 8: Part 2, pp. 1782, 1808- 

1809.] 
[See S. Doc. No. 62 ... . Serial 213.] 

Joint Resolution — submitted in the House of Representatives by 
the Hon. Philemon Thomas, a Representative from 
Louisiana, 13 February 1832, authorizing the President of 
the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives 
to make application to Mr. John A. Washington, of 
Mount Vernon, for the body of George Washington to be 
removed and deposited in the Capitol on the 22nd day of 
February 183 2. 



Embodied in the Report from the Select Committee appointed to make 
arrangements for the celebration of the centennial of the birth of 
George Washington will be found the letter, signed by Henry 
Clay, on the part of the Senate, inviting Chief-Justice Marshall 
to make the principal address upon the occasion, and the reply of the 
Chief-Justice, declining the honor on account of his advanced age. 



Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 340. 

[Debates in Congress, V. 8: Part 2, p. 1782.] 
Joint Resolution — submitted in the House of Representatives by 
the Hon. James Bates, a Representative from Maine, 14 
February 1832, authorizing the President of the Senate and 
the Speaker of the House of Representatives to make ap- 
plication to Mr. John A. Washington, of Mount Vernon, 
and to Mr. George Washington Parke Custis, grandson 
of Mrs. Washington, for the remains of Mrs. Washing- 
ton to be removed to the Capitol at the same time with 
those of General Washington. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 343, 3 50. 

[Debates in Congress, V. 8: Part 1, pp. 390-391; Part 
2, p. 1811.] 

Letter from John Augustine Washington, dated at Mount 
Vernon, 15 February 1832 — written in response to the re- 
quest on the part of the United States Congress, 14 Febru- 
ary 1832, for his consent to the removal of the remains of 
General George Washington and of Martha Wash- 
ington to the United States Capitol. 

Journal of the Senate, pp. 140-141. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 366-367. 

[Debates, V. 8: Part 1, pp. 414-41 5; Part 2, pp. 1818- 
1819.] 
Letter from George Washington Parke Custis, dated at Ar- 
lington House, Tuesday night, 14 February 183 2 — written 
in response to the request on the part of the United States 
Congress, 14 February 183 2, for his consent to the removal 
of tbe remains of Mrs. Martha Washington to be de- 
posited at the same time with those of her husband in the 
United States Capitol. 

Journal of the Senate, pp. 140-141. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 367-368. 

[Debates, V. 8: Part 1, p. 415; Part 2, p. 1819.] 
Letter from Francis T. Brooke, 24 February 1832 — transmit- 
ting to the United States Congress a letter from the Gover- 
nor of the State of Virginia, and certain resolutions adopted 
by the General Assembly of that State with regard to the 
contemplated removal of the remains of George Washing- 
ton from Mount Vernon to the United States Capitol. 

Journal of the Senate, pp. 150-151. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 404-405. 

[Debates, V. 8: Part 2, pp. 1857-1858.] 

[H. Ex. Doc. No. 124 . . . . Serial 219] 
Joint Resolution (S.J. Res. No. 4) — submitted in the Senate by 
the Hon. George Poindexter, a Senator from Mississippi, 
2 5 April 1832, authorizing the President of the United 
States to contract for a full-length pedestrian statue of 
George Washington. — Provided for in Appropriation bill 
H.R.No. 60 1. 1 

'A resolution, reported by Mr. Jarvis, of Maine, 14 February 1832, from 
the Committee on Public Buildings for the same object, was passed by 
the House; but the Senate resolution (S.J. Res. No. 4) seems to have 
been provided for in the appropriation bill. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 342. 

[Debates. V. 8: Part 2, pp. 1809-1810, 1830, 2175.] 

[See H. Rept. No. 45 9 . . . Serial 226.] 



42 



The United States Congress 



Journal of the Senate, pp. 257, 258, 264, 3 5 5, 367, 369. 
Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 1025, 

1152, 1153. 
[Debates, V. 8: Part 1, pp. 867, 1126, 1127; Part 2, 

p. 2175.] 

Resolution — submitted in the Senate by the Hon. Theodore 
Frelinghuysen, a Senator from New Jersey, 27 April 
1832, proposing that the Committee on the Library, on the 
part of the Senate, inquire into the expediency of purchasing 
from Mr. Rembrandt Peale, of New York, his original 
portrait of George Washington. 

Journal of the Senate, pp. 259, 365, 382. 
[Debates in Congress, V. 8: Part 1, pp. 866-867.] 

Joint Resolution — submitted in the Senate by the Hon. Asher 
Robbins, a Senator from Rhode Island, 24 May 1832, pro- 
posing that the Committee on the Library be instructed to 
inquire into the expediency of procuring an equestrian statue 
of General Washington to be erected in the square east 
of the Capitol, in the city of Washington. 

Journal of the Senate, pp. 298, 480. 
[Debates in Congress, V. 8: Part 1, p. 951.] 

Resolution — reported to the House of Representatives by the 
Hon. Leonard Jarvis, a Representative from Maine, 27 
February 1832, proposing that the Clerk of the House be 
directed to employ John Vanderlyn, of New York, to 
paint a full-length portrait of George Washington to 
be placed in the Hall of Representatives 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 342, 376. 
[Debates in Congress, V. 8: Part 2, p. 1809.] 

Report — submitted to the House of Representatives by the Hon. 
Edward Everett, a Representative from Massachusetts, 30 
April 1832, from the Joint Committee on the Library, who 
were instructed, by the Senate, to inquire into the exped- 
iency of procuring a pedestrian statue of Washington, to 
be placed in the rotunda of the Capitol. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 67<*. 
[H. Rept. No. 459 ... . Serial 226.] 

SECOND SESSION OF THE TWENTY-SECOND 
CONGRESS: 1832-1833 
Message from Andrew Jackson, President of the United States, 
21 December 1832, transmitting to the Congress a com- 
munication from the Secretary of State, enclosing a corre- 
spondence between him and the artist employed to execute 
the statue of Washington that is to be placed in the 
rotunda of the Capitol. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 87. 

[Messages and Papers of the Presidents, V. 3: pp. 1170- 

1171.] 

Report — submitted in the House of Representatives by Hon. 

Leonard Jarvis, a Representative from Maine, 2 January 

1833, from the Committee on Public Buildings, to whom 

was referred the Message of the President of the United 

States, transmitting a communication from the Secretary 

of State, enclosing a correspondence between him and the 



artist employed to execute the statue of Washington that 
is to be placed in the rotunda of the Capitol. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 87, 121. 

[H. Rept. No. 21 ... . Serial 236.] 

FIRST SESSION OF THE TWENTY-THIRD CONGRESS: 

1833-1834 
House bill (H.R. No. 446) — reported to the House of Repre- 
sentatives by the Hon. William S. Archer, a Representa- 
tive from Virginia, 24 April 1834, from the Committee on 
Foreign Affairs, to enable the Secretary of State to pur- 
chase the papers and books of General Washington. — 
Approved, 3 June 1834. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 5 60, 847, 

867, 872, 889, 914, 915, 916. 
[Debates in Congress, V. 10: Part 4, pp. 4781-4782, 
4796.] 
Report — submitted to the House of Representatives by the Hon. 
William S. Archer, a Representative from Virginia, 1 
April 1834, from the Committee on Foreign Affairs, to 
whom was referred, 11 March 1834, a resolution instructing 
them to inquire into the expediency of purchasing the library 
and the official and private manuscript papers of General 
Washington, to be deposited in the Department of State. 
Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 397, 469, 

560. 
[H. Rept. No. 381 . . . . Serial 262. J 
Resolution — reported to the House of Representatives by the 
Hon. Leonard Jarvis, a Representative from Maine, 14 
June 1834, from the Committee on Public Buildings, 
directing the Clerk of the House to pay to John Vander 
lyn fifteen hundred dollars as additional compensation fol 
the full length portrait of Washington, executed by him. 
to be placed in the Hall of Representatives, in pursuance of 
a resolution of the House, 17 February 1832. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 8 5 5. 
[Debates in Congress, V. 10: Part 4, p. 4787.] 

SECOND SESSION OF THE TWENTY-THIRD CONGRESS: 

1834-1835 
Joint Resolution (H.J. Res. No. 14) — reported to the House of 
Representatives by the Hon. Edward Everett, a Represen- 
tative from Massachusetts, 8 January 183 5, from the Com- 
mittee on the Library, permitting Jared Sparks to retain 
Washington's papers until otherwise ordered by Congress. 
— Negatived in the House. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 18 3, 191. 
[Debates in Congress, V. 11: Part 1, pp. 966, 976- 
978.] 
House bill (H.R. No. 5 51) — reported to the House of Repre- 
sentatives (in the preceding session) by the Hon. Edward 
Everett, a Representative from Massachusetts, 2 5 June 
1834, from the Committee on the Library, making provi- 
sion for the purchase of the fuc simile of George Wash- 
ington's accounts. — Laid on table, 28 February 183 5. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 3 3 0, 3 51. 
Journal of the Senate, pp. 151, 15 3, 162, 209. 



On George Washington 



43 



Joint Resolution — submitted in the House of Representatives by 
the Hon. Henry A. Wise, a Representative from Virginia, 
16 February 183 5, authorizing the purchase of one thou- 
sand copies of the works of General George Washington 
from Russell Odiorne and Company. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 398-399. 
[Debates in Congress, V. 11: Part 2, pp. 1401-1402.] 

FIRST SESSION OF THE TWENTY-FOURTH CONGRESS: 

1835-1836 

Report — submitted in the House of Representatives by the Hon. 
Amos Lane, a Representative from Indiana, 24 March 
183 6, from the Committee on the District of Columbia, 
accompanied by a bill (H.R. No. 487) authorizing the 
Washington National Monument Society to erect a monu- 
ment to the memory of George Washington on the public 
mall. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 5 59, 1092, 
1093. 

Journal of the Senate, pp. 477, 478, 491. 

[Debates in Congress, V. 12: Part 4, pp. 4490-4491.] 

[H. Rcpt. No. 483 . . . . Serial 294.] 

SECOND SESSION OF THE TWENTY-FIFTH CONGRESS: 

1837-1838 
Petition of John Ely, a soldier of the Revolution, imploring Con- 
gress to consider and decide on the propriety of erecting a 
monument to George Washington at Mount Vernon, on 
the spot where his ashes arc now at rest. — Presented in the 
Senate, 3 January 183 8, by James Buchanan, a Senator 



from Pennsylvania; presented in the House of Representa- 
tives, 3 January 183 8, by Charles Naylor, a Representa- 
tive from Pennsylvania. 

Journal of the Senate, p. 102. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 202. 

[S. Doc. No. 67 ... . Serial 314.] 
House bill (H.R. No. 473) — reported to the House of Represen- 
tatives by the Hon. Daniel Jenifer, a Representative from 
Maryland, 2 5 January 1838, from the Committee on the 
District of Columbia, authorizing the officers and managers 
of the Washington Monument Society to erect a monument 
to George Washington on the public mall} 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 3 14-315, 
375, 1109. 

Journal of the Senate, pp. 214, 222, 233, 473. 

[Congressional Globe, V. 6: Part 1, pp. 13 5, 172, 178, 
454.] 

FIRST SESSION OF THE TWENTY-SIXTH CONGRESS: 

1839-1840 
Joint Resolution (S.J. Res. No. 8) — submitted in the Senate by 
the Hon. William C. Preston, a Senator from South 



'A memorial from the committee of the Board and Managers of the Washing- 
ton National Monument Society was presented in the House of Representa- 
tives, 29 December 18 37, by the Hon. William C. Johnson, of 
Maryland, requesting the United States Congress to grant one of the 
public squares in the city of Washington for the site of a contemplated 
monument to the memory of George Washington. The memorial was 
referred to the Committee on the District of Columbia; on the 2Sth of 
January 1838, the Committee reported a bill, as cited above; the bill, 
which passed the House, was postponed indefinitely in the Senate. 




First Presidential Mansion, Franklin Square, New York City, 1789 



44 



The United States Congress 



Carolina, 9 April 1840, authorizing the Committee on the 

Library to take measures for the importation of the statue 

of Washington by Greenough. — Approved 27 May 1840. 

Journal of the Senate, pp. 293, 3 03, 3 07, 3 87, 391, 392, 

393, 394, 400. 
Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 794, 795, 

988-989, 1023, 1025, 10S9. 
[Congressional Globe, V. 8: Part 1, pp. 310, 3 20, 3 25.] 

Documents — submitted in the House of Representatives by the 
Hon. Levi Lincoln, a Representative from Massachusetts, 
5 March 1840, from the Committee on Public Buildings, 
giving estimates by Robert Mills, architect of public 
buildings, relative to the cost of preparing suitable founda- 
tions for supporting the statue of Washington in the 
centre of the rotunda of the Capitol. 

[H. Doc. No. 124 . . . . Serial 365.] 

FIRST SESSION OF THE TWENTY-SEVENTH CONGRESS: 
1841 

Message from John Tyler, President of the United States, 
2 August 1841, transmitting to the House of Representa- 
tives certain documents relative to the statue of George 
Washington, by Greenough, and asking an appropriation 
for the payment of transportation expenses. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 317-318. 
[H. Doc. No. 45 . . . . Serial 392.] 

Letter from George E. Badger, Secretary of the Navy, 13 Au- 
gust 1841, transmitting to Millard Fillmore, chairman 
of the Committee on Ways and Means, the receipt of the 
officer in command at the Navy Yard, in the city of Wash- 
ington, for the statue of George Washington by Green- 
ough. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 361. 
[H. Doc. No. 5 3 . . . . Serial 392.] 

House bill (H.R. No. 29) — reported to the House of Represen- 
tatives by the Hon. Thomas W. Gilmer, a Representative 
from Virginia, 16 August 1841, to provide for placing 
Greenough's statue of Washington in the rotunda of the 
Capitol. — Approved, 9 September 1841. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 3 58, 421, 

459, 464, 484. 
journal of the Senate, pp. 217, 218, 232, 237, 239, 253. 

SECOND SESSION OF THE TWENTY-SEVENTH 
CONGRESS: 1841-1842 

Joint Resolution — subnrtted in the Senate by the Hon. Wil- 
liam C. Preston, a Senator from South Carolina, 22 
December 1841, proposing that a joint committee be ap- 
pointed, to consist of three on the part of the Senate, to 
meet a committee on the part of the House, to arrange the 
placing of the statue of Washington in the rotunda, and 
to direct the details of the pedestal. 

Journal of the Senate, pp. 47, 54. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 92, 101. 

[Congressional Globe, V. 1 1 : Part 1, p. 48.] 



TFIIRD SESSION OF THE TWENTY-SEVENTH 
CONGRESS: 1842-1843 

Memorial of Horatio Greenough, sculptor, requesting the 
removal of the statue of Washington from its present 
position in the rotunda to the grounds in front of the 
western facade of the Capitol — presented in the House of 
Representatives, 10 January 1843, by the Hon. John 
Quincy Adams, a Representative from Massachusetts; pre- 
sented in the Senate, 11 January 1843, by the Hon. Isaac 
C. Bates, a Senator from Massachusetts. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 167-168. 

Journal of the Senate, pp. 92, 100. 

[S. Doc. No. 57 . . . . Serial 414.] 

Joint Resolution (H.J.Res. No. 43) — reported to the House of 
Representatives by the Hon. Joseph L. Tillinghast, a 
Representative from Rhode Island, 22 February 1843, from 
the Joint Committee on the Library, to whom was referred 
the memorial of Horatio Greenough, sculptor, request- 
ing the removal of the statue of Washington from the 

rotunda of the Capitol 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 429, 5 50. 
[H. Rept. No. 219 . . . . Serial 427.] 
Joint Resolution (H.J.Res. No. 35) — moved in the House of 
Representatives by the Hon. John Quincy Adams, a Rep- 
resentative from Massachusetts, 7 February 1843, presenting 
the thanks of Congress to Samuel T. Washington for the 
service sword of General Washington and the staff of 
Benjamin Franklin. — 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 333, 338, 

419. 
Journal of the Senate, pp. 15 8, 194, 203. 
[See H. Doc. No. 11 (28th Congress, 1st Ses- 
sion) Serial 439.] 

Ordered by the House of Representatives, 7 February 1843 — on 
motion by Mr. Taliaferro, a Representative from Vir- 
ginia, that the addresses by Mr. Summers and Mr. Adams, 
accepting the sword of Washington and the staff of 
Franklin be entered on the Journal. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 33 3. 

[Congressional Globe, V. 12: p. 2 5 5.] 

[H. Doc. No. 144 .... Serial 421.] 

Resolution — moved in the House of Representatives by the Hon. 
John Taliaferro, a Representative from Virginia, 8 
February 1843, that 20,000 copies be printed of the full 
journal of the proceedings of the House of Representatives 
upon the presentation to the Nation of Washington's 
sword a in! Franklin's staff. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 3 34. 
[Congressional Globe, V. 12: p. 2 56.] 

FIRST SESSION OF THE TWENTY-EIGHTH CONGRESS: 

1883-1884 
Message from John Tyler, President of the United States, 16 
December 1843, relative to the presentation to the Nation 
of Washington's sword and Franklin's staff. 



On George Washington 



45 



journal of the House of Representatives, p. 5 8. 
[Congressional Globe, V. 13: Part 1, p. 40.] 
[H. Doc. No. 11 . . . . Serial 439.] 
Joint Resolution (H.J. Res. No. 9) — reported to the House of 
representatives by the Hon. Edmund Burke, a Representa- 
tive from New Hampshire, 15 February 1844, from the 
Committee on the Library, accepting the sword of Wash- 
ington and the staff of Franklin. — Approved, 4 March 
1844. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 404, 440, 

518, 520. 
journal of the Senate, pp. 124, 129, 13 5, 147, 15 2. 
Joint Resolution (H.J. Res. No. 27) — submitted in the House of 
Representatives by the Hon. John Quincy Adams, a Rep- 
resentative from Massachusetts, 18 April 1844, accepting 
the camp chest of General Washington. — Approved, 3 
April 1844. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 819, 829, 

845, 863, 873. 
journal of the Senate, pp. 247, 249, 259, 263. 
Joint Resolution (H.J. Res. No. 28) — submitted in the House of 
Representatives by the Hon. John Quincy Adams, a Rep- 
resentative from Massachusetts, 18 April 1844, that the Sen- 
ate and House of Representatives take pleasure in recog- 
nizing to the widow and family of the late William Syd- 
ney Winder their high sense of the value of the bequest 
contained in his will, and in expressing their respect for the 
memory of the donor. — Approved, 30 April 1844. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 819, 829, 

845, 863, 873. 
journal of the Senate, pp. 247, 249, 2 59, 263. 
[Congressional Globe, V. 13: Part 1, pp. 5 3 6, 5 3 7.] 
Resolution — moved in the House of Representatives by the Hon.. 
John P. Kennedy, a Representative from Maryland, 18 
April 1844, that the letters and papers accompanying the 
bequest of the camp chest of General Washington by 
the late William Sydney Winder, of Maryland, be entered 

upon the Journal 

journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 817-819. 
[Congressional Globe, V 13: Part 1, p. 5 3 6.] 
Joint Resolution (H.J. Res. No. 23) — reported to the House of 
Representatives by the Hon. Zadock Pratt, a representa- 
tive from New York, 12 April 1844, from the Committee 
on Public Buildings, relative to the erection of a national 

monument on public grounds 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 778, 813. 
[H. Refit. No. 434 ... . Serial 446.] 
Resolution — reported to the House of Representatives by the 
Hon. Samuel Simons, a Representative from Connecti- 
cut, 18 April 1844, from the Committee on Engraving, to 
whom was referred the joint resolution (H.J. Res. No. 23) 
relative to the erection of a national monument on public 

grounds 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 813. 
[Congressional Globe, V. 13: Part 1, pp. 53 3-534.] 



Report — submitted in the House of Representatives by the Hon. 
Zadock Pratt, a Representative from New York, 2 5 May 
1844, from the Committee on Public Buildings and 
Grounds, to accompany the joint resolution (H.J. Res. No. 
33) relative to fencing and laying out Monument Square. 
Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 969. 
[Congressional Globe, V. 13: Part 1, p. 62 3.] 
[H. Rcpt. No. 514 . . . . Serial 446.] 

Joint Resolution — reported to the House of Representatives by 
the Hon. Zadock Pratt, a Representative from New 
York, 2 5 May 1844, from the Committee on Public Build- 
ings and Grounds, proposing to remove and make sale of the 
building in which the statue of Washington has been 
placed; and, with the money arising from such sale, to 
enclose the statue with a suitable railing. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 969. 
[Congressional Globe, V. 13: Part 1, pp. 62 3-624.] 

Resolution — submitted in the Senate by the Hon. Daniel E. 
Huger, a Senator from South Carolina, 10 May 1844, pro- 
posing that the Committee on Public Buildings be instructed 
to inquire if it would not be more appropriate to remove 
the naval monument, on the west of the Capitol, to the 
navy yard, and substitute in its place the statue of Wash- 
ington by Greenough. 

Journal of the Senate, p. 273. 

[Congressional Globe, V. 13: Part 1, p. 589.] 

Report — submitted in the Senate by the Hon. Isaac C. Bates, a 
Senator from Massachusetts, 15 June 1844, from the Com- 
mittee on Pensions, to whom was referred the resolution, 
introduced on March the 6th by the Hon. William S. 
Archer, of Virginia, instructing the Committee to inquire 
into the expediency of transferring a part of the Wash- 
ington Papers from the State Department to the Depart- 
ment of War. 

Journal of the Senate, pp. 150, 154, 368. 



[S. Doc. No. 3 98 



Serial 436.] 



SECOND SESSION OF THE TWENTY-EIGHTH 
CONGRESS: 1844-1845 

Resolution — submitted in the Senate by the Hon. John J. Crit- 
tenden, a Senator from Kentucky, 20 January 1845, pro- 
posing that the Committee on the Library be instructed to 
inquire into the expediency and propriety of employing 
Luigi Persico to execute, for the United States, an eques- 
trian statue, in bronze, of George Washington. 
Journal of the Senate, p. 96. 

[Congressional Globe, V. 14: Part 1, p. 156.] 

Joint Resolution — reported to the House of Representatives by 
the Hon. Zadock Pratt, a Representative from New 
York, 31 December 1844, from the Committee on Public 
Buildings and Grounds, to provide for the selection of a 
site for the national Washington monument-. .... 



46 



The United States Congress 



Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 15 3. 

[Congressional Globe, V. 14: Part 1, p. 77.] 

Letter from John C. Calhoun, Secretary of State, 8 January 

1845, in answer to a resolution of the House of Represen- 
tatives of the 4th instant, requesting information as to the 
number of volumes of the manuscript papers of the Con- 
federation and of Washington, to which indices are being 
prepared; the progress therein; when the work will be com- 
pleted; and the probable additional expense — read before 
the House, 24 January 1845, and referred to the Commit- 
tee on Ways and Means. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 2 5 6. 
[Congressional Globe, V. 14: Part 1, p. 18 5.] 
[H. Ex. Doc. No. 63 . . . . Serial 464.] 

FIRST SESSION OF THE TWENTY-NINTH CONGRESS: 
1845-1846 

Joint Resolution (S.J. Res. No. 4) — reported to the Senate by the 
Hon. Simon Cameron, a Senator from Pennsylvania, 6 
January 1846, from the Committee on Public Buildings, 
authorizing the Washington National Monument Society 
to erect the contemplated monument to the memory of 
George Washington upon such portion of the public 
grounds or reservations in the city of Washington ... as 
shall be selected by the President of the United States and 
the Board of Managers of said society. 1 
Journal of the Senate, pp. 86, 8 8-89. 
[Congressional Globe, V. 15: Part 1, pp. 145, 154.] 

Joint Resolution (S.J.Res. No. 22) — reported to the Senate by the 
Hon. James A. Pearce, a Senator from Maryland, 27 April 

1846, from the Committee on the Library, who were in- 
structed by a resolution of the Senate to inquire into the ex- 
pediency of employing Hiram Powers to execute an eques- 
trian statue of General Washington. 

Journal of the Senate, pp. 16 5, 168, 263. 
[Congressional Globe, V. 1 5 : Part 1, pp. 422, 429, 

728.] 
[S. Doc. No. 314 . . . . Serial 476.] 

Joint Resolution (H.J.Res. No. 6) — submitted in the House of 
Representatives by the Hon. Isaac E. Holmes, a Represen- 
tative from South Carolina, 7 January 1846, authorizing the 
Washington National Monument Society to erect the pro- 
posed monument to the memory of George Washington 
upon such portion of the public grounds or reservations with- 
in the city of Washington ... as shall be designated 
by the President of the United States and the Board of 
Managers of said society. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 200. 



i The Scnuc Joint Resolution (S. J. Res. No. 4) was ordered to be laid on 
the table, 7 January 1846, on motion by Mr. Crittenden, of Ken- 
tucky, and the House Joint Resolution (H. J. Res. No. 6) was con- 
sidered in lieu thereof. On motion by Mr. Benton, of Missouri, 29 
July 1846, the latter resolution, also, was ordered to be laid on the 
table. 



Journal of the Senate, pp. 88-89, 92, 335, 375, 380, 

455. 
[Congressional Globe, V. 1 5 : Part 1, pp. 15 5, 15 8, 160. 

1038, 1040, 1162.] 

Resolved in the House of Representatives, Saturday, 21 February 
1846 — on motion by the Hon. William L. Yancey, a Rep- 
resentative from Alabama: That when this House adjourn, 
it stand adjourned until Tuesday next, in honor of the 
memory, and in respect to the anniversary of the birthday of 
George Washington, the father of his country. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 445. 
[Congressional Globe, V. 15: Part 1, p. 413.] 

Joint Resolution (H.J.Res. No. 30) — reported to the House of 
Representatives by the Hon. Richard Brodhead, Jr., a 
Representative from Pennsylvania, 11 May 1846, from the 
Committee on the Library, relative to an equestrian statue 
of Washington. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 784. 
[Congressional Globe, V. 15: Part 1, p. 789.] 

FIRST SESSION OF THE THIRTIETH CONGRESS: 

1847-1848 

Joint Resolution (S.J.Res. No. 2) — reported to the Senate by the 
Hon. Jacob W. Miller, a Senator from New Jersey, 6 
January 1848, from the Committee on the District of Co- 
lumbia, authorizing the erection on the public grounds, in 
the city of Washington, of a monument to George Wash- 
ington. — Approved, 31 January 1848. 

Journal of the Senate, pp. 5 7, 97, 131, 136, 13 8, 144, 

147. 
Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 298. 
[Congressional Globe, V. 17: Part 1, pp. 121, 230, 
245.] 

Resolution — submitted in the Senate by the Hon. John A. Dix, 
a Representative from New York, 15 February 1848, pro- 
posing that the Committee on the Library be instructed to 
inquire into the expediency of purchasing a marble bust of 
Washington by Houdou, in possession of Mr. George 
Gibbs. 

Journal of the Senate, p. 174. 

[Congressional Globe, V. 17: Part 1, p. 3 61.] 

Resolution — submitted in the Senate by the Hon. John H. 
Clarke, a Senator from Rhode Island, 24 April 1848, direct- 
ing the Joint Committee on the Library to ascertain, from 
the present owner of the library of the late George Wash- 
ington, whether the same is now for sale, of what number 
and value are the books in said library, and at what price the 
same can be purchased by Congress. 1 
Journal of the Senate, p. 294. 
[Congressional Globe, V. 17: Part 1, p. 66 5.] 



Purchase of the manuscript books and papers of General George Wash- 
ington was provided for in the Civil and Diplomatic Appropriation 
bill (H. R. No. 692) which was approved in the Second Session of the 
Thirtieth Congress — 3 March 1849. 



On George Washington 



47 



Resolved in the Senate, 27 June 1848 — on motion by the Hon. 
John M. Clayton, a Senator from Delaware, that the Sen- 
ate attend the ceremony upon the laying of the cornerstone 
of the Washington Monument on the 4th of July next. 
Journal of the Senate, p. 422. 

[Congressional Globe, V. 17: Part 1, pp. 875, 893.] 
[See S. Doc. No. 224. (57th Congress, 2nd Session.) 
Serial 4436.] 

SECOND SESSION OF THE THIRTIETH CONGRESS: 

1848-1849 

Resolution — submitted in the House of Representatives by the 
Hon. Henry C. Murphy, a Representative from New 
York, 19 January 1849, proposing that the Committee on 
the Library be instructed to inquire into the expediency of 
purchasing the diaries and other private papers of General 
Washington. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 276. 

[Congressional Globe, V. 18: Part 1, pp. 3 02, 662, 
664.] 

Resolution — submitted in the House of Representatives by the 
Hon. Richard K. Meade, a Representative from Virginia, 
5 February 1849, proposing that the Committee on Public 
Expenditures inquire into the expediency of causing a copy 
of Washington's statue, in the capitol of Virginia, to be 
taken in American marble by an American artist, and placed 
in the rotunda of the Capitol in the city of Washington. 
Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 378. 

[Congressional Globe, V. 18: Part 1, p. 454.] 

FIRST SESSION OF THE THIRTY-FIRST CONGRESS: 

1849-1850 
Joint Resolution — submitted in the Senate by the Hon. Henry 
Clay, a Senator from Kentucky, 23 January 1850, authoriz- 
ing the Joint Committee on the Library to purchase the 
manuscript of George Washington's Farewell Address to 
people of the United States 17 September 1796.— Approved, 
12 February 1850. 

Journal of the Senate, pp. 102, 106, 136, 137, 138, 148 
Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 419, 431, 

481, 521, 535. 
[Congressional Globe, V. 19: Part 1, p. 220.] 

FIRST SESSION OF THE THIRTY-SECOND CONGRESS: 

1851-1852 
Memorial of citizens of Washington, requesting an appropriation 
for the erection of an equestrian statue of General Wash- 
ington, under the resolution of Congress of 1783 — pre- 
sented in the House of Representatives, 15 December 18 51, 
by the Hon. Meredith P. Gentry, a Representative from 
Tennessee; presented in the Senate, 16 December 1851, by 
the Hon. Lewis Cass, a Senator from Michigan. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 87. 
Journal of the Senate, p. 65. 



Resolution — submitted in the Senate by the Hon. John P. Hale, 
a Senator from New Hampshire, 26 March 185 2, proposing 
that the Committee on Public Buildings be instructed to in- 
quire into the propriety of purchasing the great national 
painting of Washington crossing the Delaware, and causing 
the same to be placed in the mansion of the President of the 
United States. 

Journal of the Senate, pp. 308, 315. 

[Congressional Globe, V. 21: Part 2, p. 878.] 
Resolution — submitted in the Senate by the Hon. James Cooper, 
a Senator from Pennsylvania, 8 April 1852, proposing that 
the Committee on the Library be instructed to 

inquire into the expediency of employing Mr. Leutze to 
re-paint for Congress his painting representing Washington 
crossing the Delaware, together with a fellow to it represent- 
ing Washington rallying the American troops at the battle 
of Monmouth; also, of employing Mr. Healy to paint two 
pictures, one representing The throwing overboard of the 
tea in Boston harbor; the other, The Battle of Bunker Hill. 

Journal of the Senate, p. 3 3 9. 



SECOND SESSION OF THE THIRTY-SECOND 
CONGRESS: 1852-1853. 

House bill (H. R. No. 343) — submitted in the House of Repre- 
sentatives by the Hon. Gilbert Dean, a Representative 
from New York, 17 January 1853, to carry into effect the 
resolution of Congress, passed August 7, 1783, to erect at 
the capital of the Nation an equestrian statue of Washing- 
ton. — Approved, 2 5 January 185 3. 

journal of tin' House of Representatives, pp. 123-124, 

135, 151, 180, 185, 202. 
Journal of the Senate, pp. 103, 105, 109, 110, 128, 

132, 146. 
[Congressional Globe, V. 22: Part 1, pp. 321, 329, 323, 
343, 389.] 

FIRST SESSION OF THE THIRTY-THIRD CONGRESS: 

1853-1854 

Resolution — submitted in the House of Representatives by the 
Hon. Bernhart Henn, a Representative from Iowa, 22 
December 18 53, proposing that the Committee on Public 
Buildings be requested to inquire into the expediency of 
setting apart an appropriate room in the Executive Mansion 
to be furnished exclusively with articles used by George 
Washington during his life-time. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 13 5. 

[Congressional Globe, V. 23: Part 1, p. 88.] 

Resolution — submitted in the House of Representatives by the 
Hon. John L. Taylor, a Representative from Ohio, 30 
January 18 54, that the Committee on Revolutionary Claims 
be instructed to inquire into the expediency of causing an 
index to be made of the Washington papers in the Depart- 
ment of State. 

Journal of the House of Represent atives r p. 286. 



48 



The United States Congress 



Memorial of the Board of Managers of the Washington National 
Monument Society, requesting the aid of Congress in the 
erection of the Washington Monument — presented in the 
Senate, 1 July 18 54, by the Hon. Lewis Cass, a Senator 
from Michigan; presented in the House of Representatives, 
13 July 18 54, by the Hon. Henry May, a Representative 
from Maryland. 

Journal of the Senate, p. 471. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 1133. 

[Congressional Globe, V. 23: Part 3, p. 1710.] 

SECOND SESSION OF THE THIRTY-THIRD CONGRESS: 

1854-1855 

Senate bill (S. No. 693) — reported to the Senate by the Hon. 
William C. Dawson, a Senator from Georgia, 3 March 
18 5 5, from the Committee on the District of Columbia, pro- 
posing to incorporate the Washington National Monument 
Society. — 

Journal of the Senate, pp. 219, 361, 389. 
[Congressional Globe, V. 24: Part 1, pp. 1081, 1138.] 

Report — submitted to the House of Representatives by the Hon. 
Henry May, a Representative from Maryland, 22 February 
18 5 5, from the Select Committee of Thirteen, to whom was 
referred the memorial of the Board of Managers of the 
Washington National Monument Society. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 390, 43 5. 
[Congressional Globe, V. 24: Part 1, p. 900.] 
[H. Rept. No. 94 . . . . Serial 808.] 

Resolution — reported to the House of Representatives by the 
Hon. Richard H. Stanton, a Representative from Ken- 
tucky, 23 February 18 5 5, from the Committee on Printing, 
to whom was referred the motion by Mr. May, a Repre- 
sentative from Maryland, relative to the printing of extra 
copies of the report of the Select Committee of Thirteen on 
the subject of the Washington National Monument. 
Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 446. 
[Congressional Globe, V. 24: Part 1, p. 908.] 

Joint Resolution (H.J. Res. No. 62) — submitted in the House 
of Representatives by the Hon. John C. Breckinridge, a 
Representative from Kentucky, 2 March 18 5 5, for the relief 
of Clark Mills. — Approved, 3 March 185 5. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 508, 52 5, 

526, 548, 559. 
[Congressional Globe, V. 24: Part 1, pp. 1031, 1073, 
1079.] 

FIRST SESSION OF THE THIRTY-FIFTH CONGRESS: 

1857-1858 

Senate bill (S. No. 152) — reported to the Senate by the Hon. 
Albert G. Brown, a Senator from Mississippi, 2 5 February 
18 58, from the Committee on the District of Columbia, 
proposing to incorporate the Washington Monument So- 
ciety 

Journal of the Senate, pp. 197, 215, 344. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 637, 765, 

881, 894, 901. 
[Congressional Globe, V. 27: Part 1, pp. 73 5, 861; 



Part 2, pp. 1541, 1597-1598; Part 3, pp. 2309, 
2372, 2386.] 
Resolution — submitted in the Senate by the Hon. William Big- 
ler, a Senator from Pennsylvania, 5 April 18 58, that the 
Committee on the Library be instructed to inquire into the 
propriety of purchasing the equestrian portrait of Wash- 
ington by Rembrandt Pea'e 

Journal of the Senate, p. 315. 

[Congressional Globe, V. 27: Part 2, p. 1459.] 
Petition of Clark Mills, sculptor, requesting an amendment of 
the act of Congress of the 2 5th of January, 18 53, authoriz- 
ing the erection of an equestrian statue of Washington — 
presented in the Senate, 20 May 18 58, by the Hon. James 
Henry Hammond, a Senator from South Carolina. 
Journal of the Senate, p. 489. 

[Congressional Globe, V. 27: Part 3, p. 22 5 8.] 
Joint Resolution (S.J. Res. No. 50) — submitted in the Senate by 
the Hon. James A. Pearce, a Senator from Maryland, 2 
June 18 58, authorizing the President to designate a site for 
the equestrian statue of Washington. — 

Journal of the Senate, p. 5 83. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 1010. 

[Congressional Globe, V. 27: Part 3, p. 2630, 2679.] 

SECOND SESSION OF THE THIRTY-FIFTH CONGRESS: 

1858-1859 
Senate bill (S. No. 544) — reported to the Senate by the Hon. 
Jesse D. Bright, a Senator from Indiana, 29 January 18 59, 
from the Committee on Public Buildings and Grounds, to 
whom the subject had been referred, to incorporate the 
Washington National Monument Society. — Approved, 26 
February 18 59. 

Journal of the Senate, pp. 232-233, 364, 370, 385, 386. 
Jotirnal of the House of Representatives, pp. 296, 462, 

467,494, 501. 
[Congressional Globe, V. 28: Part 1, pp. 662, 66 5; 
Part 2, pp. 1240, 1289, 1385.] 

FIRST SESSION OF THE THIRTY-SIXTH CONGRESS: 
1859-1860 
Joint Resolution — submitted in the Senate by the Hon. James 
A. Pearce, a Senator from Maryland, 8 February 1860, in 
relation to the dedication of the statue of Washington. 
Journal of the Senate, p. 136. 
[Congressional Globe, V. 29: Part 1, p. 700.] 
Joint Resolution — submitted in the Senate by the Hon. Albert 
G. Brown, a Senator from Mississippi, 15 February 1860, 
proposing that a committee of three be appointed on the 
part of the Senate, to act in concert with such committee 
as may be appointed on the part of the House of Repre- 
sentatives in making suitable arrangements for the inaugu- 
ration of the equestrian statue of General Washington on 
the approaching 22nd day of February. 

Journal of the Senate, pp. 165, 167, 173. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 320, 331. 

[Congressional Globe, V. 29: Parr 1. pp. 789, 797.] 



On George Washington 



49 



Joint Resolution — submitted in the House of Representatives by 
the Hon. Laurence M. Keitt, a Representative from South 
Carolina, 17 February 1860, from the Joint Committee, 
making an appropriation for the inauguration of the 
equestrian statue of Washington. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 3 32, 347, 
348, 376. 

Journal of the Senate, pp. 173-174, 185, 186, 187, 279. 

[Congressional Globe, V. 29: Part 1, pp. 8 30, 8 57, 
878.] 
Memorial of the members and incorporators of the Washington 
National Monument Society, requesting the aid of Congress 
in the erection of a monument to George Washington at 
the seat of the Federal Government — presented in the 
Senate, 14 February 1860, by the Hon. Jesse D. Bright, a 
Senator from Indiana; presented in the House of Repre- 
sentatives, 15 February 1860, by the Hon. Henry C. Bur- 
nett, a Representative from Kentucky. 

Journal of the Senate, p. 151. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 281. 

[Congressional Globe, V. 29: Part 1, p. 7 5 8.] 
House bill (H.R. No. 769) — reported to the House of Repre- 
sentatives by the Hon. George W. Hughes, a Representa- 
tive from Maryland, 24 May 1860, from a minority of the 
Committee on the District of Columbia, to whom was re- 
ferred the memorial of the Washington National Monument 
Society, requesting aid of Congress in the erection of a 
monument to George Washington at the seat of the Fed- 
eral Government. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 918. 

[Congressional Globe, V. 29: Part 3, p. 2326.] 
[H. Rept. No. 5 67 . . . Serial 1070.] 
Petition of Theron Hamilton, requesting the Congress to have 
5000 copies of the Declaration of Independence and Wash- 
ington's Farewell Address to the People of the United States 
printed together and distributed — presented in the Senate, 9 
March 18 50, by the Hon. Kingsley S. Bingham, a Senator 
from Michigan. 

journal of the Senate, p. 23 5, 736. 

[Congressional Globe, V. 29: Part 2, p. 1075.] 

FIRST SESSION OF THE THIRTY-SEVENTH 
CONGRESS: 1861 

House bill ( ) submitted in the House of Representatives by 

the Hon. Francis P. Blair, a Representative from Missouri, 
8 July 1861, proposing to repeal the act by which that por- 
tion of the District of Columbia originally ceded by the 
State of Virginia was retroceded to that State, and to extend 
the boundaries of the District of Columbia, with the consent 
of the said State of Virginia, so as to include Mount Vernon. 
Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 41. 

SECOND SESSION OF THE THIRTY-SEVENTH 
CONGRESS: 1861-1862 
Memorial of citizens of Philadelphia, praying that George Wash- 
ington's Farewell Address to the people of the United 



States may be read to both Houses of Congress and to the 
Army and Navy of the United States on the approaching 
22nd day of February — presented in the House of Repre- 
sentatives, 10 February 1862, by the Hon. John J. Crit- 
tenden, a Representative from Kentucky; presented in the 
Senate, 11 February 1862, by the Hon. Andrew Johnson. 
a Senator from Tennessee. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 288, 289, 

290. 
Journal of the Senate, pp. 193, 194. 

Concurrent Resolutions — submitted in the Senate by the Hon. 
Andrew Johnson, a Senator from Tennessee, 11 February 
1862, proposing that the two Houses of Congress assemble 
in the chamber of the House of Representatives on Satur- 
day, the 22nd day of February, instant, at twelve o'clock 
meridian; and that, in the presence of the two Houses of 
Congress, thus assembled, the Farewell Address of George 
Washington to the people of the United States shall be 
read. . . . That the President of the United States be 
requested to direct that orders be issued for the reading to 
the Army and Navy of the United States of the Fareivell 
Address of George Washington on the 22nd day of Feb- 
ruary, instant . . . That 10,000 copies of the proceed- 
ings of the two Houses of Congress together with the Fare- 
it ell Address of George Washington, be printed for dis- 
tribution by the Members of the two Houses of Congress to 
the people of the United States. 

Journal of the Senate, pp. 193, 212, 231. 
Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 294, 304, 
310, 311, 324, 338-341. 

Joint Resolution — submitted in the House of Representatives by 
the Hon. Charles R. Train, a Representative from Mas- 
sachusetts, 18 February 1862, proposing that the Commis- 
sioner of Public Buildings cause the public buildings in the 
city of Washington to be illuminated on Saturday evening 
next, the 22nd of February, in honor of recent victories by 
the army and navy of the United States. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 321, 323, 
325, 338. 

Resolution — submitted in the House of Representatives by the 
Hon. James S. Rollins, a Representative from Missouri, 
2 8 February 1862, providing that 10,000 additional copies 
of the Farewell Address of George Washington be printed 
for the use of the House; and that the trustees, professors, 
and teachers of the different colleges, academies, and common 
schools /;/ all the States, be respectfully requested to have 
said address permanently placed in their respective institu- 
tions, where the same may be read, and where the lesson of 
wisdom, of patriotism, and of Union, which it teaches, may 
be indelibly impressed upon the youthful mind of the 
country. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 372. 

Resolution — reported to the House of Representatives by the 
Hon. E. P. Walton, a Representative from Vermont, 11 
March 1862, from the Committee on Printing, providing 
that 50,000 extra copies of the Farewell Address of George 



50 



The United States Congress 



Washington, together with the Proclamation of President 
Jackson, 10 December 1932, and the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, be printed for the use of the House. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 426. 



Farewell Address be read by the Clerk of the House, and 
that upon the conclusion thereof this house adjourn. . . . 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 3 86. 

[Congressional Globe, V. 39: Part 2, p. 13 5 5.] 



FIRST SESSION OF THE THIRTY-EIGHTH CONGRESS: 
1863-1864 

Resolution — submitted in the House of Representatives by the 
Hon. Thomas T. Davis, a Representative from New York, 
3 May 1864, proposing that the Committee on the District 
of Columbia be instructed to inquire into the present condi- 
tion of the Washington National Monument Society, to 
ascertain the amount of funds collected for the association 
since its last report; the amount expended for the construc- 
tion of the monument, and the amount expended and paid 
for salaries, since said report, to the respective officers of the 
company; and also, in what manner the funds on hand are 
invested or kept; and that said Committee be authorized to 
make any other inquiries which they may think best, and 
also to send, if necessary, for books and papers and wit- 
nesses, and that they report to the House. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 715-716. 

Motion by the Hon. Lewis W. Ross, a Representative from Illi- 
nois, 2 July 1864, that 10,000 copies of Washington's 
Farewell Address be printed for the use of the House. 
Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 103 2. 

FIRST SESSION OF THE FORTIETH CONGRESS: 

1867 

Resolution — submitted in the House of Representatives by the 
Hon. John F. Driggs, a Representative from Michigan, 16 
July 1867, proposing that the Secretary of the Interior be 
requested to inform this House, so far as may be in his 
power, what becomes of the money collected for an associ- 
ation known as the Washington Monument Association — 
which collections are continued in the United States Patent 
Office; and whether he has any knowledge of the present 
condition of the association, who its officers are, and what 
they propose to do with the funds. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 216, 221. 
[Congressional Globe, V. 3 8: Part 1, pp. 675, 698.] 

Letter from Orville H. Browning, Secretary of the Interior, 
17 July 1867 — in answer to a resolution of the House of 
Representatives of the 16th of July 1867, in regard to the 
Washington Monument Association. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 216, 221. 

[H. Exc. Doc. No. 26 . . . Serial 1311.] 

SECOND SESSION OF THE FORTIETH CONGRESS: 

1867-1868 

Resolution — proposed, as a privileged question, in the House of 
Representatives by the Hon. Charles A. Eldridge, a 
Representative from Wisconsin, 22 February 1868, that in 
honor and commemoration of the Father of his Country, 
tliis being the anniversary of his birthday, his memorable 



THIRD SESSION OF THE FORTIETH CONGRESS: 
1868-1869 

Resolution — submitted in the House of Representatives by the 
Hon. John A. Logan, a Representative from Illinois, 1 
March 1869, instructing the Committee on Public Build 
ings and Grounds to make investigations relative to a num- 
ber of articles, once the property of George Washington, 
which were taken from Arlington House, when that place 
fell into possession of the Federal Army. 1 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 480, 48! 
[Congressional Globe, V. 40: Part 3, pp. 1742-1743.] 

Report — submitted to the House of Representatives by the Hon. 
John Covode, a Representative from Pennsylvania, 3 March 
1869, from the Committee on Public Buildings and Grounds, 
accompanied by the following resolution: "That the arti- 
cles known as the effects of George Washington, the 
Father of his country, now in custody of the Department 
of the Interior, are of right the property of the United 
States; and any attempt on the part of the present admini- 
stration, or any department thereof, to deliver the same to 
General Robert E. Lee is an insult to the loyal people 
of the United States; and they ought to be kept as relics in 
the Patent Office, and ought not to be delivered to any 
one without the consent of Congress." 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 547. 
[Congressional Globe, V. 40: Part 3,p. 1895.] 

Report — submitted in the House of Representatives by the Hon. 
Thomas L. Jones, a Representative from Kentucky, 3 
March 1869, from a minority of the Committee on Publi. 
Buildings and Grounds, accompanied by the following reso- 
lution, proposed as a substitute for that submitted by Mr. 
Covode of Pennsylvania: 

That the articles in the Patent Office which have been iden- 
tified as the property of Mrs. Mary Custis Lee, and which 
were taken without the authority of the Government from 
her home at Arlington, as they are of but little value except 
as heirlooms in her family bequeathed to her by her father, 
George Washington Parke Custis, be at her request 
restored to her possession. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 547. 
[Congressional Globe, V. 40: Part 3, p. 1895.] 

FIRST SESSION OF THE FORTY-FIRST CONGRESS: 
1869 

Senate bill (S. No. 209) — submitted in the Senate by the Hon 
James W. Nye, a Senator from Nevada, 26 March 1869, 
to resume the completion of the Washington Monument. 



i See also the Resolution introduced in the House, 27 February 1869, by the 
Hon. Hamilton Ward, a Representative from New York. Congres- 
sional Globe, V. 40: Part 3, p. 1685. 



On George Washington 



51 



Journal of the Senate, p. 89. 

[Congressional Globe, V. 41: Part 1, p. 291.] 

Senate bill (S. No. 245) — submitted in the Senate by the Hon. 
Thomas Ward Osborn, a Senator from Florida, 1 April 
1869, to secure the completion of the Washington and Lin- 
coln monuments 

Journal of the Senate, p. 114. 

House bill (H. R. No. 412) — submitted in the House of Repre- 
sentatives by the Hon. Thomas Boles, a Representative 
from Arkansas, 9 April 1869, to secure the completion of the 

Washington and Lincoln Monuments 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 206. 
[Congressional Globe, V. 41: Part 1, p. 65 2.] 

Resolution — submitted in the House of Representatives by the 
Hon. Thomas L. Jones, a Representative from Kentucky, 
5 April 1869, proposing that the Committee on the Judi- 
ciary be instructed to inquire into the propriety of restoring 
to Mrs. Mary Custis Lee the articles now in the Patent 
Office known as the "Mount Vernon relics", and said to 
have been taken from her house at Arlington during the 
war. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 167. 
[Congressional Globe, V. 41: Part 1, p. 506.] 

SECOND SESSION OF THE FORTY-SECOND 
CONGRESS: 1871-1872 

Report — submitted in the House of Representatives by the Hon. 
William Williams, a Representative from Indiana, 19 
April 1872, from the Committee on the District of Colum- 
bia, to whom was referred the House bill (H. R. No. 1179), 
appropriating two hundred thousand dollars for the com- 
pletion of the Washington National Monument. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 198, 713. 
[H. Rept. No. 48 . ... Serial 1528.] 

House bill (H. R. No. 1600) — submitted in the House of Rep- 
resentatives by the Hon. John F. McKinney, a Repre- 
sentative from Louisiana, 19 February 1872, to amend an 
act entitled "An act to incorporate the Washington Na- 
tional Monument Society" approved 26 February 18 59. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 364, 864. 
Journal of the Senate, pp. 750, 754. 

THIRD SESSION OF THE FORTY-SECOND CONGRESS: 

1872-1873 

Resolution — submitted in the House of Representatives by the 
Hon. John B. Storm, a Representative from Pennsylvania, 
20 January 1873, proposing that the Committee on Public 
Buildings and Grounds be instructed to inquire what sum 
of money will be required to complete the Washington 
Monument, in the city of Washington, according to the 
original plan and design for the erection of the same, and 
to report the facts to this House; also to inquire and report 



whether any change in the proposed plan and design is ex- 
pedient. 
Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 212. 

Resolution — submitted in the House of Representatives by the 
Hon. Norton P. Chipman, Delegate from the District of 
Columbia, 27 January 1873, proposing that a committee of 
thirteen be appointed by the Speaker, whose duty it shall be 
to confer with officers and members of the Washington 
National Monument Society upon the practicability of com- 
pleting the Washington Monument by the approaching cen- 
tennial. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 2 5 9, 466. 

House bill (H. R. 36?4) — submitted in the House of Represen- 
tatives by the Hon. Daniel W. Voorhees, a Representa- 
tive from Indiana, 27 January 1873, for the completion of 
the National Monument to the memory of George Wash- 
ington. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 2 5 2, 442. 

FIRST SESSION OF THE FORTY-THIRD CONGRESS: 

1873-1874 

Resolution — submitted in the Senate by the Hon. Justin S. 
Morrill, a Senator from Vermont, 11 May 1874, propos- 
ing that the Committee on Public Buildings and Grounds 
be instructed to ascertain whether or not the materials of the 
present unfinished Washington Monument would be suffi- 
cient for the erection of an arch, imposing as to size and 
artistic in form, to be called the Arch of Washington; the 
probable expense of such a change; and also to ascertain if 
the Washington National Monument Society will give their 
assent to such an arrangement provided Congress should 
agree to the same. 

Journal of the Senate, p. 545. 

Resolution — submitted in the House of Representatives by the 
Hon. Norton P. Chipman, Delegate from the District of 
Columbia, 12 January 1874, proposing that a committee of 
thirteen be appointed by the Speaker, whose duty it shall be 
to confer with the officers and members of the Washington 
National Monument Association upon the practicability of 
completing the Washington Monument by the approaching 
centennial. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 224, 293. 

Report — submitted in the House of Representatives by the Hon. 
Norton P. Chipman, Delegate from the District of Co- 
lumbia, 1 May 1874, from the Select Committee on the 
Washington National Monument, to accompany the bill 
providing for the completion of the Washington Monument. 
Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 889-890, 

908. 
[H. Rept.No.4S5 .... Serial 1625.] 

Resolution — submitted in the House of Representatives by the 
Hon. Charles A. Eldredge, a Representative from Wis- 
consin, 11 June 1874, that it shall be in order to move an 
amendment to the Sundry Civil Appropriation bill in Com- 



J 2 



The United States Congress 



mittee of the Whole providing for an appropriation of $75,- 
000 to aid in the completion of the Washington National 
Monument by the one-hundredth anniversary of Amercan 
Independence, with the proviso that the Washington Na- 
tional Monument Association be required to re-convey to 
the United States reservation No. 3, in the city of Washing- 
ton, on which the unfinished monument now stands. 
Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 1159. 

FIRST SESSION OF THE FORTY-FOURTH CONGRESS: 

1875-1876 

Memorial of the Washington Monument Society, requesting an 
appropriation for the completion of the Washington Monu- 
ment — presented in the House of Representatives, 21 Janu- 
ary 1876, by the Speaker of the House; presented in the Sen- 
ate, 10 February 1876, by the Hon. George F. Edmunds, 
a Senator from Vermont. 

journal of the House of Representatives, p. 23 6. 

Journal of the Senate, p. 187. 

[Congressional Record, V. 4: Part 1, pp. 541, 992.] 

Concurrent Resolution — submitted in the House of Representa- 
tives by the Hon. Thomas J. Cason, a Representative from 
Indiana, 18 February 1876, proposing that for the promotion 
of national feeling throughout the Union on the occasion of 
the centennial year of our independence, and believing this 
to be the proper time for the expression of our appreciation 
of the great services rendered to the people and the cause of 
liberty by the father of our Country, George Washington, 
the 22nd day of the present month shall be treated and 
deemed a national holiday throughout the United States. — 

journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 422, 430. 

Journal of the Senate, p. 218. 

[Congressional Record, V. 4; Part 2, pp. 1164, 1184.] 

Resolution — submitted in the Senate by the Hon. George F. Ed- 
munds, a Senator from Vermont, 9 February 1876, instruct- 
ing the Committee on Public Buildings and Grounds to in- 
quire into the expediency of making an adequate provision 
for the speedy completion of the Washington Monument, in 
the city of Washington, and that it have leave to report by 
bill or otherwise. 

Journal of the Senate, p. 184. 

[Congressional Record, V. 4: Part 1, p. 957.] 

Concurrent Resolution — submitted in the Senate by the Hon. 
John Sherman, a Senator from Ohio, 5 July 1876, for 
consideration: 

We, the Senate and House of Representatives in Congress 
assembled, in the name of the people of the United States, 
.u tins the beginning of the second century of national exist- 
ence, do assume and direct the completion of the Washington 
Monument in the city of Washington, and instruct the Com- 
mittees on Appropriation of the respective Houses to propose 
suitable provision of law to carry this resolution into effect. 
journal of the Senate, pp. 677, 684. 



[Congressional Record, V. 4: Part 5, pp. 4375-4376.] 
[S. Mm. Doc. No. 123 . . . Serial 1665.] 

Senate bill (S. No. 982) — submitted in the Senate by the Hon. 
John Sherman, a Senator from Ohio, 8 July 1876, pro- 
viding for the completion of the Washington Monument. — 
Approved, 2 August 1876. 1 

Journal of the Senate, pp. 688, 700, 743-744, 764, 

765, 767, 772, 783. 
[Congressional Record, V. 4: Part 5, pp. 4469, 4514, 
4861, 4919; Part 6, p. 5099.] 

SECOND SESSION OF THE FORTY-FIFTH CONGRESS: 

1877-1878 

Report of the Joint Commission created to direct and supervise 
the completion of the Washington Monument — transmitted 
to the Congress, 3 December 1877, with the Annual Message 
of the President of the United States. 

Journal of the Seriate, p. 23. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 2 5 . 

[H. Ex. Doc. No. 1, Part 8 . . Serial 1802.] 

Memorial of the Washington Monument Society, remonstrating 
against the abandonment or any material modification of 
the original plan for the erection of the Washington Monu- 
ment — presented in the Senate, 15 April 1878, by the Hon. 
John J. Ingalls, a Senator from Kansas. 
Journal of the Senate, p. 3 89. 
[Congressional Record, V. 7: Part 3, p. 2 508.] 

Joint Resolution (H.J.Res. No. 76) — submitted in the House of 
Representatives by the Hon. Charles Foster, a Repre- 
sentative from Ohio, 14 January 1878, to enable the Joint 
Commission to carry into effect the act of Congress pro- 
viding for the completion of the Washington Monument. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 182, 782. 
[Congressional Record, V. 7: Part 1, p. 314.] 

Joint Resolution (H.J.Res. No. 152) — reported to the House of 
Representatives by the Hon. Charles Foster, a Repre- 
sentative from Ohio, 2 April 1878, from the Committee on 
Appropriations, as substitute for the House Joint Resolution 
No. 76, to enable the Joint Commission to carry into effect 
the act of Congress providing for the completion of the 
Washington Monument. — Approved, 14 June 1878. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 782-783, 
1053, 1101, 1146, 1149, 1256-1257, 1264, 1269, 
1305, 1340. 
Journal of the Senate, pp. 496, 649, 793. 
[Congressional Record, V. 7: Part 3, p. 2203.] 

THIRD SESSION OF THE FORTY-FIFTH CONGRESS: 

1878-1879 

Letter of W. W. Corcoran, chairman of the Joint Commission 
for the completion of the Washington Monument, com- 
municating a report of the engineer in charge of the con- 



Under the provisions of this Act a Joint Commission was appointed by the 
United States Congress to direct and supervise the completion of the 
Washington Monument. 



On George Washington 



5 3 



struction of the monument, showing the extent and progress 
made in the work and the amount of money expended to the 
30th of November, 1878 — presented in the Senate, 13 De- 
cember 1878, by the Vice-President; presented in the House 
of Representatives, 13 December 1878, by the Speaker of 
the House. 

Journal of the Senate, p. 51. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 91. 

[Congressional Record, V. 8; Part 1, p. 180.] 

[H. Mm. Doc. No. 7 . . . Serial 1861.] 
Letter of W. W. Corcoran, chairman of the Joint Commission 
for the completion of the Washington Monument, submit- 
ting certain papers in relation to the proposed modification 
in the plan of the monument — presented in the Senate, 8 
January 1879, by the Vice-President; presented in the House 
of Representatives, 15 January 1879, by the Speaker of the 
House. 

Journal of the Senate, p. 92. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 181. 

[Congressional Record, V. 8: Part 1, pp. 367, 462.] 
Letter of W. W. Corcoran, chairman of the Joint Commission 
for the completion of the Washington Monument, com- 
municating a resolution of the commission in relation to a 
further expenditure for the strengthening of the founda- 
tions thereof — presented in the Senate, 12 February 1879, by 
the Vice-President; presented in the House of Representa- 
tives, 15 February 1879, by the Speaker of the House. 

Journal of the Senate, p. 260. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 449. 

[Congressional Record, V. 8: Part 2, p. 1427.] 

[H. Mis. Doc. No. 7, Part 2 . . Serial 1861.] 
Joint Resolution (H.J.Res. No. 212) — submitted in the House 
of Representatives by the Hon. Benjamin A. Willis, a 
Representative from New York, 20 January 1879, to facili- 
tate, simplify, and economize the work on the Washington 
National Monument in the District of Columbia. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 223. 

[Congressional Record, V. 8: Part 1, p. 574.] 

FIRST SESSION OF THE FORTY-SIXTH CONGRESS: 

1879 
Joint Resolution (H.J.Res. No. 32) — submitted in the House a( 
Representatives by the Hon. Thompson H. Murch, a 
Representative from Maine, 5 May 1879, authorizing the 
completion of the foundation of the Washington Monu- 
ment — Approved, 27 June 1879. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 232, 493, 

549, 560, 576, 583. 
Journal of the Senate, pp. 205, 206, 239, 249, 263, 

264, 270, 285. 
[Congressional Record, V. 9: Part 1, p. 10 50; Part 2, 
pp.' 1983, 1985, 2195, 2271, 2307, 2369, 2423.] 
Joint Resolution (FI.J.Res. No. 94) — submitted in the House of 
Representatives by the Hon. John T. Harris, a Repre- 
sentative from Virginia, 10 June 1879, directing that a 
monument be erected to mark the birthplace of George 
Washington. — Approved, 14 June 1879. 



Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 472, 477, 

481, 505, 532. 
Journal of the Senate, pp. 196, 197, 200, 240. 
[Congressional Record, V. 9: Part 2, pp. 1888, 1890, 

1923, 1932, 2195.] 

Resolution — submitted in the Senate by the Hon. James Don- 
ald Cameron, a Senator from Pennsylvania, 31 March 
1879, proposing that the Committee on the Library be in- 
structed to inquire into the expediency of purchasing the 
full-size portrait of General George Washington, 
painted from life by Charles Willson Peale. . . . 

Journal of the Senate, p. 54. 

[Congressional Record, V. 9: Part 1, p. 129.] 

SECOND SESSION OF THE FORTY-SIXTH CONGRESS: 

1879-1880 

Tetter of W. W. Corcoran, chairman of the Joint Commission 
for the completion of the Washington Monument, transmit- 
ting the annual report of Lieut.-Colonel Thomas L. 
Casey, U. S. A., engineer in charge of the monument, de- 
tailing the work done toward the completion of the same 
during the year ending November 30, 1879, together with 
statement of moneys expended upon the same, and two 
sheets of tracings — presented in the House of Representa- 
tives, 16 December 1879, by the Speaker of the House; 
presented in the Senate, 17 December 1879, by the Vice- 
President. 

[Congressional Record, V. 10: Part 1, p. 134.] 
[S. Mm. Doc. No. 17 . . . Serial 1890.] 

Resolution — submitted in the Senate by the Hon. Daniel W. 
Voorhees, a Senator from Indiana, 9 February 1880, pro- 
posing that the Committee on the Library be instructed to 
inquire into the expediency and propriety of purchasing the 
full-length portrait of Martha Washington by Andrews, 
for the East Room of the Executive Mansion. 

Journal of the Senate, p. 208. 

[Congressional Record, V. 10: Part 1, p. 75 3.] 

Letter from the Norfolk and Portsmouth Mexican Veteran Asso- 
ciation, extending to the United States Senate an invitation 
to attend the ceremonies in Norfolk, 23 February 18 80, in 
honor of Washington's birthday, the anniversary of the 
battle of Buena Vista, and the occasion of the national con- 
vention of the survivors of the Mexican War — presented in 
the Senate, 16 February 1880, by the Vice-President. 

Journal of the Senate, p. 226. 

[Congressional Record, V. 10: Part 1, p. 909.] 

Concurrent Resolution — reported to the Senate by the Hon. 
Charles W. Jones, a Senator from Florida, 29 March, 
18 80, from the Committee on Public Buildings and Grounds 
that the Committee on Public Buildings and Grounds of 
the Senate and of the House of Representatives, acting 
jointly, be instructed to examine whether or not further 
legislation is required, and what additional appropriations 
will be necessary, in relation to the foundation and com- 
pletion of the Washington Monument; what time it will 
take to finish the same; whether or not any contracts have 
been made for materials or otherwise, and, if any have been 



54 



The United States Congress 



made, their character and amount; whether any changes of 
the original plan or design have been authorized, adopted, 
or are desirable, and to what extent; together with an 
estimate of the ultimate cost of the completed structure, 
and report thereon, by bill or otherwise, to the Senate and 
the House of Representatives, on the second Monday of 
December next. 

Journal of the Senate, pp. 378, 529. 
[Congressional Record, V. 10: Part 2, p. 1920.] 
[S. Mm. Doc. No. 86 . . . Serial 1891.] 

Memorial of the Washington Monument Association, requesting 
an appropriation for the completion of the Washington 
Monument — presented in the Senate, 28 April 18 80, by the 
Vice-President; presented in the House of Representatives, 
29 April 1880, by the Hon. Edward L. Martin, a Repre- 
sentative from Delaware. 

Journal of the Senate, pp. 48 5, 488, 592. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 1142. 

[Congressional Record, V. 10: Part 3, pp. 2810-2811.] 

[H. Mis. Doc. No. 37 . . . Serial 1931.] 

Report — submitted in the House of Representatives by the Hon. 
Edward L. Martin, a Representative from Delaware, 9 
April 18 80, from the Committee on the District of Colum- 
bia, to accompany the bill (H.R. No. 5714), providing for 
the completion of the Washington National Monument. 
Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 993. 
[H. Rept. No. 1107 . . . Serial 1937.] 
Communication from William M. Evarts, Secretary of State, 
in reference to a monument to mark the birthplace of 
George Washington — presented in the House of Repre- 
sentatives, 3 June 18 80, by the Hon. Samuel J. Randall, 
of Pennsylvania, Speaker of the House. 

[Congressional Record, V. 10: Part 5, pp. 4117-4118.] 

Joint Resolution (H.J.Res. No. 315) — submitted in the House 
of Representatives by the Hon. John T. Harris, a Rep- 
resentative from Virginia, 3 June 1880, amending and re- 
enacting a joint resolution approved 14 June 1879, directing 
that a monument be erected to mark the birthplace of 
George Washington. — Approved, 26 February 1881. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 1366. 

Journal of the Senate, pp. 6 51, 692. 

[Congressional Record, V. 10: Part 5, pp. 4118, 4101, 
4308.] 

THIRD SESSION OF THE FORTY-SIXTH CONGRESS: 

1880-1881 
Letter of W. W. Corcoran, chairman of the Joint Commission 
for the completion of the Washington Monument, 8 De- 
cember 18 80, transmitting the annual report of said com- 
mission and the report of Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas 
L. Casey, Corps of Engineers, U. S. A., in charge of the 
construction of the Monument. 

[Congressional Record, V. 11: Part 1, pp. 48, 49, 74.] 
[S. Mm. Doc. No. 9 . . . Serial 1944.] 
[S. Mm. Doc. No. 9, Part 2 . . Serial 1944.] 

House bill (H.R. No. 5 3 84) — reported to the House of Repre- 
sentatives by the Hon. George W. Geddes, a Representa- 



tive from Ohio, 27 March 18 80, from the Committee on 
the Library, granting permission to the Chamber of Com- 
merce in New York to erect a statue on the Sub-Treasury 
building in the city of New York in commemoration of 
Washington's first inauguration as President of the United 
States. — Approved, 23 December 1880. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 46, 106, 
110, 122, 125. 

[Congressional Record, V. 10: Part 2, p. 1903; V. 11: 
Part 1, pp. 60, 93, 206, 262, 294, 318, 355.] 
Joint Resolution (S.J.Res. No. 139) — submitted in the Senate 
by the Hon. William P. Whyte, a Senator from Mary- 
land, 5 January 1881, for the purchase of a sword formerly 
belonging to George Washington. — 

Journal of the Senate, pp. 86, 192-193. 

[Congressional Record, V. 11: Part 1, p. 340; Part 2, 

p. 1128.] 
Senate bill (S. No. 2147) — submitted in the Senate by the Hon. 
John W. Johnston, a Senator from Virginia, 3 February 
1881, to provide for the purchase from Mrs. Hubbard of 
a bronze statue of General Washington. 

Journal of the Senate, p. 197. 

[Congressional Record, V. 11: Part 2, p. 1160.] 
Joint Resolution (S.J.Res. No. 158) — submitted in the Senate by 
the Hon. William A. Wallace, a Senator from Pennsyl- 
vania, 12 February 1881, to allow the State Society of the 
Cincinnati of Pennsylvania to import free of duty a Monu- 
ment to General Washington. . . . 

Journal of the Senate, pp. 244, 2 58. 

[Congressional Record, V. 11: Part 2, pp. 1489, 1582.] 

FIRST SESSION OF THE FORTY-SEVENTH CONGRESS: 

1881-1882 

Resolution — submitted in the Senate, for consideration, by the 
Hon. Daniel W. Voorhees, a Senator from Indiana, 7 
December 1881, proposing that the Committee on the Li- 
brary be instructed to inquire into the expediency of pur- 
chasing the full-size portrait of General George Wash- 
ington, painted from life by Charles Willson Peale. 
Journal of the Senate, pp. 82, 268. 

Resolution — submitted in the Senate by the Hon. Daniel W. 
Voorhees, a Senator from Indiana, 3 May 18 82, proposing 
that the Committee on the Library be instructed to inquire 
into the expediency and propriety of purchasing 5,000 copies 
of the work entitled Original Portraits of Washinton by 
Elizabeth Bryant Johnson, for distribution to the public 
libraries throughout the United States. 1 .... 
Journal of the Senate, p. 661. 
[Congressional Record, V. 13: Part 4, p. 3 5 36.] 



Senator Voorhees introduced the resolution again, 10 December 1883, 
and it was agreed to in the Senate; whereupon, Senator Voorhees 
offered an amendment providing for the purchase to the Sundry Civil 
Appropriations bill (H.R. 7380), which was adopted by the Senate. 
Journal of the Senate (48th Congress, 1st Session), p. 67 and p. 896. 
Senator Voorhees re-introduced the resolution 20 Jan. 1885, and it 
was referred to the Committee on the Library. Journal of the Senate 
(48th Congress, 2d Session), p. 156. 



On George Washington 



*5 



Letter of W. W. Corcoran, chairman of the joint Commission 
for the completion of the Washington Monument, 19 De- 
cember 1881, transmitting the annual report of said commis- 
sion, in compliance with the law of its creation. 

[Congressional Record, V. 13: Part 1, pp. 184, 43 5.] 
[S. M/s. Doc. No. 19 . . . Serial 1993.] 

Memorial of the State Society of the Cincinnati of Pennsylvania, 
requesting the passage of a law authorizing the importation 
free of duty of a monument to George Washington — pre- 
sented in the Senate, 10 January 1882, by the Hon. James 
Donald Cameron, a Senator from Pennsylvania; presented 
in the House of Representatives, 10 January 1882, by the 
Hon. Charles O'Neill, a Representative from Pennsyl- 
vania. 

journal of the Senate, p. 164. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 2 5 2. 
Memorial of the Mayor and Common Council of Fredericksburg, 
Virginia, requesting an appropriation for the completion of 
the monument to the mot Iter of George Washington — 
presented in the Senate, 6 February 1882, by the Hon. John 
W. Johnston, a Senator from Virginia; presented in the 
House of Representatives, 6 February 1882, by the Hon. 
George Garrison, a Representative from Virginia. 

journal of the Senate, p. 263. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 487. 

Report — submitted to the House of Representatives by the Hon. 
William McKinley, Jr., a Representative from Ohio, 8 
February 1882, from the Committee on Ways and Means. 
to accompany the joint resolution (H. J. Res. No. 109), 
introduced, 23 January 1882, by Mr. O'Neill, a Repre- 
sentative from Pennsylvania, proposing to admit free of duty 
a monument to General Washington.-' — 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 367, 525. 
[Congressional Record, V. 13: Part 1, pp. 565, 989.] 
[H. Rept. No. 3 06 . . . . Serial 206 5.] 

Report — submitted in the House of Representatives by the Hon. 
J. Hyatt Smith, a Representative from New York, 15 July 
1882, from the Committee on Public Buildings and Grounds, 
to accompany the bill (H. R. No. 4135), introduced by 
Mr. Garrison, of Virginia, 6 February 1882, for the com- 
pletion of the monument to Mary, the mother of Wash- 
ington, at Fredericksburg, Virginia. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 503, 1649. 
[Congressional Record, V. 13: Part 1, p. 932; Part 6, 

p. 6103.] 
[H. Rept. No. 1659 . . . Serial 2070.] 

House bill (H. R. No. 5 573) — reported to the House of Repre- 
sentatives by the Hon. Frank Hiscock, a Representative 
from New York, 1 April 18 82, from the Committee on 

2 The House joint resolution (H.J.Res. No. 109), authorizing the State So- 
ciety of the Cincinnati of Pennsylvania to bring in, free of duty a 
monument to General Washington, was passed in the second ses- 
sion of the Forty-Seventh Congress, and approved, 17 February 1883. 




Prlsident John Adams on December 23, 1799, Made 

an Address Before the Senate Upon the Death of 

George Washington 

Appropriations, making appropriations to supply a deficiency 
for dies, paper, and stamps for the fiscal year 1882, and to 
continue work on the Washington Monument for the fiscal 
year 1883. — Approved, 17 April 1882. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 95 5, 989- 

990, 1038, 1041, 1053, 1058. 
Journal of the Senate, pp. 547, 5 69, 5 8 5, 613. 
[Congressional Record, V. 13: Part 3, pp. 2488, 2654- 
2656, 2644, 2857, 2907, 2934, 2950.] 

Joint Resolution (H. J. Res. No. 176) — reported to the House 
of Representatives by the Hon. Mark L. DeMottf, a Rep- 
resentative from Indiana, 3 May 18 82, from the Committee 
on Public Buildings and Grounds, authorizing the Sere re - 
tary of War to erect at Washington's headquarters, in 
Neivburgh, Neiv York, a memorial column, and to aid in 
defraying the expenses of the centennial celebration to be 
held at that city in the year 1883. — Approved, 1 July 1882. 

[Congressional Record, V. 13: Part 4, p. 3552; Part 5, 
pp. 4833, 4843, 5124, 5259; Part 6, pp. 5282, 5610.] 

[//. Rept. No. 1 1 67 . . . Serial 2068.] 

SECOND SESSION OF THE FORTY-SEVENTH 
CONGRESS: 1882-1883 
Letter of W. W. Corcoran, chairman of the Joint Commission 
for the completion of the Washington Monument, 23 De- 



56 



The United States Congress 



cember 1882, transmitting, in compliance with law, the re- 
port of the Joint Commission. 

Congressional Record, V. 14: Part 1, pp. 5 84, 664. 
[S. Mis. Doc. No. 13 . . . Serial 2083.] 

Joint Resolution (S. J. Res. No. 113) — submitted in the Senate 
by the Hon. Isham G. Harris, a Senator from Tennessee, 7 
December 1882, authorizing the engineer in charge of the 
Washington Monument to pay to certain stone-cutters and 
laborers certain wages withheld from them. — 

Journal of the Senate, pp. 42, 307. 
[Congressional Record, V. 14: Part 1, p. 71; Part 3, 
p. 2333.] 

Joint Resolution (S. J. Res. No. 13 8) — submitted in the Senate 
by the Hon. Warner Miller, a Senator from New York, 
16 February 1883, concerning the erection of a memorial 
column at Washington's headquarters in Ncwburgh, Neiv 
York. — Approved, 3 March 18 83. 

Journal of the Senate, pp. 3 50, 545, 5 50. 
Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 459, 645. 
[Congressional Record, V. 14; Part 3, p. 2770; Part 4, 
pp. 3031, 3768, 3704, 3772.] 

FIRST SESSION OF THE FORTY-EIGHTH CONGPvESS: 

1883-1884 

Letter of W. W. Corcoran, chair man of the Joint Commission 
for the completion of the Washington Monument, 13 De- 
cember 18 83; transmitting, in obedience to law, the annual 
report of the Commission. 

Congressional Record, V. 1 5 : Part 1, pp. 137, 148. 
[S. Mis. Doc. No. 22 . . . Serial 2170.] 

Resolution — submitted in the Senate by the Hon. James B. 
Groome, a Senator from Maryland, 3 April 18 84, that the 
Committee on the Library be directed to inquire into the 
expediency of purchasing from the Lewis family, for the 
United States, a sword worn by General George Wash- 
ington upon the occasion of his resigning his commission 
at Annapolis, 23 December 1783. 

journal of the Senate, p. 496. 

[Congressional Record, V. 15: Part 3, p. 2534.] 

Joint Resolution (S. J. Res. No. 82) — reported to the Senate by 
the Hon. Justin S. Morrill, a Senator from Vermont, 29 
April 1884, from the Committee on Public Buildings and 
Grounds, in relation to ceremonies to be authorized upon the 
completion of the Washington Monument. — Approved, 13 
May 1884. 1 

Journal of the Senate, pp. 593, 600, 623, 637, 649, 667, 

714. 



i Under the provisions of the Senate joint resolution (S. J. Res. No. 82), a 
Joint Commission was appointed to make arrangements for the cere- 
monies to be authorized upon the completion of the Washington 
Monument. 



Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 1164, 

1202, 1208, 1237, 1332. 
[Congressional Record, V. 1 5 : Part 4, pp. 3 516, 3 5 68, 

3976, 3997, 3999, 4147.] 

Joint Resolution (H. J. Res. No. 65) — reported to the House of 
Representatives by the Hon. Fetter S. Hoblitzell, a 
Representative from Maryland, 20 December 1883, from the 
Select Committee appointed to consider the joint resolution 
relating to the surrender by George Washington of his 
commission as Commander-in-Chief of the patriotic forces 
of America. — Approved, 26 December 1883. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 140, 15 6, 

162, 167, 181. 
[Congressional Record, V. 15: Part 1, pp. 220, 210, 

223, 246.] 

Joint Resolution (H. J. Res. No. 98) — submitted in the House of 
Representatives by the Hon. John Turner Wait, a Rep- 
resentative from Connecticut, 8 January 18 84, in relation 
to the purchase of four historical paintings representing 
leading events in the life of George "Washington. 
Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 244. 
[Congressional Record, V. 15: Part 1, p. 298.] 

Petition of the common council of the city of Fredericksburg, 
asking for an appropriation for the completion of a monu- 
ment to Mary, the mother of George Washington — pre- 
sented in the House of Representatives, 23 February 1884, 
by the Hon. John S. Wise, a Representative from Virginia. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 648-649. 
[Congressional Record, V. 15: Part 2, p. 1336.] 

Report — submitted to the House of Representatives by the Hon. 
Gilbert M. Woodward, a Representative from Wisconsin, 
7 May 1884, from the Committee on the Library, to accom- 
pany the House bill (H. R. 5410), introduced by the 
Hon. George D. Wise, of Virginia, 2 5 February 1884, for 
the completion of the monument to Mary, the mother of 
Washington, at Fredericksburg in Virginia 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 667, 1197. 
[Congressional Record, V. 1 5 : Part 2, pp. 13 56-13 57: 

Part 4, p. 3 93 6.] 
[H. Rcpt. No. 1512 . . . Serial 2257.] 

Message from Cliester A. Arthur, President of the United 
States, 19 May 1884, transmitting to the Congress a com- 
munication from the Secretary of State, recommending an 
additional appropriation of $6,000 for the construction of a 
wharf and roadway as a means of approach to the monument 
to be erected at Wakefield, Westmoreland County, Virginia, 
to mark the birthplace of George Washington. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 1270. 
[Congressional Record, V. 15: Part 5, p. 4311.] 
[H. Ex. Doc. No. 160 . . . Serial 2207.] 



On George Washington 



57 



Report — submitted to the House of Representatives by the Hon. 
John Kean, Jr., a Representative from New Jersey, 5 July 
1884, from the Committee on Public Buildings and Grounds, 
to whom was referred the joint resolution (H. J. Res. No. 
197) authorizing the Secretary of War to assist in canceling 
the debt and enlarging and improving the grounds and col- 
lections of Washington's Headquarters in Morristown, 
Nciu Jersey, and in securing suitable ground in which to 
gather the remains of Revolutionary soldiers there buried, 
and in erecting a monument over the same 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 78 5-786. 

[Congressional Record, V. 1 5 : Part 2, p. 1756; Part 6, 
p. 6087.] 

[H. Rept. No. 2143 . . . Serial 22 59.] 

SECOND SESSION OF THE FORTY-EIGHTH 
CONGRESS: 1884-188 5 
Joint Resolution (S. J. Res. No. 101) — submitted in the Senate 
by the Hon. John Sherman, a Senator from Ohio, 11 De- 
cember 18 84, in relation to the ceremonies to be authorized 
upon the completion of the Washington Monument. — Ap- 
proved, 18 December 1884. 

journal of the Senate, pp. 48, 5 5, 59, 74, 76. 
[Congressional Record, V. 16: Part 1, pp. 187, 2 IS, 
296, 299, 328.] 

Letter of W. W. Corcoran, chairman of the Joint Commission 
for the completion of the Washington Monument, transmit- 
ting, 19 December 18 84, in obedience to law, the annual re- 
port of the Commission. — 

Congressional Record, V. 16: Part 1, pp. 347, 363. 
[H. Mis. Doc. No. 8 . . . Serial 2310.] 

Letter from the Secretary of the Treasury, 14 January 1885, 
transmitting an estimate from the Commissioners of the Dis- 
trict of Columbia of an appropriation of $10,000 to enable 
them to maintain public order during the ceremonies attend- 
ing the dedication of the Washington Monument. 
Congressional Record, V. 16: Part 1, p. 723. 
[H. Ex. Doc. No. 81 . . . Serial 2302.] 

Joint Resolution (S. J. Res. No. 108) — submitted in the Senate 
by the Hon. William J. Sewell, a Senator from New Jer- 
sey, 7 January 1885, authorizing the Secretary of War to 
assist in canceling the debt and in enlarging and improving 
the grounds and collections of Washington's headquarters 
in Morristown, New Jersey, and in securing suitable ground 
in which to gather the remains of Revolutionary soldiers 
there buried, and in erecting a monument over the same. 

Journal of the Senate, pp. 105-106. 
[Congressional Record, V. 16: Part 1, p. S06.] 
Resolution — reported to the Senate by the Hon. John Sherman, 
a Senator from Ohio, 29 January 188 5, from the Joint Com- 
mittee on the Dedication of the Washington Monument, that 
the order of proceedings adopted by the commission ap- 
pointed under the joint resolution of Congress approved 
May 13, 1884, for the dedication of the Washington Monu- 
ment, on the 21st day of February next, be approved. — 



Journal of the Senate, p. 195. 

[Congressional Record, V. 16: Part 2, pp. 1051, 1052- 
1053.] 

Senate bill (S. No. 2615) — reported to the Senate by the Hon. 
John Sherman, a Senator from Ohio, 10 February 188 5, 
from the Committee on Finance, authorizing medals com- 
memorating the completion and dedication of the Washing- 
ton Monument. — 

Journal of the Senate, pp. 23 2, 2 5 8. 
[Congressional Record, V. 16: Part 2, pp. 145 0, 1477- 
1478.] 

Ordered by the Senate, 2 5 February 188 5 — upon the submission 
of the Report by the Hon. John Sherman, a Senator from 
Ohio — that the Report and Proceedings of the Joint Com- 
mission appointed to provide suitable ceremonies for the 
dedication of the Washington Monument be printed as a 
public document. 

Congressional Record, V. 16: Part 3, p. 2117. 
[S. Mis. Doc. No. 56 . . . Serial 2267.] 

Concurrent Resolution — submitted in the Senate by the Hon 
John Sherman, a Senator from Ohio, 2 5 February 188 5, 
from the Committee appointed to provide suitable cere- 
monies for the Dedication of the Washington Monument. 
proposing that 10,000 extra copies of the report and pro- 
ceedings of the commission to provide suitable ceremonies 
for the dedication of the Washington Monument, together 
with the engraved card thereto, be printed in memorial 
form, under the direction of the Committee on Printing. 

Journal of the Senate, p. 375, 394. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 681. 

[Congressional Record, V. 16: Part 3, p. 2117.] 

Concurrent Resolution — reported by the Hon. John Sherman, 
a Senator from Ohio, 2 5 February 188 5, from the Commit- 
tee appointed to provide suitable ceremonies for the dedica- 
tion of the Washington Monument, proposing that the 
thanks of Congress are hereby tendered to Colonel 
Thomas Lincoln Casey, Corps of Engineers, United 
States Army, and to his assistants, and to the workmen, for 
the admirable manner in which he and they have performed 
their respective duties in the completion of the Monument 
to the name and fame of George Washington. 

Journal of the Senate, pp. 375-376. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 681. 

[Congressional Record, V. 16: Part 3, p. 2117.] 

Senate bill (S. No. 2666) — reported to the Senate by the Hon. 
Charles F. Manderson, a Senator from Nebraska, 27 
February 188 5, from the Committee on Printing, providing 
for the printing of the Report and Proceedings of the Joint 
Commission, appointed to arrange suitable ceremonies for 
the dedication of the Washington Monument. — Approved, 
3 March 188 5. 

Journal of the Senate, pp. 397, 440, 453, 488, 489. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 710, 759, 
766, 822. 

[Congressional Record, V. 16: Part 3, pp. 2236-2237.] 



J 8 



The United States Congress 



Joint Resolution (H. J. Res. No. 326) — submitted in the House 
of Representatives by the Hon. William R. Cox, a Repre- 
sentative from North Carolina, 2 February 188 5, to provide 
more suitable accommodations for the public at the dedica- 
tion ceremonies upon the completion of the Washington 
Monument. — 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 415-416. 
[Congressional Record, V. 16: Part 3, p. 1164.] 

FIRST SESSION OF THE FORTY-NINTH CONGRESS: 

1885-1886 

Letter of W. W. Corcoran, chairman of the Joint Commission 
for the completion of the Washington Monument, 15 De- 
cember 188 5, transmitting, in obedience to law, the annual 
report of the Commission. 

Congressional Record, V. 17: Part 1, pp. 177, 22 5. 
[S. Ex. Doc. No. 6 . . . Serial 23 3 3.] 

Joint Resolution (H. J. Res. No. 45) — submitted in the House 
of Representatives by the Hon. William W. Phelps, a 
Representative from New Jersey, 5 January 1886, to en- 
large and improve Washington's headquarters at Morris- 
town, New Jersey. . . . 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 216. 

[Congressional Record, V. 17: Part 1, p. 430.] 

House bill (H. R. No. 4780) — submitted in the House of Rep- 
resentatives by the Hon. Thomas Croxton, a Representa- 
tive from Virginia, 26 January 18 86, for the completion of 
the monument to Mary, the mother of Washington, at 
Fredericksburg, Virginia. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 474. 
[Congressional Record, V. 17: Part 1, p. 89 5.] 

Report — submitted to the House of Representatives by the Hon. 
Samuel Dibble, a Representative from South Carolina, 16 
April 18 86, from the Committee on Public Buildings and 
Grounds, to whom was referred the bill (H. R. No. 5097) 
to regulate the use of the grounds of the Washington Monu- 
ment, known as public reservation No. 3, in the city of 
Washington, District of Columbia. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 1275-1276. 

[Congressional Record, V. 17: Part 4, pp. 3 578, 3 596- 
3597, 3600.] 

[H. Rept. No. 175 8 . . . Serial 2440.] 

SECOND SESSION OF THE FORTY-NINTH CONGRESS: 

1886-1887 

Senate bill (S. No. 2982) — reported to the Senate by the Hon. 
Isham G. Harris, a Senator from Tennessee, 17 December 
1886, from the Committee on the District of Columbia, 
authorizing the Commissioners of the District of Columbia 
to permit the temporary occupation of streets by a rail- 
way for the purpose of transporting material to fill about 
the base of the Washington Monument. — Approved, 28 
February 18 87. 

Congressional Record, V. 18: Part 1, pp. 242, 273, 315; 
Part 2, pp. 1301, 1748, 1873, 1884; Part 3, p. 2378. 
[H. Rept. No. 3915 . . . Serial 2 501.] 



Senate bill (S. No. 3182) — submitted in the Senate by the Hon. 
William Mahone, a Senator from Virginia, 20 January 
1887, for the completion of the monument to Mary, the 
mother of Washington. — 

Journal of the Senate, pp. 178, 209, 458. 
[Congressional Record, V. 18: Part 1, p. 82 5; Part 2, 
p. 1030; Part 3, pp. 2320, 2435.] 

Communication from the Citizens' Committee of Alexandria, 

Virginia, inviting the United States Senate to unite with 

them in celebrating Washington's birthday — presented in 

the Senate, 19 February 18 87, by the President pro tempore. 

Congressional Record, V. 18: Part 2, p. 1941. 

Joint Resolution (S. J. Res. No. 115) — reported to the Senate 
by the Hon. Daniel W. Voorhees, a Senator from In- 
diana, 28 February 18 87, from the Committee on the Li- 
brary, amending and re-enacting the joint resolution ap- 
proved 14 June 1879, directing a monument to mark the 
birthplace of George Washington as amended and re- 
enacted 26 February 1881. 

Journal of the Senate, p. 467. 

[Congressional Record, V. 18: Part 3, p. 2373.] 

Letter of W. W. Corcoran, chairman of the Joint Commission 
for the completion of the Washington Monument, 1 1 Janu- 
ary 1887, transmitting, in obedience to law, the annual re- 
port of the Commission. 

Congressional Record, V. 18: Part 1, pp. 512, 534. 
[H. Mis. Doc. No. 57 . . . Serial 2488.] 

Resolution — submitted in the House of Representatives by the 
Hon. Andrew J. Caldwell, a Representative from Ten- 
nessee, 10 January 1887, proposing that the Committee on 
the Library take into consideration the matter of protecting 
Greenough's statue of Washington from damage by 
weather and desecration by vandals. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 214. 
[Congressional Record, V. 18: Part 1, p. 501.] 
[H. Mis. Doc. No. 67 . . . Serial 2488.] 

House bill (H. R. No. 4780) — reported to the House of Repre- 
sentatives by the Hon. Charles O'Neill, a Representative 
from Pennsylvania, 20 January 18 87, from the Committee 
on the Library, for the Completion of the monument to 
Mary, the mother of Washington, at Fredericksburg, Vir- 
ginia.— 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 328. 
[Congressional Record, V. 18: Part 1, p. 833.] 
[H. Rept. No. 3703 . . . Serial 2 500.] 

FIRST SESSION OF THE FIFTIETH CONGRESS: 

1887-1888 

Letter of W. W. Corcoran, chairman of the Joint Commission 
for the completion of the Washington Monument, 4 Janu- 
ary 1888, transmitting, in obedience to law, the annual re- 
port of the Commission. 

Congressional Record, V. 19: Part 1, pp. 18 3, 304. 
[S. Mm. Doc. No. 22 . . . Serial 2 516.] 



On George Washington 



59 



Senate bill (S. No. 1211) — submitted in the Senate by the Hon. 
John W. Daniel, a Senator from Virginia, 5 January 1888, 
for the completion of the monument to Mary, the mother 
of Washington, at Fredericksburg, Virginia. — 
Journal of the Senate, pp. 122, 362, 563. 
[Congressional Record, V. 19: Part 1, p. 2 58; Part 2, 
p. 1402; Part 3, pp. 2337, 2471, 2481, 2570.] 

Report — submitted in the House of Representatives by the Hon. 
Charles O'Neill, a Representative from Pennsylvania, 28 
July 188 8, from the Committee on the Library, to whom 
was referred the Daniel bill (S. No. 1211) for the comple- 
tion of the monument to Mary, the mother of Washing- 
ton, at Fredericksburg, Virginia. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, Part 1, pp. 

1378, 1386; Part 2, p. 2492. 
[Congressional Record, V. 19: Part 7, p. 6986.] 
[H. Rept. No. 3102 . . . Serial 2605.] 

Senate bill (S. No. 1803) — submitted in the Senate by the Hon. 
M. S. Quay, a Senator from Pennsylvania, 31 January 1888, 
in aid of the Centennial and Memorial Association of Valley 
Forge, and to secure the Washington headquarters mansion 
and grounds, occupied by the Continental Army of 
1777-78. 

Congressional Record, V. 19: Part 1, p. 828; Part 2, 
p. 1402; Part 3, pp. 2480, 2570. 

Resolution — submitted in the Senate by the Hon. George F. 
Hoar, a Senator from Massachusetts, 20 February 1888, 
proposing that, on Wednesday, the 22nd of February, next, 
the Farewell Address of Washington be read to the Senate 
by the presiding officer, after the conclusion of the morning 
business. 

Journal of the Senate, pp. 344, 3 56-3 57. 

[Congressional Record, V. 19: Part 2, p. 1331.] 

Senate bill (S. No. 2309) — submitted in the Senate by the Hon. 
John C. Spooner, a Senator from Wisconsin, 12 March 
1888, to regulate the use of the grounds of the Washing- 
ton Monument, known as public reservation No. 3 in the 
city of Washington, District of Columbia. — 

Journal of the Senate, p. 454. 

[Congressional Record, V. 19: Part 2, p. 1941.] 

Letter from the Chairman of the Joint Commission for the com- 
pletion of the Washington Monument, transmitting resolu- 
tions adopted by the Commission, 18 April 1888, recom- 
mending that the custody, care, and protection of the Wash- 
ington Monument be placed under the charge of the Secre- 
tary of War— presented in the Senate, 23 April 1888, by the 
President pro tempore; presented in the House of Repre- 
sentatives, 2 5 April 1888, by the Speaker. 

Congressional Record, V. 19: Part 4, pp. 3219, 3 348. 
[S. Mis. Doc. No. 98 . . . Serial 2 516.] 

Letter from the Commissioners for the completion of the Wash- 
ington Monument with relation to memorial blocks, recom- 
mending an appropriation of $1,500 for the inserting of 
memorial tablets in the walls of said monument — presented 
in the Senate, 2 5 June 1888, by the President pro tempore. 



Journal of the Senate, p. 1000. 

[Congressional Record, V. 19: Part 6, pp. 5 523-5 5 24.] 

[S. Mis. Doc. No. 142 . . . Serial 2 517.] 

Resolution — submitted in the Senate by the Hon. George Gra- 
ham Vest, a Senator from Missouri, 7 May 1888, instruct- 
ing the Committee on the Library to inquire as to the ex- 
pediency of removing Greenough's statue of Washington 
and its pedestal from their present location east of the Capi- 
tol to some other place on the grounds, and the protection 
of said statue by a suitable canopy or otherwise. — 
Journal of the Senate, pp. 777-778, 823. 
[Congressional Record, V. 19: Part 4, p. 3770; Part 5, 
p. 4150.] 

Concurrent Resolution — reported to the Senate by the Hon. 
Joseph R. Hawley, a Senator from from Connecticut, 16 
July 1888, from the Committee on Printing, as substitute 
for the joint resolution (S. J. Res. No. 97) referred to the 
committee for the printing of the Report of the Joint Select 
Committee on the Newburgh, New York, Monument and 
Centennial celebration of 1883, submitted on the 26th of 
June, 1886. 

Congressional Record, V. 19: Part 6, p. 5793; Part 7, 

pp. 6341, 6735, 6900. 
[S. Rept. No. 1807 . . . Serial 2 52 5.] 

Joint Resolution (S. J. Res. No. 89) — submitted in the Senate by 
the Hon. James Donald Cameron, a Senator from Penn- 
sylvania, 4 June 18 88, amending and re-enacting the joint 
resolution approved 14 June 1879, directing the erection of 
a monument to mark the birthplace of George Washing- 
ton, as amended and re-enacted 26 February 1881. — 
Journal of the Senate, p. 914. 
[Congressional Record, V. 19: Part 5, p. 4873.] 

Resolution — submitted in the House of Representatives by the 
Hon. T. H. B. Browne, a Representative from Virginia, 
16 July 188 8, requesting the Secretary of State to inform 
the House of Representatives what action has been taken 
under the resolution of the 14th of June 1879, appropriating 
$3,000 for monuments to mark the birthplace of George 
Washington. — 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 2 363. 

[H. Mis. Doc. No. 523 . . . Serial 2 570.] 

House bill (H. R. No. 1905) — submitted in the House of Rep- 
resentatives by the Hon. Thomas H. B. Browne, a Rep- 
resentative from Virginia, 4 January 1888, for the comple- 
tion of the monument to Mary, the mother of Washing- 
ton, at Fredericksburg, Virginia. — 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 223, 1077- 

1078. 
[H. Rept. No. 917 . . . Serial 2600.] 

House bill (H. R. No. 6146) — submitted in the House of Rep- 
resentatives by the Hon. Robert M. Yardley, a Repre- 
sentative from Pennsylvania, 30 January 1888, in aid of the 
Centennial and Memorial Association of Valley Forge, and 
to secure the Washington headquarters mansion and grounds, 
occupied by the Continental Army of 1777. — 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 593, 1077. 
[H. Rept. No. 936 .. . Serial 2600.] 



60 



The United States Congress 



Petition of the Homer City Council, Junior Order, United Amer- 
ican Mechanics, of Pennsylvania, praying that the 22nd 
day of February be made a legal holiday — presented in the 
Senate, 10 April 1888, by the Hon. M. S. Quay, a Senator 
from Pennsylvania. 

Journal of the Senate, p. 631. 

[Congressional Record, V. 19: Part 3, p. 2824.] 

Communication from the Committee on the Centennial Celebra- 
tion of the Inauguration of George Washington as Presi- 
dent of the United States, inviting the Congress to partici- 
pate in the celebration to be held in New York, 30 April 
18 89 — presented in the Senate, 2 3 April 188 8, by the Presi- 
dent pro tempore; presented in the House of Representatives, 
23 April 1888, by the Speaker. 
Journal of the Senate, p. 697. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 1717-1718. 
[Congressional Record, V. 19: Part 4, pp. 3219, 3246- 
3247.] 

Resolution — submitted in the House of Representatives bv the 
Hon. Samuel S. Cox, a Representative from New York, 23 
April 18 88, for the acceptance of the invitation to the House 
of Representatives to attend the centennial celebration of 
the inauguration of George Washington in Neiv York 
City, 30 April 1889. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 1722. 
[Congressional Record, V. 19: Part 4, p. 32 50.] 
[H. Mis. Doc. No. 3 82 . . . Serial 2570.] 

Report — submitted in the House of Representatives by the Hon. 
William C. Oates, a Representative from Alabama, 5 
June 1888, from the Committee on the Judiciary, to whom 
was referred the resolution submitted, 23 April 18 88, pro- 
posing that the House of Representatives accept the invita- 
tion of the Committee on the Centennial Celebration of the 
Inauguration of George Washington, 30 April 18 89. 
Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 206 5. 
[Congressional Record, V. 19: Part 5, p. 4911.] 
[H. Rept. No. 2441 . . . Serial 2604.] 

Resolution — submitted in the House of Representatives by the 
Hon. Henry Bacon, a Representative from New York, 
23 April 188 8, requesting the Secretary of War to transmit 
to the House of Representatives copies of all reports made 
to him by the engineers of the War Department or others 
relating to the present condition of the work on the monu- 
ment at Washington's headquarters, in the city of New- 
burgh, in the State of New York. 

Congressional Record, V. 19: Part 4, p. 32 50. 
[H. Mis. Doc. No. 377 . . . Serial 2 570.] 

Report — submitted to the House of Representatives by the Hon. 
William G. Stahlnecker, a Representative from New 
York, 9 May 188 8, from the Committee on the Library, to 
whom was referred the resolution of inquiry as to the pres- 
ent condition of work on the Monument at Washington's 
headquarters in the city of Newburgh, in the Slate of New 
York. 

Congressional Record, V. 19: Part 4, p. 3 8 87. 
[H. Rept. No. 2075 . . . Serial 2603.] 



Letter from the Secretary of War, 2 5 May 188 8, transmitting, in 
compliance with a resolution of the House, a report upon 
the present condition of the Monument at Washington's 
headquarters in the city of Newburgh, in the State of New 
York. 

Congressional Record, V. 19: Part 5, p. 4768. 
[H. Ex. Doc. No. 3 36 . . Serial 2 561.] 

Report — submitted to the House of Representatives by the Hon. 
James D. Richardson, a Representative from Tennessee, 
24 July 188 8, from the Committee on Printing, to whom 
was referred the Senate concurrent resolution authorizing 
the printing of the Report of the Joint Select Committee on 
the Newburgh, New York, monument and centennial cele- 
bration. 

Congressional Record, V. 19: Part 7, p. 673 5. 
[H. Rept. No. 3022 . . . Serial 2605.] 

Ordered by the House of Representatives, 2 8 July 1888: 

That the report of the Joint Select Committee of Congress 
on the Newburgh, New York, monument and centennial 
celebration of 188 3, submitted on the 26th of June, 1886, 
be printed as House document. 

Congressional Record, V. 19: Part 7, p. 6990. 

[H. Mis. Doc. No. 601 . . Serial 2576.] 

SECOND SESSION OF THE FIFTIETH CONGRESS: 

1888-1889 

Senate bill (S. No. 3790) — submitted in the Senate by the Hon. 
Daniel W. Voorhees, a Senator from Indiana, 8 January 
1889, authorizing the purchase of a dressing and shaving 
table of General Washington, used by him during his 
life and mentioned in his will. — 
Journal of the Senate, p. 126. 
[Congressional Record, V. 20: Part 1, p. 596.] 

Letter of the Acting-Secretary of the Treasury, transmitting an 
estimate from the Secretary of War of an appropriation for 
furnishing and maintaining the lodge at the Washington 
Monument — presented in the Senate, 20 February 18 89, by 
the President pro tempore; presented in the House of Rep- 
resentatives, 21 February 1889, by the Speaker. 

Journal of the Senate, p. 3 52. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 5 81. 

[Congressional Record, V. 20: Part 3, pp. 2105, 2164.] 

[H. Ex. Doc. No. 149 . . Serial 26 52.] 

Amendment — proposed in the Senate by the Hon. George F. 
Hoar, a Senator from Massachusetts, 22 February 1889, to 
be inserted at the end of the Sundry Civil Appropriations 
bill (H. R. 12008) and to be designated as Section 4: 
That, in order that the centennial anniversary of the inaugu- 
ration of the first President of the United States, George 
Washington, may be duly commemorated, Tuesday, the 
30th day of April, 18 89, is hereby declared to be a national 
holiday throughout the United States. 1 And, in further 



Proclamation by Benjamin Harrison, President of the United States, 
4 April 1889, declaring Tuesday, the 30th of April, 1889, a national 
holiday. — Statutes at Large, 26: 1547. 



On George Washington 



61 



commemoration of this historic event, the two Houses of 
Congress shall assemble in the Hall of the House of Repre- 
sentatives on the second Wednesday of December, 1889, 
when suitable ceremonies shall be had under the direction of 
a joint committee . . . who shall be appointed by the pre- 
siding officers of the respective houses . . . The committee 
shall invite the Chief-Justice of the United States to de- 
liver a suitable address on the occasion . . . And for the 
purpose of defraying the expenses . . . three thousand dol- 
lars, or so much thereof as may be necessary. 

Congressional Record, V. 20: Part 3, pp. 2189, 2190. 

[Statutes at Large, 25: 980.] 

Resolution — submitted in the House of Representatives by the 
Hon. William J. Stone, a Representative from Kentucky, 
28 January 18 89, proposing that the United States Congress 
assemble in the city of New York on the 30th day of April, 
1889, and participate in the ceremonies to commemorate 
the centennial of George Washington's inauguration as 
first President of the United States. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 3 57. 
[Congressional Record, V. 20: Part 2, p. 12 5 3.] 

Resolution — submitted in the House of Representatives by the 
Hon. Charles S. Baker, a Representative from New 
York, 2 March 1889, that the Speaker of the House of Rep- 
resentatives designate nine Members-elect to the Fifty-First 
Congress to attend the centennial celebration of the in- 
auguration of the first President of the United States to 
be held in the city of New York on the iOth day of April, 
1889, and to represent the House of Representatives of the 
United States at such celebration. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 765, 771. 

[Congressional Record, V. 20: Part 3, pp. 2648, 2649, 
2683, 2717, 2724-2725.] 

FIRST SESSION OF THE FIFTY-FIRST CONGRESS: 

1889-1890 

Resolution — reported to the Senate by the Hon. William M. 
Evarts, a Senator from New York, 28 March 1889, from 
the Committee on the Library, to whom was referred the 
invitation from the committee on the centennial celebration 
of the inauguration of George Washington as first Presi- 
dent of the United States to be held in the city of New 
York, 30 April 1889, requesting the Senate to participate in 
the ceremonies. — 

Journal of the Senate (Special Session of the Senate, 4 

March 1889—2 April 1889), p. 575. 
[Congressional Record, V. 21: Part 1, p. 58.] 

Senate bill (S. No. 879) — submitted in the Senate by the Hon. 

John W. Daniel, a Senator from Virginia, 9 December 

1889, for the completion of the monument to Mary, the 

mother of Washington, at Fredericksburg, Virginia." — 

Journal of the Senate, p. 31. 

[Congressional Record, V. 21: Part 1, p. 122.] 



See House bill (H.R. No. 903) introduced by Mr. Browne, of Va., 18 
December 1889, Congressional Record, V. 21: Part 1, p. 258. 



Report— submitted in the Senate by the Hon. Frank Hiscock, 
a Senator from New York, 10 December 1889, from the 
Joint Select Committee appointed to make arrangements 
for the ceremonies in commemoration of the inauguration of 
George Washington, the first President of the United 
States, to be held in the Hall of the House of Representa- 
tives, 11 December, 1889. 2 

Journal of the Senate, p. 3 3. 

[Congressional Record, V. 21: Part 1, pp. 140-141.] 
Report — submitted in the House of Representatives by the Hon. 
Thomas M. Bayne, a Representative from Pennsylvania, 9 
December 18 89, from the Joint Select Committee appointed 
to make arrangements for the ceremonies in commemora- 
tion of the inauguration of George Washington, the first 
President of the United States, to be held in the Hall of the 
House of Representatives, 11 December 1889. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 18. 

[Congressional Record, V. 21: Part 1, pp. 132, 140.] 

Order of Proceedings on the part of the United States Congress, 
11 December 1889, in commemoration of the centennial an- 
niversary of the inauguration of George Washington as 
first President of the United States. 

Congressional Record, V. 21: Part 1, pp. 144-145, 146- 

147, 148-153. 
[H. Mis. Doc. No. 168 . . Serial 2768.] 

Concurrent resolution — reported to the Senate by the Hon. 
Frank Hiscock, a Senator from New York, 18 December 
1889, from the Joint Select Committee on the Centennial 
of Washington's Inauguration as first President of the 
United States, proposing that the thanks of Congress be . . . 
tendered to the Hon. Melville W. Fuller, Chief-Justice 
of the United States, for the appropriate address delivered 
by him in the Hall of the House of Representatives on the 
occasion of the commemoration of the inauguration of 
George Washington, the first President. — 

Journal of the Senate, p. 50. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 74. 

[Congressional Record, V. 21: Part 1, p. 214.] 

Resolution — submitted in the Senate by the Hon. William 
Call, a Senator from Florida, 16 December 1889, that 
10,000 copies be printed of the address by the Chief-Justice 
of the United States on the centennial of the inauguration 
of George Washington as first President of the United 
States. 

Journal of the Senate, p. 4 5. 

[Congressional Record, V. 2 1 : Part 1, p. 176.] 

Joint Resolution (H. J. Res. No. 47) — submitted in the House 
of Representatives by the Hon. Thomas M. Bayne, a 
Representative from Pennsylvania, 20 December 1889, au- 
thorizing the printing of an address by Chief-Justice 
Fuller. — 

Congressional Record, V. 21: Part 1, pp. 339, 521. 

= The Joint Select Committee for arrangements in commemoration of the 
centennial of Washington's inauguration as first President of the 
United States, was appointed under Section 4 of the Sundry Civil 
Appropriation bill (H.R. 12008), which was approved 2 March 1889. 
— Journal of the Senate (5 0th Congress, 2nd Session), pp. 3 77, 548. 



62 



The United States Congress 



Concurrent Resolution — reported to the House of Representa- 
tives by the Hon. James D. Richardson, a Representative 
from Tennessee, 13 January 1890, from the Committee on 
Printing, with the recommendation that it be adopted in 
lieu of the Bayne joint resolution (H. J. Res. No. 47), and 
proposing that 2 5,000 copies be printed of the address by 
Chief- Justice Fuller on the centennial of the first in- 
auguration of Washington as President. 

Congressional Record, V. 21: Part 1, pp. 521, 540; Part 

3, pp. 2428-2429. 
[H. Mis. Doc. No. 168 . . Serial 2768.] 

Senate bill (S. No. 860) — submitted in the Senate by the Hon. 
James Donald Cameron, a Senator from Pennsylvania, 9 
December 1889, making an appropriation for the improve- 
ment of Washington's Headquarters at Valley Forge. — 
Journal of the Senate, p. 30. 
[Congressional Record, V. 21: Part 1, p. 122.] 

Senate bill (S. No. 3 544) — submitted in the Senate by the Hon. 
John S. Barbour, a Senator from Virginia, 16 April 1890, 
providing for the purchase of certain original journals and 
other relics of General George Washington. — 
journal of the Senate, p. 234. 
[Congressional Record, V. 21: Part 4, p. 3417.] 

Joint Resolution (H. J. Res. No. 100) — submitted in the House 
of Representatives by the Hon. Logan J. Chipman, a 
Representative from Michigan, 17 February 1890, author- 
izing the purchase of the sword ivorn by General George 
Washington at Braddock's defeat. — 

journal of the Home of Representatives, p. 246. 
[Congressional Record, V. 21: Part 2, p. 1429.] 

FIRST SESSION OF THE FIFTY-SECOND CONGRESS: 
1891-1892 

Senate bill (S. No. 793) — submitted in the Senate by the Hon. 
John W. Daniel, a Senator from Virginia, 14 December 

1891, for the completion of the monument to Mary, the 
mother of Washington, at Fredericksburg, Virginia. — 

journal of the Senate, p. 29. 

[Congressional Record, V. 23: Part 1, p. 44.] 

Senate bill (S. No. 1546) — submitted in the Senate by the Hon. 
John W. Daniel, a Senator from Virginia, 1 1 January 

1892, appropriating $100,000 for the construction of Mount 
Vernon Avenue. 

journal of the Senate, p. 54. 

Congressional Record, V. 23: Part 1, p. 241. 

Joint Resolution (S. J. Res. No. 102) — submitted in the Senate 
by the Hon. John W. Daniel, a Senator from Virginia, 
19 July 1892, to provide for the construction of a wharf 
as a means of approach to the monument to be erected at 
Wakefield, Virginia, to mark the birthplace of George 
Washington. — Approved, 25 February 1893. 1 
journal of the Senate, p. 3 81. 

[Congressional Record, V. 23: Part 7, pp. 6429, 6448.] 



Also H. R. 6884. 5 3rd Congress — 2nd Session. 



House bill (H. R. No. 2766) — submitted in the House of Repre- 
sentatives by the Hon. Elisha E. Meredith, a Representa- 
tive from Virginia, 11 January 1892, to commence the con- 
struction of the Mount Vernon Avenue. 2 

Congressional Record, V. 23: Part 1, p. 253; Part 2, 
p. 1775. 

House bill (R. R. 7989) — submitted in the House of Repre- 
sentatives by the Hon. John H. Ketcham, a Representa- 
tive from New York, 7 April 1892, to provide for the pur- 
chase of the painting of the house at Mount Vernon by 
Robert Fulton Ludlow. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 278. 

Congressional Record, V. 23: Part 4, p. 3072. 

SECOND SESSION OF THE FIFTY-SECOND 
CONGRESS: 1892-1893 

Report — submitted in the House of Representatives by the Hon. 
Charles T. Ferrall, a Representative from Virginia, 17 
February, 1893, from the Committee on the Library, to ac- 
company the Senate joint resolution (S. J. Res. No. 102) to 
provide for the construction of a wharf as a means of ap- 
proach to the monument to be erected at Wakefield, Vir- 
ginia, to mark the birthplace of George Washington. 
Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 95. 
[Congressional Record, V. 24: Part 2, p. 1744.] 
[H. Rept. No. 2527 . . . Serial 3142.] 

Resolution — submitted in the Senate by the Hon. George F. 
Hoar, a Senator from Massachusetts, 14 February, 1893, 
that on the 22nd of February, current, the anniversary of 
the birthday of George Washington, the Senate shall meet 
at 12 o'clock noon, and after the reading of the Journal, 
shall listen to the reading of Washington's Farewell Ad- 
dress by the Senator from Nebraska, President pro tern pot e 
of the Senate. 

Journal of the Senate, pp. 108, 110, 124. 

[Congressional Record, V. 24: Part 2, pp. 1565, 1609, 
1997.] 

[S. Mis. Doc. No. 5 2 . . . Serial 3064.] 

SECOND SESSION OF THE FIFTY-THIRD CONGRESS 

1893-1894 

Ordered by the Senate, 20 February 1894 — on motion by Mr. 
Harris, a Senator from Tennessee. 

That Mr. Martin, a Senator from the State of Kansas, be 
requested immediately after the routine morning business 
of the Senate on the 22nd instant, to read the Farewell 
Address of George Washington, first President of the 
United States. 

Journal of the Senate, pp. 91, 94. 

[Congressional Record, V. 26: Part 3, pp. 2309, 23 59.] 

2 The Senate Joint Resolution (S.J. Res. No. 102) was approved during the 
second session of the Fifty-Second Congress. 
Journal of the Senate, p. 132. 
[Congressional Record, V. 24: Part 3, p. 2148.] 



On George Washington 



House bill (H. R. No. 49 5 8) — submitted in the House of Repre- 
sentatives by the Hon. Charles E. Hooker, a Representa- 
tive from Mississippi, 3 January 1894, making an appropri- 
ation for the Anacostia statue of Washington. — 
Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 5 5. 
[Congressional Record, V. 26: Part 1, p. 487.] 

Joint Resolution (H. J. Res. No. 183) — submitted in the House 
of Representatives by the Hon. Allan C. Durborow, a 
Representative from Illinois, 28 May 1894, instructing the 
officers in charge to keep .... the Washington 
Monument open every week-day from 9 A. M. to 6 P. M., 
and on Sundays from 9 A. M. to 4 P. M., and on not less 
than three evenings every week from 7 to 10 o'clock. — 
Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 407. 
[Congressional Record, V. 26: Part 6, p. 5432.] 

FIRST SESSION OF THE FIFTY-FOURTH CONGRESS: 

1895-1896 

Resolution — submitted in the Senate by the Hon. George F. 
Hoar, a Senator from Massachusetts, 11 February 1896, 
that on the 22nd day of February, current, immediately after 
the reading the the journal, Washington's Farewell Ad- 
dress be read to the Senate by the President pro tempore. 
Journal of the Senate, pp. 124, 146. 
[Congressional Record, V. 28: Part 2, p. 1573; Part 3. 
p. 2042.] 

Senate bill (S. No. 2620) — submitted in the Senate by the Hon. 
John W. Daniel, a Senator from Virginia, 24 March 1896, 
to provide for placing a suitable memorial of General 
George Washington at Washington and Lee University, 
in Lexington, Virginia. — 

Journal of the Senate, p. 203. 

[Congressional Record, V. 28: Part 4, p. 3118.] 

House bill (H. R. 3 5 54) — submitted in the House of Repre- 
sentatives by the Hon. Elisha E. Meredith, a Representa- 
tive from Virginia, 9 January 1896, making an appropri- 
ation for the Anacostia statue of Washington. — 
journal of the House of Representatives, p. 100. 
[Congressional Record, V. 28: Part 1, p. 543.] 

Letter of the Acting-Secretary of the Treasury, transmitting a 
communication from the Secretary of State asking an appro- 
priation for the employment of a watchman to care for the 
monument now being erected at the birthplace of Wash- 
ington — presented in the House of Representatives, 6 
March 1896, by the Speaker. 

Congressional Record, V. 28: Part 3, p. 2552. 
[H. Doc. No. 284 . . . . Serial 3428.] 

SECOND SESSION OF THE FIFTY-FOURTH CONGRESS: 
1896-1897 



63 




Resolution — submitted in the Senate by the Hon. George F. 
Hoar, a Senator from Massachusetts, 19 February 1897, 
that on Monday, February the 22nd, current, immediately 
after the reading of the Journal, Washington's Farewell 



James Madison, a Representative from Virginia, 
Reported in the House of Representatives, May 7, 
1789, an Address to President George Washington. 

Address be read to the Senate by Mr. Daniel, a Senator 
from the State of Virginia. 

Journal of the Senate, pp. 13 5, 139. 

[Congressional Record, V. 29: Part 2, p. 1992; Part 3, 
p. 2072.] 
Letter of the Secretary of State, transmitting a letter from 
Colonel John M. Wilson, Corps of Engineers, United 
States Army, dated 28 January 1897 — reporting the com- 
pletion of the work with which he has been intrusted con- 
cerning the erection of the monument to mark the birth- 
place of General George Washington, at Wakefield, 
Virginia. 

Congressional Record, V. 29: Part 2, pp. 1634, 1665. 

[S. Doc. No. 114 . . . Serial 3470.] 

SECOND SESSION OF TFIE FIFTY-FIFTH CONGRESS: 

1897-1898 
Resolution — submitted in the Senate by the Hon. George F. 
Hoar, a Senator from Massachusetts, 8 February 1898, that 
on Tuesday, February the 22nd, current, immediately after 
the reading of the Journal, Washington's Farewell Address 
be read to the Senate by Mr. Lodge, a Senator from the 
State of Massachusetts. 

Journal of the Senate, pp. 92, 120. 

[Congressional Record, V. 3 1 : Part 2, pp. 1495, 2014.] 
Resolution — submitted in the Senate by the Hon. John T. Mor- 
gan, a Senator from Alabama, 22 February 1898, proposing 



64 



The United States Congress 



that the Committee on Naval Affairs be instructed to in- 
quire and report whether a man-of-war equal, at least, to 
any warship in the world, to be named The George Wash- 
ington, can be built, armed, and commissioned within the 
period of twelve months, by the use of the facilities of the 
shipyards, machine shops, mines and forests of the United 
States wherever the same be found. 

Journal of the Senate, p. 121. 

[Congressional Record, V. 31: Part 3, p. 2018.] 

THIRD SESSION OF THE FIFTY-FIFTH CONGRESS: 

1898-1899 

Resolution — submitted in the Senate by the Hon. George F. 
Hoar, a Senator from Massachusetts, 20 December 1898, 
that on Wednesday, 22 February 1899, immediately after 
the reading of the Journal Washington's Farewell Ad- 
dress be read to the Senate by Mr. Wolcott, a Senator from 
the State of Colorado. 

Journal of the Senate, pp. 34, 140-141. 
[Congressional Record, V. 32: Part 1, p. 324; Part 3, 
p. 2171.] 

Resolutions — submitted in the Senate by the Hon. William E. 
Mason, a Senator from Illinois, 20 January 1899, request- 
ing that the Farewell Address of President Washington 
be read on Wednesday, the 22nd of February, 1899, or on 
the day before, in each and all the public schools through- 
out the United States; in the universities, colleges, and 
private schools throughout the entire United States; and 
that the newspapers throughout the United States publish 
the said address. — 

Journal of the Senate, p. 68. 

[Congressional Record, V. 32: Part 1, p. 830.] 

FIRST SESSION OF THE FIFTY-SIXTH CONGRESS: 
1899-1900 

Communication from the Great Council of the United States 
Improved Order of Red Men, inviting the United States 
Senate to attend the centennial memorial services commem- 
orative of the life and death of George Washington — 
presented in the Senate, 7 December 1899, by the Hon. 
William P. Frye, President pro tempore. 

Journal of the Senate, p. 29. 

[Congressional Record, V. 33; Part 1, pp. 129-130.] 

Senate bill (S. No. 1605) — submitted in the Senate by the 
Hon. George Graham Vest, a Senator from Missouri, 14 
December 1899, for the purchase of a bronze portrait statue 
of George Washington. 

Journal of the Senate, p. 46. 

[Congressional Record, V. 33: Part 1, p. 377.] 

Resolution — submitted in the Senate by the Hon. George F. 
Hoar, a Senator from Massachusetts, 30 January 1900, that 
on Thursday, the 22nd day of February, current, immedi- 
ately after the reading of the Journal, Washington's Fare- 



xvell Address be read to the Senate by Mr. Foraker, a Sena- 
tor from Ohio. 

Journal of the Senate, pp. 107, 15 5. 

[Congressional Record, V. 33: Part 2, p. 1295; Part 3, 
p. 2059.] 
Resolution — reported to the Senate by the Hon. Thomas C. 
Platt, a Senator from New York, 12 February 1900, from 
the Committee on Printing, authorizing and directing the 
Secretary of the Senate to have printed and bound at the 
Government Printing Office, for the personal use of Sena- 
tors, 100 copies of Washington's Valedictory Address to 
the People of the United States, using for their purpose the 
form of the same printed in pursuance of a resolution of the 
House of Representatives adopted on the 22nd day of Feb- 
ruary, 1837. — 

Journal of the Senate, p. 13 5. 

[Congressional Record, V. 33: Part 2, p. 1705.] 
Senate bill (S. No. 4142) — submitted in the Senate by the Hon. 
James McMillan, a Senator from Michigan, 11 April 1900, 
for the purchase of a replica of the bronze equestrian statue 
of General George Washington by Daniel Chester 
French and Edward C. Potter. — 

Journal of the Senate, p. 267. 

[Congressional Record, V. 33: Part 5, p. 4000.] 

[S. Rept. No. 2179 (5 6th Congress, 2nd Ses- 
sion) Serial 4065.] 

Report — submitted to the House of Representatives by the Hon. 
James T. McCleary, a Representative from Minnesota, 4 
June 1900, from the Committee on the Library, to whom 
was referred the House bill (H.R. No. 5795), introduced by 
Mr. Cowherd, a Representative from Missouri, 10 January 
1900, for the purchase of a bronze portrait statue of 
George Washington. 1 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 147, 671. 

[Congressional Record, V. 33: Part 1, p. 754; Part 7, 
p. 6571.] 

[H. Rept. No. 1951 . . . Serial 4027.] 
Resolution (H. Res. No. 141) — submitted in the House of Rep- 
resentatives by the Hon. Ernest F. Acheson, a Represen- 
tative from Pennsylvania, 9 February 1900, providing for 
the printing of 6,000 copies of the funeral oration on the 
death of General Washington, delivered in the German 
Lutheran Church, Philadelphia, 26 December 1799. — 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 249. 

[Congressional Record, V. 33: Part 2, p. 168 5.] 
House bill (H. R. No. 10495)— submitted in the House of Rep- 
resentatives by the Hon. George A. Pearre, a Represen- 
tative from Maryland, 5 April 1900, to erect a transparent 
Water's weather case over the marble statue of George 
Washington. — 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 440, 442. 

[Congressional Record, V. 33: Part 4, pp. 3 824-3825.] 



Motion by Mr. Cowherd, 27 February 1901, to suspend the rules and pass 
the bill (H.R. $79$) was not agreed to, and there seems to have been 
no further action. Congressional Record (5 6th Congress, 2nd Ses- 
sion), V. 34: Part 4, p. 3185. 



On George Washington 



65 



SECOND SESSION OF THE FIFTY-SIXTH CONGRESS: 
1900-1901 

Ordered by the Senate, 24 January 1901 — on motion by Mr. 
Hoar, a Senator from Massachusetts: 

That, unless otherwise directed, on the 22nd day of February 
in each year, or if that shall be on Sunday, then on the day 
following, immediately after the reading of the Journal, 
Washington's Farewell Address shall be read to the Senate 
by a Senator to be designated for the purpose by the presiding 
officer. 

Journal of the Senate, pp. 103, 105, 197-198. 
[Congressional Record, V. 34: Part 2, pp. 1385, 1434; 
Part 3, p. 2797.] 

Report — submitted in the Senate by the Hon. George Peabody 
Wetmore, a Senator from Rhode Island, 7 February 1901, 
from the Committee on the Library, to whom was referred 
the Senate bill (S. No. 4142), introduced by Mr. McMil- 
lan, a Senator from Michigan, 11 April 1900, for the pur- 
chase of a replica of the bronze equestrian statue of General 
George Washington by Daniel Chester French and Ed- 
ward C. Potter. — 

Journal of the Senate, pp. 147-148, 175. 

[Congressional Record, V. 34: Part 3, pp. 2050, 2442, 
2602; Part 4, 3099.] 

[S. Rept. No. 2179 . . . Serial 4065.] 

Report — submitted in the House of Representatives by the Hon. 
James H. Southard, a Representative from Ohio, 18 Feb- 
ruary 1901, from the Committee on Coinage, Weights, and 
Measures to whom was referred the House bill (H. R. No. 
9345 ) , introduced by Mr. Rixey, a Representative from Vir- 
ginia, 9 March 1900, to provide certain memorial medals for 
the benefit of the Washington Monument Association of 
Alexandria, Virginia. — 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 244. 
[Congressional Record, V. 34: Part 3, p. 2614.] 
[H. Rept. No. 2906 . . . Serial 4214.] 

FIRST SESSION OF THE FIFTY-SEVENTH CONGRESS: 

1901-1902 

Senate bill (S. No. 3618) — submitted in the Senate by the Hon. 
George Graham Vest, a Senator from Missouri, 6 February 
1902, for the purchase of a bronze portrait statue of George 
Washington. 

Journal of the Senate, p. 13 8. 

[Congressional Record, V. 35: Part 2, p. 1372.] 

Senate bill (S. No. 53 58) — submitted in the Senate by the Hon. 
James McMillan, a Senator from Michigan, 21 April 1902, 
for the purchase of a replica of the bronze equestrian statue 
of General George Washington by Daniel Chester 
French and Edward C. Potter. — 
Journal of the Senate, p. 339. 
[Congressional Record, V. 3 5: Part 5, p. 4464.] 

Senate bill (S. No. 4546) — submitted in the Senate by the Hon. 
Thomas S. Martin, a Senator from Virginia, 15 March 



1902, to provide for certain souvenir medals for the benefit 
of the Washington Monument Association of Alexandria, 
Virginia. — Approved, 1 July, 1902. 

Journal of the Senate, pp. 234, 544, 565, 567. 
[Congressional Record, V. 3 5 : Part 3, p. 2819; Part 8, 
pp. 7778-7779, 7750, 7793, 7794.] 

House bill (H. R. No. 8 317) — submitted in the House of Rep- 
resentatives by Hon. William S. Cowherd, a Representa- 
tive from Missouri, 8 January 1902, for the purchase of a 
bronze portrait statue of George Washington. — 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 192. 
[Congressional Record, V. 3 5: Part 1, p. 5 30.] 

House bill (H. R. No. 11349) — submitted in the House of Rep- 
resentatives by the Hon. William S. Cowherd, a Repre- 
sentative from Missouri, 14 February 1902, for the purchase 
of a bronze portrait statue of George Washington. — 
Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 347. 
[Congressional Record, V. 35: Part 2, p. 1779.] 

House bill (H. R. No. 15111) — submitted in the House of Rep- 
resentatives by the Hon. Charles F. Joy, a Representative 
from Missouri, 14 June 1902, for the purchase of the original 
Houdon life cast bust of George Washington. — 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 811. 
[Congressional Record, V. 3 5: Part 7, p. 683 5.] 

Report — submitted to the House of Representatives by the Hon. 
James H. Southard, a Representative from Ohio, 25 March 
1902, from the Committee on Coinage, Weights, and Meas- 
ures, to whom was referred the bill (H. R. No. 2766) , intro- 
duced, 3 December 1901, by Mr. Rixey, a Representative 
from Virginia, to provide for the coinage of certain memorial 
half dollars for the benefit of the Washington Monument 
Association of Alexandria, Virginia. 1 

journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 63, 5 21. 
[Congressional Record, V. 3 5: Part 1, p. 105; Part 4, 

p. 3261.] 
[H. Rept. No. 1181 . . . Serial 4403.] 

SECOND SESSION OF THE FIFTY-SEVENTH CONGRESS: 
1902-1903 

Ordered by the Senate, 6 February 1903 — on motion by Mr. Gal- 
linger, a Senator from New Hampshire, and by unanimous 
consent, that certain valuable papers relating to the history 
of the Washington Monument be printed as a Senate docu- 
ment. 

Journal of the Senate, p. 143. 

[Congressional Record, V. 3 6: Part 2, p. 1776.] 

[S. Doc. No. 224 . . . Serial 4416.1 



This bill was re-introduced (H.R. 16229) in the Second Session of the 
Sixty-First Congress by Mr. Carlin, of Virginia, 2 December 1909, 
Congressional Record, V. 45: Part 1, p. 287; and again (H.R. 1329), 
in the First Session of the Sixty-Second Congress, 4 April 1911, Con- 
gressional Record, V. 47: Part 1, p. 27. 



66 



The United States Congress 






SECOND SESSION OF THE FIFTY-EIGHTH CONGRESS: 
1903-1904 

Senate bill (S. 3721) — submitted in the Senate by the Hon. 
Francis M. Cockrell, a Senator from Missouri, 22 January 
1904, for the purchase of a bronze portrait statue of George 
Washington. 2 

Journal of the Senate, p. 102. 

[Congressional Record, V. 38: Part 2, p. 1017.] 

Senate bill (S. No. 3 802) — submitted in the Senate by the Hon. 
Louis E. McComas, a Senator from Maryland, 2 5 January 
1904, to enable the Joint Committee on the Library to pur- 
chase the sword of General George Washington from 
Virginia Taylor Lewis. 

Journal of the Senate, p. 111. 

[Congressional Record, V. 38: Part 2, p. 1101.] 

Message from Theodore Roosevelt, President of the United States, 
transmitting a Report of the Acting Secretary of State rela- 
tive to the desire of certain citizens of France to present this 
Government with a bust of Washington by David D' 'An- 
gers, and place it in the Capitol — presented in the Senate, 1 2 
January 1904, by the President pro tempore; presented in the 
House of Representatives, 12 January 1904, by the Speaker. 

[Congressional Record, V. 38: Part 1, pp. 614, 681, 
738.] 

[S. Doc. No. 78 . . . Serial 4 5 88.] 

Letter from the Secretary of State, transmitting a dispatch from 
the embassy at Paris reporting the intention of The Marquis 
de la Fayette, the Marquis de Grasse, and other French gentle- 
men to present to this Government a bust of Washington 
— presented in the Senate, 28 January 1904, with certain 
other letters and papers, by the Hon. Shelby M. Cullom, a 
Senator from Illinois, with the request that they be printed. 
[Congressional Record, V. 38: Part 2, p. 1299.] 
[S. Doc. No. 78, No. 2 . . . Serial 4588.] 

Joint Resolution (S. J. Res. No. 36) — reported to the Senate by 
the Hon. Shelby M. Cullom, a Senator from Illinois, 28 
January, 1904, from the Committee on Foreign Relations, 
accepting a reproduction of the bust of Washington from 
certain citizens of the Republic of France, and tendering the 
thanks of Congress to the donors therefor. — Approved, 28 
April 1904. 

Journal of the Senate, pp. 126, 461, 469, 470. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 220, 701, 

712, 713. 
[Congressional Record, V. 38: Part 2, pp. 1299, 1403; 
Part 6, pp. 5804, 5824, 5845.] 

House bill (H. R. No. 10865) — submitted in the House of Rep- 
resentatives by the Hon. Ira E. Ridi;r, a Representative 
from New York, 22 January 1904, to provide for placing 

s The bill (S. No. 3721) was reported back to the Senate by Mr. Cock- 
rell, of Missouri, 7 December 1904, and indefinitely postponed. 
Congressional Record (5 8th Congress, 3rd Session), V. 39: Part 1, 
p. 4(5. 



in the public schools of the District of Columbia copies of 
the bust of Washington. — 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 188. 

[Congressional Record, Part 2, p. 1070.] 

THIRD SESSION OF THE FIFTY-EIGHTH CONGRESS: 
1904-1905 

Senate bill (S. No. 5846) — submitted in the Senate by the Hon. 
Francis M. Cockrell, a Senator from Missouri, 7 Decem- 
ber 1904, for the purchase of a bronze portrait statue of 
George Washington. — 

Journal of the Senate, p. 19. 

[Congressional Record, V. 39: Part 1, p. 49.] 

Senate bill (S. No. 7009) — submitted in the Senate by the Hon. 
John W. Daniel, a Senator from Virginia, February 1, 
1905, to appropriate a sum of money to the Mount Vernon 
Avenue Association as assignee of the State of Virginia. — 
Journal of the Senate, p. 159. 
[Congressional Record, V. 39: Part 1, p. 1669.] 

Resolution — submitted in the Senate by the Hon. William P. 
Frye, a Senator from Maine, 14 February 1905, that the 
Secretary of the Treasury be directed to inform the Senate 
what was the amount of the bequest made by George 
Washington to the United States for the foundation of the 
university and what appropriation was made of it. — 
Journal of the Senate, p. 212. 
[Congressional Record, V. 39: Part 3, pp. 2 513, 2706.] 

Letter from the Secretary of the Treasury, 15 February 1905, 
stating, in response to a resolution of the Senate, 14 February 
1905, the amount of the bequest made by George Wash- 
ington to the United States for the foundation of the uni- 
versity, and what appropriation was made of said bequest 
Journal of the Senate, p. 227. 
[Congressional Record, V. 39: Part 3, p. 2706.] 
[S. Doc. No. 164 ... . Serial 4766.] 

Ordered by the Senate, 3 March 1905 — by request of Mr. Wei 
more, a Senator from Rhode Island, on behalf of the Joint 
Committee on the Library: 

That there be printed for the use of the Senate, and deliv- 
ered to the document room, 500 additional copies of the Re- 
port of the Joint Committee on the Library in connection 
with the presentation of a bust of Washington by certain 
citizens of France, with two accompanying illustrations. 
Journal of the Senate, p. 316. 
[Congressional Record, V. 39: Part 4, p. 3929.] 
[S. Rept. No. 43 97 ... . Serial 4778.] 

Letter from the Secretary of the Treasury, transmitting a copy of 
a communication from the Secretary of War, submitting an 
estimate of appropriation for repairs to the Washington 
Monument — presented in the House of Representatives, 9 
December 1904, by the Speaker. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 3 8. 
[Congressional Record, V. 39: Part 1, p. 115.] 
[H. Doc. No. 84 . . . . Serial 4829.] 



t. 






On George Washington 



67 



FIRST SESSION OF THE FIFTY-NINTH CONGRESS: 
1905-1906 

Senate bill (S. No. 152) — submitted in the Senate by the Hon. 
John W. Daniels, a Senator from Virginia, 6 December 
1905, to provide for the building of a public avenue on the 
south side of the Potomac River from the city of Washing- 
ton to Mount Vernon. — 

Journal of the Senate, pp. 24, 470. 

[Congressional Record, V. 40: Part 1, p. 141; Part 7, 
p. 6434.] 

Ordered by the Senate, 26 June 1906 — on motion by Mr. Wet- 
more, a Senator from Rhode Island, that a communication 
from the Joint Committee on the Library, transmitting a let- 
ter from the French ambassador, together with translation, 
relating to the volume published by order of the Senate giv- 
ing an account of the ceremonies on the occasion of unveil- 
ing of the bust of Washington presented to Congress by 
certain citizens of France be printed in the Record, and also 
as a Senate document. 

Congressional Record, V. 40: Part 10, p. 9245. 
[S. Doc. No. 505 . . . . Serial 4916.] 

House bill (H. R. No. 16674) — submitted in the House of Rep- 
resentatives by the Hon. Theobold Otjen, a Representa- 
tive from Wisconsin, 13 March 1906, to purchase the his- 
torical art window, by Maria Herndl, of George Wash- 
ington. — 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 652. 
[Congressional Record, V. 40: Part 4, p. 3759.] 

Joint Resolution (H. J. Res. No. 13) — submitted in the House 
of Representatives by the Hon. J. A. Goulden, a Repre- 
sentative from New York, 4 December 1905, providing for 
the purchase and placing of Wilson McDonald's busts of 
Washington and Lincoln in the District public schools. — 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 50. 
[Congressional Record, V. 40: Part 1, pp. 5 5-56.] 

SECOND SESSION OF THE FIFTY-NINTH CONGRESS: 
1906-1907 

Joint Resolution (S. J. Res. No. 89) — submitted in the Senate 
by the Hon. Murphy Foster, a Senator from Louisiana, 2 5 
January 1907, authorizing the printing and indexing of the 
complete orders of General George Washington dur- 
ing the War of the Revolution. — 

Journal of the Senate, p. 160. 

[Congressional Record, V. 41: Part 2, p. 1617.] 

Report — submitted to the House of Representatives by the Hon. 
James T. McCleary, a Representative from Minnesota, 2 
March 1907, from the Committee on the Library, to whom 
was referred the bill (H. R. No. 258 53), introduced, 28 
February 1907, by Mr. Otjen, of Wisconsin, authorizing 
the purchase of the historical art window, by Maria Herndl, 
of George Washington. — 

Congressional Record, V. 41: Part 5, pp. 4313, 45 3 5. 
[H. Rept. No. 8158 . . . Serial 5065.] 



FIRST SESSION OF THE SIXTIETH CONGRESS: 

1907-1908 

Senate bill (S. No. 1238) — submitted in the Senate by the Hon. 
Thomas S. Martin, a Senator from Virginia, 5 December 
1907, to re-imburse the estate of General George Wash- 
ington for certain lands of his in the State of Ohio lost by 
conflicting grants made under the authority of the United 
States. 1 

Journal of the Senate, p. 4 5. 

[Congressional Record, V. 42: Part 1, p. 173.] 

Senate bill (No. 1047) — submitted in the Senate by the Hon. 
John W. Daniel, a Senator from Virginia, 5 December 

1907, to provide for the building of a public avenue on the 
south side of the Potomac River from the city of Wash- 
ton to Mount Vernon. — 

Journal of the Senate, pp. 42, 230. 
[Congressional Record, V. 42: Part 1, p. 170; Part 3, 
p. 2018.] 

Senate bill (S. No. 52 52) — submitted in the Senate by the Hon. 
John W. Daniel, a Senator from Virginia, 1 1 February 

1908, to provide for the building of a public avenue on the 
south side of the Potomac River from the city of Wash- 
ington to Mount Vernon. 

Journal of the Senate, pp. 221, 361, 450. 
[Congressional Record, V. 42: Part 2, p. 1802; Part 5, 

p. 4458; Part 7, pp. 6305-6306, 6435.] 
[S. Rept. No. 480 ... . Serial 5219.] 

Report — submitted to the Senate by the Hon. Thomas S. Mar- 
tin, a Senator from Virginia, 7 April 1908, from the Com- 
mittee on claims, to whom was referred the bill (S. No. 
52 52), introduced, 11 February 1908, by Mr. Daniel, a 
Senator from Virginia, to provide for the building of a 
public avenue on the south side of the Potomac River from 
the city of Washington to Mount Vernon. — 

Journal of the Senate, pp. 221, 361, 450, 936, 939. 

[Congressional Record, V. 42: Part 2, p. 1802; Part 5, 
p. 4458; Part 7, pp. 6305, 6435.] 

[S. Rept. No. 480 ... . Serial 5219.] 

Report — submitted to the Senate by the Hon. George Peabody 
Wetmore, a Senator from Rhode Island, 18 April 1908, 
from the Committee on the Library, to whom was referred 
the joint resolution (H. J. Res. No. 124) authorizing the 
presentation of the statue of President Washington, now 
located in the Capitol grounds, to the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution. 



This bill was re-introduced: (S. 8391), by Mr. Martin, of Virginia, 24 
May 1910, 61st Congress, 2nd Session, Congressional Record, V. 45: 
Part 7, p. 6840; (S. 3627, in the same session) by Mr. Daniel, of 
Virginia, 10 December 1909, Congressional Record, V. 45: Part 1, 
p. 75; (S. 2535), by Mr. Martin, of Virginia, 29 May 1911, 62nd 
Congress, 1st Session, Congressional Record, V. 47: Part 2, p. 1597; 
(S. 1406), 24 April 1913, 63rd Congress, 1st Session, Congressional 
Record, V. 5 0: Part 1, p. 3 68; (S. 3137), 7 January 1916, 64th 
Congress, 1st Session, Congressional Record, V. 53: Part 1, p. 494; (S- 
3 51), 4 April 1917, 65th Congress, 1st Session, Congressional Record, 
V. 5 5: Part 1, p. 193; (S. 1475), 6 June 1919, 66th Congress, 1st 
Session, Congressional Record, V. 5 8: Part 1, p. 727*— 



68 



The United States Congress 



Journal of the Senate, p. 3 81. 
[Congressional Record, V. 42: Part 5, p. 4901.] 
[S. Kept. No. 543 ... . Serial 5219.] 
Report — submitted to the House of Representatives by the Hon. 
Samuel W. McCaix, a Representative from Massachusetts, 
14 February 1908, from the Committee on the Library, to 
whom was referred the joint resolution (H. J. Res. No. 
124) authorizing the presentation of the statue of Presi- 
dent Washington, now located in the Capitol grounds, 
to the Smithsonian Institution. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 463. 
[Congressional Record, V. 42: Part 3, p. 2051.] 
[H. Rept. No. 900 ... . Serial 5225.] 
Joint Resolution (H. J. Res. No. 124) — submitted in the House 
of Representatives by the Hon. James R. Mann, a Repre- 
sentative from Illinois, 31 January 1908, authorizing the 
presentation of the statue of President Washington, now 
located in the Capitol grounds, to the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion. — Approved 22 May 1908. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 399, 463, 

609, 933, 943, 950, 968, 981. 
Journal of the Senate, pp. 315, 381, 450, 461, 470, 

493. 
[Congressional Record, V. 42: Part 2, p. 1434; Part 3, 
p. 2051; Part 4, pp. 3461-3462, 3558; Part 5, p. 
4901; Part 7, pp. 6307, 6516, 6592, 6625, 6779, 
6893.] 
House bill (H. R. No. 16647) — reported to the House of Rep- 
resentatives by the Hon. Samuel W. McCall, a Repre- 
sentative from Massachusetts, 17 April 1908, from the 
Committee on the Library, for the erection of a replica of 
John Quincy Adams Ward's statue of Washington. 2 
Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 431, 730. 
[Congressional Record, V. 42: Part 2, p. 1737; Part 5, 

p. 4896.] 
[H. Rept. No. 1466 .... Serial 5226.] 
House bill (H. R. No. 21210) — submitted in the House of 
Representatives by the Hon. William H. Stafford, a 
Representative from Wisconsin, 23 April 1908, authorizing 
the purchase of the stained-glass painting of George 
Washington by Maria Hendrl. — 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 828. 
[Congressional Record, V. 42: Part 6, p. 5146.] 
Resolution (H. J. Res. 140) — submitted in the House of Rep- 
resentatives by the Hon. J. Adams Bede, a Representative 
from Minnesota, 17 February 1908, authorizing the print- 
ing of 10,000 copies of the complete orders of General 
Washington during the war of the Revolution. 
Journal of the House, pp. 474, 821. 
[Congressional Record, V. 42: Part 3, p. 2106; Part 6, 

p. 5566.] 
[H. Rept. No. 1568 ... . Serial 5226.] 



Report — submitted in the House of Representatives by the Hon. 
Charles B. Landis, a Representative from Indiana, 1 May 
1908, from the Committee on Printing, to whom was re- 
ferred the joint resolution (H. J. Res. No. 140), intro- 
duced, 17 February 1908, by Mr. Bede, a Representative 
from Minnesota, authorizing the printing of 10,000 copies 
of the complete orders of General Washington during 
the War of the Revolution. — 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 474, 821. 

[Congressional Record, V. 42: Part 3, p. 2106; Part 6, 
5566.] 

[H. Rept. No. 1568 .... Serial 5226.] 

House bill (H.R. No. 21842) — submitted in the House of Rep- 
resentatives by the Hon. Morris Sheppard, a Represent- 
ative from Texas, 12 May 1908, for the erection of a suit- 
able memorial to the mother of Washington. 1 

Jotmial of the House of Representatives, p. 1029. 
[Congressional Record, V. 42: Part 7, p. 6170.] 

Joint Resolution (H. J. Res. No. 11) — submitted in the House 
of Representatives by the Hon. Joseph A. Goulden, a 
Representative from New York, 2 December 1907, pro- 
viding for the purchase and placing of Mr. Wilson Mc- 
Donald's colossal busts of George Washington and Abra- 
ham Lincoln in each public school building in the District 
of Columbia. — 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 9. 

[Congressional Record, V. 42: Part 1, p. 24.] 

House bill (H. R. No. 5489) — submitted in the House of Rep- 
resentatives by the Hon. Henry D. Flood, a Representa- 
tive from Virginia, 5 December 1907, to re-imburse the 
estate of General George Washington for certain lands 
of his in the State of Ohio lost by conflicting grants made 
under the authority of the United States. 2 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 112, 373. 
[Congressional Record, V. 42: Part 1, p. 194; Part 2, 
p. 1314.] 

FIRST SESSION OF THE SIXTY-FIRST CONGRESS: 
1909 

Senate bill (S. No. 3193) — submitted in the Senate by the Hon. 
John W. Daniel, a Senator from Virginia, 5 August 1909, 
to provide for the building of a public avenue on the south 
side of the Potomac River from the city of Washington to 
Mount Vernon. 

Journal of the Senate, p. 183. 



The bill was rc-introduced: (H.R. 2245), by Mr. McCall, of Massachu- 
setts, 18 March 1909, 61st Congress, 1st Session, Congressional Record, 
V. 44: Part 1, p. 104; (S. 3120), by Mr. O'Gorman, of New York, 
15 September 1913, 63rd Congress, 1st Session, Congressional Record, 
V. 50: Part 5, p. 4938.— 



This bill was re-introduced: (H.R. 2128) by Mr. Sheppard, of Texas, 
18 March 1909, 61st Congress, 1st Session, Congressional Record, 
V. 44: Part 1, p. 102. — 

This bill was re-introduced (H.R. 5266), 26 March 1909, 61st Congress, 
1st Session, Congressional Record, V. 44: Part 1, p. 391; (H.R 
18018), 13 January 1910, 61st Congress, 2nd Session, Congressional 
Record, V. 45: Part 1, p. 618; (H.R. 1533), 4 April 1911, 62nd 
Congress, 1st Session, Congressional Record, V. 47: Part 1, p. 44; 
(H.R. 19740), 8 February 1912, 62nd Congress, 2nd Session, Con- 
gressional Record, V. 48: Part 2, p. 1870; (H.R. 6168), 17 June 
1913, 63rd Congress, 1st Session, Congressional Record, V. 50: Part 
2, p. 2072; (H.R. 1459), 6 December 1915, 64th Congress, 1st Ses- 
sion, Congressional Record, V. 5 3: Part 1, p. 41. — 



On George Washington 



69 



[Congressional Record, V. 44: Part 5, p. 4920.] 
Referred to Committee on Claims, V. 45; Part 1, p. 
668. 
Resolution (H. Res. No. 62) — proposed in the House of Rep- 
resentatives by the Hon. Michael E. Driscoll, a Repre- 
sentative from New York, 22 April 1909: 
Resolved, That the Speaker and Members of the House of 
Representatives accept with cordial thanks the invitation 
so graciously extended to them by the Washington Monu- 
ment Association of Alexandria, Virginia? 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 176. 
[Congressional Record, V. 44: Part 2, pp. 1477, 
1478.] 

SECOND SESSION OF THE SIXTY-FIRST CONGRESS: 
1909-1910 
Statement of the late Mr. Lawrence Washington, great- 
great-grand-nephew of General Washington, before the 
Private Land Claims Committee of the House, 16 May 
1910, relative to the bill (H. R. No. 18018) to re-imburse 
the estate of General Washington for certain lands of 
his in the State of Ohio lost by conflicting grants made 
under authority of the United States. 

Printed separately . . . . G. P. O. 1910. 

Report — submitted to the Senate by the Hon. George Pea- 
body Wetmore, a Senator from Rhode Island, 18 May 
1910; from the Committee on the Library, to whom was 
referred the McCall bill (H.R. No. 5 5), providing for 
the erection of a memorial arch at Valley Forge, Pennsyl- 
vania. 

Journal of the Senate, p. 366. 
[Congressional Record, V. 45: Part 6, p. 6442.] 
[S. Kept. No. 705 . . . . Serial 5 5 84.] 
House bill (H. R. No. 5 5) — reported to the House of Repre- 
sentatives by the Hon. Samuel W. McCall, a Represent- 
ative from Massachusetts, 2 5 January 1910, from the Com- 
mittee on the Library, providing for the erection of a 
memorial arch at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania. — Approved, 
25 June 1910. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 214, 272, 

833, 837, 851, 853, 855. 
[Congressional Record, V. 45: Part 1, p. 1005; Part 2, 
pp. 1655-1658, 1684; Part 6, p. 6442; Part 8, pp. 
8802, 8958, 9108, 9117, 9119.] 
[H. Kept. No. 319 . . . Serial 5 591.] 
House bill (H. R. No. 2 5460) — submitted in the House of 
Representatives by the Hon. Harry M. Coudrey, a Rep- 
resentative from Missouri, 5 May 1910, to provide for the 
maintenance of Mount Vernon, Va., and to abolish the ad- 
mission fee. — 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 646. 
[Congressional Record, V. 45: Part 6, p. 5868.] 



An invitation had been extended to the Speaker and Members of the House 
by the Hon. Charles C. Carlin, a Representative from Virginia, 
on behalf of the Washington Monument Association of Alexandria, to 
participate in the celebration of the one hundred and twentieth anni- 
versary of the first inauguration of George Washington as President 
of the United States. 



THIRD SESSION OF THE SIXTY-FIRST CONGRESS: 
1910-1911 

House bill (H. R. No. 5266) — reported to the House of Rep- 
representatives by the Hon. E. A. Morse, a Representative 
from Wisconsin, 16 February 1911, from the Committee 
on Private Land Claims, to re-imburse the estate of Gen- 
eral George Washington for certain lands of his in 
the State of Ohio lost by conflicting grants made under the 
authority of the United States. 4 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 317. 

Congressional Record, V. 46: Part 3, p. 2743. 

[H. Rept. No. 2179 ... . Serial 5852.] 

FIRST SESSION OF THE SIXTY-SECOND CONGRESS: 
1911 

Ordered by the Senate, 5 August 1911 — on motion by Mr. 
Heyburn, a Senator from Idaho: 

That the last will and testament of George Washington, 
embracing a schedule of his real estate and explanatory 
notes thereto, to which are added important historical notes, 
biographical sketches, and anecdotes, be printed as a pub- 
lic document. 

Journal of the Senate, p. 160. 

[Congressional Record, V. 47: Part 4, p. 3632.] 

[S. Doc. No. 86 ... . Serial 6107.] 

Resolution (S. J. Res. No. 38) — submitted in the Senate by the 
Hon. Henry Cabot Lodge, a Senator from Massa- 
chusetts, 20 June 1911, permitting the Sons of Veterans, 
United States of America, to place a bronze tablet in the 
Washington Monument. 

Journal of the Senate, p. 103. 

[Congressional Record, V. 47: Part 3, p. 2307.] 

Report — submitted to the Senate by the Hon. George Pea- 
body Wetmore, a Senator from Rhode Island, 4 August 
1911, from the Committee on the Library, adverse to the 
Senate joint resolution (S. J. Res. No. 38) permitting the 
Sons of Veterans, United States of America, to place a 
bronze tablet in the Washington Monument. 
Journal of the Senate, p. 159. 
[Congressional Record, V. 47: Part 4, p. 3 595.] 
[S. Kept. No. 118 . . . . Serial 6077.] 

Joint Resolution (H. J. Res. No. 123) — submitted in the House 
of Representatives by the Hon. Eben W. Martin, a Rep- 
resentative from South Dakota, 20 June 1911, permitting 
the Sons of Veterans of the United States of America to 
place a bronze tablet in the Washington Monument. — 
Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 286. 
[Congressional Record, V. 48: Part 3, pp. 23 39-2340.] 

SECOND SESSION OF THE SIXTY-SECOND CONGRESS: 

1911-1912 

House bill (H. R. 195 52) — submitted in the House of Repre- 
sentatives by the Hon. David J. Lewis, a Representative 

1 Hearings on bills relating to the estate of General George Washington 
were held during the Sixty-Second Congress before a Sub-Committee 
of the Public Lands Committee of the House on March 25 and May 
2 3, 1912. — Printed separately by G. P. O. 1912. 



70 



The United States Congress 



from Maryland, 6 February 1912, to appropriate a sum 
of money for the restoration of the first American monu- 
ment to George Washington. 1 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 273. 
[Congressional Record, V. 48: Part 2, p. 1793.] 

On motion of Mr. Clarke, of Florida, and by unanimous con- 
sent, 22 February 1912, the Farewell Address to the People 
of the United States, 17 September 1796, was read before 
the House of Representatives on this birthday anniversary 
of George Washington. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 346. 
[Congressional Record, V. 48: Part 3, pp. 2321, 2322- 
2325.] 

Ordered by the House of Representatives, 22 February 1912 — 
on motion by Mr. Cullop, a Representative from Indiana, 
that 20,000 copies of Washington's Farewell Address to 
the People of the United States, 17 September 1796, be 
printed for the use of Members of the House. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 348. 

[Congressional Record, V. 48, Part 3, pp. 2339-2340.] 

THIRD SESSION OF THE SIXTY-SECOND CONGRESS: 
1912-1913 

Resolution (H. Res. No. 732) — submitted in the House of 
Representatives by the Hon. Daniel J. Riordan, a Rep- 
resentative from New York, 5 December 1912, to provide 
for the printing and distribution of Washington's Fare- 
well Address to the People of the United States, 17 Sep- 
tember 1796. 2 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 28. 
[Congressional Record, V. 49: Part 1, p. 196.] 

FIRST SESSION OF THE SIXTY-THIRD CONGRESS: 
1913 

Joint Resolution (H. J. Res. No. 149) — submitted in the House 
of Representatives by the Hon. Richard W. Austin, a 
Representative from Tennessee, 11 November 1913, pro- 
viding for w gift by the United States to the Mount Ver- 
non Association of certain relics of George Washington. 3 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 341. 
[Congressional Record, V. 50: Part 6, p. 5891.] 

SECOND SESSION OF THE SIXTY-THIRD CONGRESS: 

1913-1914 

Statement of the late Mr. Lawrence Washington, great- 
great-grand-nephew of General Washington, before a 



i The bill was re-introduced (H.R. 17469), 24 June 1914, 63rd Congress, 
2nd Session, Congressional Record, V. 51: Part 11, p. 11073. — 

2 The resolution was re-introduced (H.Res. 63), 21 April 1913, 63rd Con- 
gress, 1st Session, Congressional Record, V. 50: Part 1, p. 307; (H.Res. 
644), 13 October 1914, 63rd Congress, 2nd Session, Congressional 
Record, V. 5 1 : Part 16, p. 165 63.— 

"A bill of similar title (H.R. 15353) was introduced, 3 April 1914, 63rd 
Congress, 2nd Session, Congressional Record, V. 5 1: Part 6, p. 6213; 
a joint resolution (H.J. Res. 25) was introduced, 3 April 1917, 65th 
Congress 1st Session, Congressional Record, V. 55: Part 1, p. 170. — 



sub-Committee of the Committee on Public Lands, 19 
March 1914, during hearings on the bill (H. R. 6168) to 
re-imburse the estate of General Washington for cer- 
tain lands of his in the State of Ohio lost by conflicting 
grants made under the authority of the United States. 
Hearings — Public Lands Committee of the House — 
1914. 

Report — submitted to the Senate by the Hon. Luke Lea, a 
Senator from Tennessee, 8 June 1914, from the Committee 
on the Library, to whom was referred the Swanson bill (S. 
No. 5429) for the purchase of two bronze copies of the 
original marble portrait statue of George Wasnington 
by Jean-Antoine Houdon to be placed in the Military 
Academy at West Point and in the Naval Academy at 
Annapolis. — 

Journal of the Senate, pp. 2 56, 323, 391. 

[Congressional Record, V. 51: Part 8, p. 7414; Part 
10, p. 10008; Part 12, pp. 11893, 11958.] 

[S. Rept. No. 585 ... . Serial 6553.] 

FIRST SESSION OF THE SIXTY-FOURTH CONGRESS: 

1915-1916 

House bill (H. R. No. 11420) — submitted in the House of 
Representatives by the Hon. William J. Cary, a Repre- 
sentative from Wisconsin, 12 February 1916, to improve 
the birthplace of George Washington. — 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 326. 

[Congressional Record, V. 53: Part 3, p. 2488.] 

Ordered by the House of Representatives, 16 February 1916 — 
on motion by Mr. Raker, of California, and by unani- 
mous consent: That on Tuesday next, immediately after 
the reading of the Journal and the disposition of business 
on the Speaker's table, Washington's Farewell Address be 
read. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 340,366. 
[Congressional Record, V. 53: Part 3, pp. 2675, 2928.] 

Ordered by the Senate, 23 February 1916 — by request of Mr. 
Smith, a Senator from Michigan, that an address delivered 
at Morristown, New Jersey, before the Washington Assoc- 
iation of New Jersey, 22 February 1916, by the Hon. 
Henry Cabot Lodge, a Senator from Massachusetts, on 
Washington's Policies of Neutrality and National De- 
fense be printed as a Senate document. 
Journal of the Senate, p. 181. 

[Congressional Record, V. 53: Part 3, p. 2984.] 
[S. Doc. No. 343 ... . Serial 6952.] 

SECOND SESSION OF THE SIXTY-FOURTH CONGRESS: 

1916-1917 
Senate Resolution (S. Res. No. 297) — reported to the Senate 
by the Hon. John Sharp Williams, a Senator from Mis- 
sissippi, 5 February 1917, from the Committee on the Li- 
brary, transferring certain papers relating to the death of 
General Washington from the files of the Senate to the 
custody of the Librarian of Congress. 
journal of the Senate, pp. 43, 120. 
[Congressional Record, V. 54: Part 3, p. 2611.] 



On George Washington 



71 



Senate Resolution (S. Res. No. 371) — submitted in the Senate 
by the Hon. William Alden Smith, a Senator from 
Michigan, 22 February 1917, proposing that 1,000,000 
copies of Washington's Farewell Address to the people 
of the United States and his Farewell Address to the two 
Houses of Congress be printed for the use of Members of 
the Senate and House. 

Journal of the Senate, p. 180. 

[Congressional Record, V. 54: Part 4, p. 3 893.] 

Neutrality Proclamation by President Washington, 22 April 
1793 — read before the Senate and printed in the Record, 23 
February 1917, by request of the Hon. Thomas Walsh, 
a Senator from Montana. 

Congressional Record, V. 54: Part 4, 3965. 

FIRST SESSION OF THE SIXTY-FIFTH CONGRESS: 
1917 
Ordered by the Senate, 11 September 1917 — by request of Mr. 
Pomerene, a Senator from Ohio, that the addresses de- 
livered at the tomb of Washington, 26 August 1917, by 
the Hon. Josephus Daniels, Secretary of the Navy, and 
Viscount Ishii, ambassador extraordinary from Japan, upon 
the visit to Mount Vernon of the Imperial Japanese War 
Mission, be printed as a public document. 

Congressional Record, V. 55: Part 7, p. 6937. 
[S. Doc. No. 8 5 . . . . Serial 726 5.] 

SECOND SESSION OF THE SIXTY-FIFTH CONGRESS: 

1917-1918 
Ordered by the Senate, 2 5 February 1918 — by request of Mr. 
Pomerene, a Senator from Ohio, that an address delivered 
by the Hon. Warren G. Harding, a Senator from Ohio, 
22 February 1918, before the Sons of the American Revo- 
lution, be printed as a public document. 
Journal of the Senate, p. 90 . 
[Congressional Record, V. 56: Part 3, p. 2 5 86.] 
[S. Doc. No. 180 . . . . Serial 7329.] 

Senate bill (S. No. 3 310) — submitted in the Senate by the Hon. 
George E. Chamberlain, a Senator from Oregon, 4 Jan- 
uary 1918, authorizing the Secretary of State to procure 
a portrait of George Washington and present the same 
to the Military College of the Argentine Republic. — 

Journal of the Senate, p. 29. 

[Congressional Record, V. 56: Part 1, p. 5 57.] 

House bill (H.R. No. 6966) — reported to the House of Rep- 
resentatives by the Hon. Henry D. Flood, a Representa- 
tive from Virginia, 7 January 1918, from the Com- 
mittee on Foreign affairs, authorizing the Secretary of State 
to procure a portrait of Washington and present the same 
to the Military College of the Argentine Republic. — 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 21, 8 3, 

254. 
[Congressional Record, V. 56: Part 1, pp. 43, 674; 

Part 4, pp. 3993,4001.] 
[H. Kept. No. 23 3 . . . . Serial 7307.] 

Ordered by the Senate, 5 July 1918 — on motion of Mr. Owen, 
a Senator from Oklahoma, that the address delivered by 



President Wilson, 4 July 1918, at th<? tomb of George 
Washington, be printed at a Senate document. 

Congressional Record, V. 56: Part 9, p. 8670. 

[S. Doc. No. 2 58 . . . . Serial 73 30.] 

THIRD SESSION OF THE SIXTY-FIFTH CONGRESS: 
1918-1919 

Statement by the Hon. Philander C. Knox, a Senator from 
Pennsylvania, 3 December 1918, relative to George Wash- 
ington's journey to New England, as President of the 
United States, in 1789. 

Congressional Record, V. 57: Part 1, p. 27. 

Ordered by the Senate, 22 February 1919 — on motion by Mr. 
Gore, a Senator from Oklahoma: 

That the Declaration of Independence, and the Farewell 
Address to the People of the United States by George 
Washington, be printed as a Senate document, and that 
as many additional copies as can be obtained for $500 be 
printed for the use of the Senate. 
Journal of the Senate, p. 169. 
[Congressional Record, V. 57: Part 4, p. 4022.] 
[S. Doc. No. 410 . . . . Serial 7469.] 

Tribute of Washington, the Cincinnatus of the West, by 
George Gordon, Lord Byron — read into the Record, 28 
February 1919, by the Hon. Henry Cabot Lodge, a 
Senator from Massachusetts. 
Congressional Record, V.57: Part 5, p. 4521. 

Joint Resolution (H. J. Res. No. 429) — submitted in the House 
of Representatives by the Hon. William J. Cary, a Rep- 
resentative from Wisconsin, 18 February 1919, for the pro- 
posed purchase of the estate of Mount Vernon by the Na- 
tional Government. — 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 215. 
[Congressional Record, V. 57: Part 4, p. 3738.] 

Resolution (H. Res. No. 592) — submitted in the House of Rep- 
resentatives by the Hon. William J. Cary, a Representa- 
tive from Wisconsin, 18 February 1919, authorizing and 
directing the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Com- 
merce to investigate the conditions of transportation to 
Mount Vernon, in Virginia. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 215. 
[Congressional Record, V. 57: Part 4, p. 373 8.] 

SECOND SESSION OF THE SIXTY-SIXTH CONGRESS: 
1919-1920 

Tribute to George Washington by Abraham Lincoln: final 
paragraph of a speech delivered by Lincoln in Springfield, 
Illinois, on the 110th anniversary of Washington's birth, 
22 February 1842 — read into the Record, 23 February 
1920, by request of the Hon. Addison T. Smith, a Repre- 
sentative from Idaho. 1 

Congressional Record, V. 59: Part. 4, p. 33 57. 



The paragraph will be found as quoted in an address by the Hon. Ben* 
jamin K. Focht, of Pennsylvania, Congressional Record, V. 59: 
Appendix, p. 8849. 



72 



The United States Congress 



FIRST SESSION OF THE SIXTY-SEVENTH CONGRESS: 
1921 

Joint Resolution (S. J. Res. No. 67) — submitted in the Senate by 
the Hon. Reed Smoot, a Senator from Utah, 3 June 1921, 
relating to the use of the auditorium of the George Wash- 
ington Memorial Building the erection of which is provided 
for — in the act entitled "An act to increase the limit of cost 
of certain public buildings; to authorize the enlargement, 
extension, re-modeling, or improvement of certain public 
buildings; to authorize the erection and completion of public 
buildings; to authorize the purchase of sites for public build- 
ings . . . approved March 4, 1913, as amended." 1 
Journal of the Senate, pp. 127, 167, 224, 233. 
[Congressional Record, V. 61: Part 2, p. 2063; Part 3, 
p. 3010; Part 5, pp. 4747, 5008, 5084.] 

Joint Resolution (H. J. Res. No. 42) — submitted in the House 
of Representatives by the Hon. Schuyler Otis Bland, a 
Representative from Virginia, 12 April 1921, authorizing 
and directing the construction of a road from the -monu- 
ment marking the birthplace of George "Washington, in 
Westmoreland County, Va., to the State highway running 
from Fredericksburg, Va., to Montrose, Va. — 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 65. 
[Congressional Record, V. 61: Part 1, p. 175.] 

Joint Resolution (H. J. Res. No. 123) — submitted in the House 
of Representatives by the Hon. James R. Good, a Repre- 
sentative from Iowa, 20 May 1921, to provide funds for the 
repair of the elevator in the Washington Monument. — Ap- 
proved, 25 May 1921. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 202, 205, 

215, 219. 
[Congressional Record, V. 61: Part 2, pp. 1562, 1563, 
1589, 1592, 1625, 1718, 1774.] 

Joint Resolution (H. J. Res. No. 117) — submitted in the House 
of Representatives by the Hon. John J. Kindred, a Repre- 
sentative from New York, 12 May 1921, directing the Sec- 
retary of the Treasury to acquire, by purchase or otherwise, 
the property on which the tombs and former homes of Presi- 
dent Washington and President Jefferson are located. — 
Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 187. 
[Congressional Record, V. 61: Part 2, p. 1403.] 

SECOND SESSION OF THE SIXTY-SEVENTH CONGRESS: 
1921-1922 

Joint Resolution (S. J. Res. No. 137) — reported to the Senate by 
the Hon. Henry Cabot Lodge, a Senator from Massachu- 
setts, 3 February 1922, from the Committee on Foreign Rela- 
tions, transferring to the custody of the Secretary of the 
Smithsonian Institution certain relics now in the possession 
of the Department of State. — Approved, 28 February 1922. 



Journal of the Senate, pp. 85, 101, 102, 107, 110, 112, 

118. 
Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 161, 165, 

169, 188. 
[Congressional Record, V. 62: Part 3, pp. 2312, 2776, 

2906, 2908, 3038, 3040, 3083, 3181.] 
[S. Rept. No. 487 .... Serial 7950.] 

FOURTH SESSION OF THE SIXTY-SEVENTH CONGRESS: 

1922-1923 

Concurrent Resolution (S. Con. Res. No. 39) — submitted in the 
Senate by the Hon. Henry Cabot Lodge, a Senator from 
Massachusetts, 13 February 1923, directing the Sergeant-at- 
Arms of the Senate and the Sergeant-at-Arms of the House 
of Representatives to place a floral wreath at the base of the 
Washington Monument on Washington's Birthday. 

Journal of the Senate, pp. 161, 168, 178. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 247, 254. 

[Congressional Record, V. 64: Part 4, pp. 3 669, 3976, 
4195.] 

FIRST SESSION OF THE SIXTY-EIGHTH CONGRESS: 
1923-1924 

Joint Resolution (S. J. Res. No. 85) — reported to the Senate by 
the Hon. Simeon D. Fess, a Senator from Ohio, 24 April 
1924, from the Committee on the Library, authorizing an 
appropriation for the participation of the United States in 
the preparaion and completion of plans for the compre- 
hensive observance of that greatest of all historic events, the 
bicentennial of the birthday of George Washington. — 
Approved, 2 December 1924. 

Journal of the Senate, pp. 164, 313, 376, 462, 472. 
Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 575, 580, 

706, 711. 
[Congressional Record, V. 65: Part 3, p. 2936; Part 8, 
p. 7737; Part 9, pp. 9170-9171, 9424; Part 11, pp. 
11141, 11204-11206. ] 2 
[S. Rept. No. 491 . . . . Serial 8221.] 

Report — submitted in the House of Representatives by the Hon. 
Daniel A. Reed, a Representative from New York, 13 May 
1924, from the Committee on Industrial Arts and Exposi- 
tions, to whom was referred the joint resolution (H. J. Res. 
No. 199), introduced, 22 February 1924, by the Hon. R. 
Walton Moore, a Representative from Virginia, authoriz- 
ing an appropriation for the participation of the United 
States in the preparation and completion of plans for the 
comprehensive observance of that greatest of all historic 
events, the bicentennial of the birthday of George Wash- 
ington. 3 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 269, 522, 
707. 



A joint resolution of similar title (H.J. Res. 142) was introduced in the 
House of Representatives, 3 June 1921, by the Hon. Julius Kahn, 
a Representative from California. — Congressional Record, V. 61: Part 
2, p. 2118.— 



:The Senate Joint Resolution (S.J.Res. 85) was enrolled, presented to the 
President, and approved, 2 December 1924 — 68th Congress, 2nd Ses- 
sion. Congressional Record, V. 66: Part 1, pp. 46, 5 6, 105. 
The joint resolution (H.J.Res. 199) was laid on the table. See S.J.Res. 85. 



On George Washington 



73 



[Congressional Record, V. 65: Part 3, p. 2977; Part 8, 

pp. 8496-8497; Part 11, p. 11204.] 
[H. Kept. No. 73 2 . . . . Serial 8229.] 

Ordered by the Senate, 12 May 1924 — by request of Mr. Cam- 
eron, a Senator from Arizona, that the Report of Proceed- 
ings in the Washington Monument, 15 April 1924, upon the 
dedication of the Arizona State -memorial stone be printed in 
the Record, and as a Senate document. 

Congressional Record, V. 65: Part 7, p. 6973; Part 8, 

p. 8360. 
[S. Doc. No. 109 ... . Serial 8243.] 

SECOND SESSION OF THE SIXTY-EIGHTH CONGRESS: 
1924-1926 

Message from Calvin Coolidge, President of the United States, 29 
December 1924, with an accompanying letter from the Di- 
rector of the Bureau of the Budget, transmitting to the Con- 
gress a report from the Secretary of State recommending an 
appropriation for the purpose of securing a replica of the 
Houdon bust of Washington for lodgment in the Pan- 
American building. 

Journal of the Senate, p. 49. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 69. 

[Congressional Record, V. 66: Part 1, pp. 903, 930.] 

[S. Doc. No. 176 ... . Serial 8413.] 

Message from Calvin Coolidge, President of the United States, 17 
February 1925, transmitting to the Congress the First Re- 
port of the Commission for the celebration of the two-hun- 
dredth anniversary of the birth of George Washington. 

Journal of the Senate, p. 211. 
Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 283. 
[Congressional Record, V. 66: Part 4, pp. 4154, 4206.] 
[S. Doc. No. 205 .... Serial 8413.] 

Message from Calvin Coolidge, President of the United States, 28 
February 1925, with accompanying letter from the Director 
of the Bureau of Budget, transmitting a supplemental esti- 
mate of appropriation for the United States Commission for 
the celebration of the two-hundredth anniversary of the 
birth of George "Washington. 

Journal of the Senate, p. 2 5 7. 

[Congressional Record, V. 66: Part 5, p. 4933.] 

[S. Doc. No. 25 5 . . . . Serial 8413.] 

Letters written in 1796 and 1798 by Adelaide-Rosalie Ursula 
Maussion de la Bastie, daughter of a young Frenchman who 
came to America with the Marquis de la Fayette during the 
Revolutionary "War — printed in the Record, in English trans- 
lation, 4 March 192 5, by request of the Hon. C. C. Dill, a 
Senator from the State of Washington. 

Congressional Record, V. 66: Part 5, pp. 1511, 1512, 
1513. 

House bill (H.R. No. 11799) — reported to the House of Repre- 
sentatives by the Hon. Robert Luce, a Representative from 
Massachusetts, 29 January 1925, from the Committee on 



the Library, to secure a replica of the Houdon bust of Wash- 
ington for lodgment in the Pan-American building. — L 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 142, 173, 

261. 
[Congressional Record, V. 66: Part 3, pp. 2186, 2685; 

Part 4, pp. 3879, 3929.] 
[H. Rept. No. 1322 . . . . Serial 8390.] 

Communication from Calvin Coolidge, President of the United 
States, 13 February 1925, transmitting a supplemental esti- 
mate of appropriation for the fiscal year ending June 30, 

1925, for the War Department, for the repair of the elevator 
in the Washington Monument. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 248. 
[Congressio7ial Record, V. 66: Part 4, p. 3695.] 
[H. Doc. No. 629 ... . Serial 8445.] 

Letter from the Bureau of American Ideals relative to the custom 
of reading Washington's Farewell Address to the people of 
the United States in the House of Representatives — printed 
in the Record, 4 March 1925, by request of the Hon. John 
E. Rankin, a Representative from Mississippi. 

Congressional Record, V. 66: Part 5, p. 5 620. 

FIRST SESSION OF THE SIXTY-NINTH CONGRESS: 
1925-1926 

Joint Resolution of the Legislature of the State of Montana, fa- 
voring the appointment by the Governor of the State of 
Montana of a commission to act in conjunction with the 
Commission appointed by the President of the United States 
to arrange for a proper observance of the two-hundredth an- 
niversary of the birth of George Washington — presented 
in the Senate, 10 December 1925, by the Hon. Charles G. 
Dawes, Vice-President of the United States. 
Journal of the Senate, p. 3 6. 
[Congressional Record, V. 67: Part 1, p. 592.] 

Ordered by the Senate, 23 February 1926 — by request of Mr. 
Fess, a Senator from Ohio, that an address delivered by 
Calvin Coolidge, President of the United States, 22 February 

1926, on the subject George Washington: A Great 
Teacher, be printed in the Record, and as a Senate document. 

Congressional Record, V. 67: Part 4, p. 43 70. 
[S. Doc. No. 68 .... SmW8557.] 

Editorial under the title We might honor Washington more by 
heeding his advice — read into the Record from the Washing- 
ton Herald, 22 February 1926, by request of the Hon. Cole 
L. Blease, a Senator from South Carolina. 

Congressional Record, V. 67: Part 4, p. 43 30. 

Joint Resolution (S. J. Res. No. 75) — submitted in the Senate by 
the Hon. Claude A. Swanson, a Senator from Virginia, 17 
March 1926, authorizing certain funds approprated for the 
reservation and monument at Wakefield, Virginia, to be made 



i The bill (H.R. 11799) was not enacted. See joint resolution (H.J.Res. 64), 
69th Congress, 1st Session. 



74 



The United States Congress 



available for certain repairs to existing highways and lanes 
on said reservation. — 

Journal of the Senate, p. 23 7. 

[Congressional Record, V. 67: Part 6, p. 5759.] 

Report — submitted to the Senate by the Hon. James W. Wads- 
worth, a Senator from New York, 24 May 1926, from the 
Committee on Military Affairs, to whom was referred the 
bill (H.R. No. 10131), granting the consent of Congress to 
the Wakefield National Memorial Association to build, 
upon Government-owned land at Wakefield, Westmoreland 
County, Virginia, a replica of the house in which George 
Washington was bom. 

Journal of the Senate, pp. 373, 375, 431, 460. 
[Congressional Record, V. 67: Part 9, p. 988 3.] 
[S. Rept. No. 910 . . . . Serial 8 5 26.] 

Report — submitted to the House of Representatives by the Hon. 
J. Mayhew Wainwright, a Representative from New 
York. 15 April 1926, from the Committee on Military Af- 
fairs to whom was referred the bill (H.R. No. 10131), 
granting the consent of Congress to the Wakefield National 
Memorial Association to build, upon Government-owned 
land at Wakefield, Westmoreland County, Virginia, a replica 
of the house in which George Washington was born. 
Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 3 60, 510. 
[Congressional Record, V. 67: Part 7, p. 75 5 3.] 
[H. Rept. No. 898 ... . Serial 8533.] 

House bill (H.R. No. 10131) — submitted in the House of Rep- 
resentatives by the Hon. S. O. Bland, a Representative 
from Virginia, 8 March 1926, granting the consent of Con- 
gress to the Wakefield National Memorial Association to 
build, upon Government-owned land at Wakefield, West- 
moreland County, Virginia, a replica of the house in which 
George Washington was born. — Approved, 7 June 1926. 
Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 360, 510, 

596, 732, 738, 748, 792. 
Journal of the Senate, pp. 373, 375, 43 1, 460, 467, 500. 
[Congressional Record, V. 67: Part 5, p. 5 2 57; Part 7, 
p. 75 53; Part 8, pp. 8625-8681; Part 9, p. 9883; Part 
10, pp. 10597, 10756, 10763, 10820, 11460.] 

House bill (H.R. No. 8908) — submitted in the House of Repre- 
sentatives by the Hon. R. Walton Moore, a Representa- 
tive from Virginia, 4 February 1926, granting the consent of 
Congress to George W ashington-W ake field Memorial Bridge, 
a corporation, to construct a bridge across the Potomac 
River. Approved, 5 May 1926. 1 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 2 5 3, 270, 

332, 452, 489, 497, 543, 549, 583, 604, 710. 
Journal of the Senate, pp. 200, 262, 279, 303, 304, 331, 
347, 364, 444. 



It does not appear that the bridge provided for in this bill (H.R. No. 
8908) is a memorial to General Washington; the bill is cited here, 
because, when built, the bridge will afford direct communication with 
a region in Virginia inseparably associated with the Washington 
family, and with the birthplace of General Washington. 



[Congressional Record, V. 67: Part 3, p. 3339; Part A, 
p. 3826; Part 5, pp. 4790, 4792, 4840; Part 6, pp. 
6423, 6807; Part 7, pp. 7309, 7341, 7907, 7977- 
7978, 8082; Part 8, pp. 8468, 8481, 8611; Part 9, 
p. 10229.] 

Joint Resolution (H. J. Res. No. 64) — reported to the House of 
Representatives by the Hon. Robert Luce, a Representa- 
tive from Massachusetts, 5 January 1926, from the Com- 
mittee on the Library, to secure a replica of the Houdon 
bust of Washington for lodgment in the Pan-American 
Building. — Approved, 28 June 1926. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 111,166, 

207, 811, 819, 824, 893. 
Journal of the Senate, pp. 9 5, 96, 510, 519, 575. 
[Congressional Record, V. 67: Part 1, p. 926; Part 2, 
pp. 1552, 2310; Part 3, p. 2348; Part 11, pp. 11728, 
11799, 11830, 11915, 13092.] 
[H. Rept. No. 40 .... Serial 9531.] 

General Order issued by General George Washington in New 
York in July, 1776, relative to the use of profanity in the 
American Army — read into the Record, 22 February 1926, 
by request of the Hon. William D. Upshaw, a Representa- 
tive from Georgia. 

Congressional Record, V. 67: Part 4, p. 4367. 

House bill (H.R. No. 9629) — submitted in the House of Repre- 
sentatives by the Hon. Benjamin L. Fairchild, a Repre- 
sentative from New York, 22 February 1926, to provide 
for celebrating the two-hundredth anniversary of the birth 
of George Washington by holding an international ex- 
hibition of arts, industries, manufactures, and the products 
of soil, mine, and sea in the city of New York, in the State 
of New York. — 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 3 03. 
[Congressional Record, V. 67: Part 4, p. 4369.] 

Recipe for making beer, alleged to have been used by General 
Washington — read into the Record, 17 February 1926, by 
the Hon. Emanuel Celler, a Representative from New 
York. 

Congressional Record, V. 67: Part 4, p. 4170. 

Washington, a poem by Horace C. Carlisle — printed in the 
Record, 22 February 1926, by request of the Hon. Thomas 
J. Heflin, a Senator from Alabama. 

Congressional Record, V. 67: Part 4, p. 4329. 

Joint Resolution (H.R.Res. No. 198) — submitted in the House 
of Representatives by the Hon. S. O. Bland, a Representa- 
tive from Virginia, 11 March 1926, authorizing certain 
funds appropriated for the reservation and monument at 
Wakefield, Virginia, to be made available for certain repairs 
to existing highways and lanes on said reservation. — 
Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 370. 
[Congressional Record, V. 67: Part 5, p. 5443.] 

Report — submitted to the House of Representatives by the Hon. 
Edward M. Beers, a Representative from Pennsylvania, 24 
June 1926, from the Committee on Printing, to whom was 
referred the concurrent resolution (H. Con. Res. No. 31) 



On George Washington 



75 



providing for the printing of 10,000 additional copies of 
Senate Document No. 86, Sixty-Second Congress, First Ses- 
sion, entitled Last Will and Testament of George Wash- 
ington. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 821. 

[Congressional Record, V. 67: Part 11, p. 11904.] 

[H. Repf. No. 1534 . . . Serial 8537.] 
Concurrent Resolution (H. Con. Res. No. 31) — submitted in the 
House of Representatives by the Hon. Addison T. Smith, 
a Representative from Idaho, 26 May 1926, providing for 
the printing of 10,000 additional copies of Senate Document 
No. 86, Sixty-Second Congress, First Session, entitled Last 
Will and Testament of George Washington. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 708, 821, 
831. 

Journal of the Senate, pp. 520, 526. 

[Congressional Record, V. 67: Part 9, p. 10148; Part 
11, pp. 11904, 11930.] 
Report — submitted to the House of Representatives by the Hon. 
Edward M. Beers, a Representative from Pennsylvania, 24 
June 1926, from the Committee on Printing, to whom was 
referred the resolution (H. Res. No. 263), providing for the 
printing, with illustrations, of the exercises at the dedication 
of the North Dakota State memorial stone in the Washing- 
ton Monument. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 626, 821. 

[Congressional Record , V. 67: Part 8, p. 9181; Part 11, 
p. 11928.] 

[H. Repf. No. 153 5 . . . Serial 8 5 37.] 
Ordered by the House of Representatives, 24 June 1926 — in com- 
pliance with the House resolution (H. Res. No. 263), in- 
troduced by Mr. Burtness, a Representative from North 
Dakota, 10 May 1926, that proceedings held in the Wash- 
ington Monument, in the city of Washington, upon the 
dedication of the North Dakota State memorial stone be 
printed as a House document. 

Congressional Record, V. 67: Part 8, p. 9181; Part 11, 
p. 11928. 

[H. Doc. No. 45 8 . . . . Serial 8 575.] 

SECOND SESSION OF THE SIXTY-NINTH CONGRESS: 
1926-1927 
Concurrent Resolution (S. Con. Res. No. 28) — submitted in the 
Senate by the Hon. Simeon D. Fess, a Senator from Ohio, 
22 February 1927, that there shall be printed, with illustra- 
tions, 75,000 copies of the President's speech before the two 
Houses of Congress, on this day, relative to the celebration 
of the two-hundredth anniversary of the birth of George 
Washington. 

Journal of the Senate, pp. 198-199, 260. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 315, 382. 

[Congressional Record, V. 68: Part 4, p. 4401; Part 5, 

p. 5368.] 

[S. Doc. No. 249 ... . Serial 8709.] 

Communication from Calvin Coolidge, President of the United 

States, 21 December 1926, transmitting to the House of 

Representatives a supplemental estimate of appropriation for 

the United States Commission for the celebration of the two- 




John Marshall 

A Representative from Virginia, on December 19, 1799, 
Made an Address in the House of Representatives Announc- 
ing the Death of George Washington 

hundredth anniversary of the birth of George Wash- 
ington. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 78. 
[Congressional Record, V. 68: Part 1, p. 962.] 
[H. Doc. No. 608 .. . Serial 8734.] 

Concurrent Resolution (H. Con. Res. No. 49) — submitted in 
the House of Representatives by the Hon. Willis C. 
Hawley, a Representative from Oregon, 29 January 1927, 
relating to the two-hundredth anniversary of the birth of 
George Washington. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 183, 191. 

Journal of the Senate, pp. 116, 117. 

[Congressional Record, V. 68: Part 3, pp. 2 543, 2 5 50.] 

Concurrent Resolution (H. Con. Res. No. 57) — submitted in 
the House of Representatives by the Hon. John Q. Tilson, 
a Representative from Connecticut, 22 February 1927, 
inviting the full co-operation of the legislatures and the chief 
executives of the respective States and Territories of the 
United States in the celebration of the two-hundredth an- 
niversary of the birth of George Washington. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 310, 315. 

Journal of the Senate, pp. 207, 209. 

[Congressional Record, V. 68: Part 4, pp. 4459-4460, 
4526.] 

House bill (H. R. No. 16348) — submitted in the House of 
Representatives by the Hon. O. J. Kvale, a Representative 
from Minnesota, 15 January 1927, providing for the pre- 



76 



The United States Congress 



paration, printing, and distribution of pamphlets containing 
a biographical sketch of George Washington. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 134. 

[Congressional Record, V. 68: Part 2, p. 1754.] 

FIRST SESSION OF THE SEVENTIETH CONGRESS: 
1927-1928 

Ordered by the Senate, 12 December 1927 — by request of Mr. 
Bratton, a Senator from New Mexico, that proceedings 
held in the Washington Monument, Washington, District of 
Columbia, 2 December 1927, upon the dedication of the 
New Mexico State memorial stone be printed as a Senate 
document. 

Journal of the Senate, p. 50. 

[Congressional Record, V. 69: Part 1, p. 478.] 

[S. Doc. No. 18 .... Serial 8845.] 

Senate bill (S. No. 3092) — submitted in the Senate by the Hon. 
Simeon D. Fess, a Senator from Ohio, 8 February 1928, to 
enable the George Washington Bicentennial Commission to 
carry out and give effect to certain approved plans. — * 

Journal of the Senate, pp. 166, 211, 349. 

[Congressional Record, V. 69: Part 3, p. 2668; Part 4, 
p. 3581; Part 5, p. 5032; Part 6, pp. 6510, 6630.] 
Report — submitted in the House of Representatives, 28 May 
1928, from the Committee on Printing, to whom was re- 
ferred the Fess bill (S. No. 3092), to enable the George 
Washington Bicentennial Commission to carry out and give 
effect to certain approved plans. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 1001. 

[Congressional Record, V. 69: Part 10, p. 10459.] 

[H. Rept. No. 1915 .... Serial 8838.] 

Letter from the George Washington Birthday Association, of 
Alexandria, Virginia, inviting the United States Congress to 
be present in Alexandria, the home city of George Wash- 
ington, 22 February 1928, and witness the parade in honor 
of George Washington's birthday — presented in the 
Senate, 9 February 1928, by the Hon. Claude A. Swan- 
son, a Senator from Virginia; presented in the House of 
Representatives, 10 February 1928, by the Hon. R. Wal- 
ton Moore, a Representative from Virginia. 

Congressional Record, V. 69: Part 3, pp. 2780,2847. 

Joint Resolution (S. J. Res. No. 107) — submitted in the Senate 
by the Hon. David A. Reed, a Senator from Pennsylvania, 
5 March 1928, authorizing and requesting the Postmaster- 
General to design and issue a special postage stamp in honor 
of the one hundred and fiftieth anniversary of the encamp- 
ment of Washington's Army at Valley Forge. — 
Journal of the Senate, p. 242. 
[Congressional Record, V. 69: Part 4, p. 4065.] 

Report — submitted to the Senate by the Hon. Simeon D. Fess, 
a Senator from Ohio, 5 March 1928, from the Committee 
on the Library, to whom was referred the Swanson bill 
(S. No. 1369), authorizing and directing the survey, con- 



struction, and maintenance of a memorial highway to con- 
nect Motmt Vernon, in the State of Virginia, with the 
Arlington Memorial Bridge across the Potomac River at 
Washington. 

Journal of the Senate, p. 241. 

[Congressional Record, V. 69: Part 4, p. 4063.] 

[S. Rept. No. 469 ... . Serial 8829.] 

Senate bill (S. No. 1369) — submitted to the Senate by the Hon. 
Claude A. Swanson, a Senator from Virginia, 9 December 
1927 (Legislative day, 6 December 1927), to authorize and 
direct the survey, construction, and maintenance of a memo- 
rial highway to connect Mount Vernon, in the State of Vir- 
ginia, with the Arlington Memorial Bridge across the Poto- 
mac River at Washington. — Approved, 23 May 1928. 

Journal of the Senate, pp. 43, 241, 248, 499, 504, 522, 

532. 
Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 521, 527, 

920, 932, 941. 
[Congressional Record, V. 69: Part 1, p. 3 50; Part 4, 
pp. 4063, 4175, 4376; Part 9, pp. 9378, 9382, 9516, 
9449, 9677.] 

Report — submitted to the House of Representatives by the Hon. 
John M. Robsion, a Representative from Kentucky, 28 
March 1928, from the Committee on Roads, to whom was 
referred the bill (H. R. No. 4625), introduced, 5 December 

1927, by the Hon. R. Walton Moore, a Representative 
from Virginia, to authorize and direct the survey, construc- 
tion, and maintenance of a memorial highway to connect 
Mount Vernon, in the State of Virginia, with the Arlington 
Memorial Bridge across the Potomac River at Washington. 2 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 86, 609, 

920. 
[Congressional Record, V. 69: Part 1, p. 80; Part 5, 

p. 5533; Part 6, pp. 6551-6552; Part 9, pp. 9378- 

9382.] 
[H. Rept. No. 1065 . . . Serial 8836.] 

Communication from Calvin Coolidge, President of the United 
States, 23 May 1928, transmitting a supplemental estimate 
of appropriation for the Department of Agriculture to carry 
into effect the provisions of the act entitled "An act to 
authorize and direct the survey, construction, and main- 
tenance of a memorial highway to connect Mount Vernon, 
in the State of Virginia, with the Arlington Memorial Bridge 
across the Potomac River at Washington." 
Journal of the Senate, p. 522. 
[Congressional Record, V. 69: Part 9, p. 95 51.] 
[S. Doc. No. 149 ... . Serial 8871.] 

Senate bill (S. No. 4531) — submitted in the Senate by the Hon. 
Claude A. Swanson, a Senator from Virginia, 22 May 

1928, to improve the birthplace of George Washington at 
Wakefield, Westmoreland Comity, Virginia. 

Journal of the Senate, p. 501. 

[Congressional Record, V. 69: Part 9, p. 9429.] 

Joint Resolution (H. J. Res. No. 128) — submitted in the House 
of Representatives by the Hon. George H. Tinkham, a 



This bill (S. 3092) was not enacted. See S. 3398, 71st Congress, 2nd 
Session. 



-The bill (H.R. 4625) 



laid on the Table. See S. 13 69. 



On George Washington 



77 



Representative from Massachusetts, 5 January 1928, making 
provision for the improvement of the National Memorial to 
George Washington in the District of Columbia by the 
erection of a suitable base. — 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 206. 

[Congressional Record, V. 69: Part 2, p. 108 5.] 

Resolution adopted by the Brooklyn Chapter of the American 
Institute of Architects, Brooklyn, New York, favoring an 
appropriation to carry out the McKim plan for the base 
of the Washington Monument — presented in the Senate, 1 
February 1928, by the Hon. Royal S. Copeland, a Sen- 
ator from New York. 

Journal of the Senate, p. 149. 

House bill (H. R. No. 11208) — submitted in the House of Rep- 
resentatives by the Hon. George H. Tinkham, a Rep- 
resentative from Massachusetts, 20 February 1928, provid- 
ing for engineering and landscape study, preparation of 
plans, and estimate of cost of improvement of the base 
and grounds of the Washington Monument in the District 
of Columbia. 1 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 444. 
[Congressional Record, V. 69: Part 3, p. 3309.] 

Joint Resolution (H. J. Res. No. 182) — submitted in the House 
of Representatives by the Hon. Henry W. Watson, a 
Representative from Pennsylvania, 2 5 January 1928, au- 
thorizing and requesting the Postmaster-General to design 
and issue a special postage stamp in honor of the one hundred 
and fiftieth anniversary of the encampment of Washing- 
ton's Army at Valley Forge. — 

Congressional Record, V. 69: Part 2, 2045. 

House bill (H. R. No. 10140) — submitted in the House of 
Representatives by the Hon. Sol Bloom, a Representa- 
tive from New York, 30 January 1928, to commemorate 
the two-hundredth anniversary of the birth of George 
Washington by holding an international exhibition of 
arts, industries, manufactures, and products of soil, mine, 
and sea in the Washington Marine Park, Brooklyn, New 
York.— 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 322. 
[Congressional Record, V. 69: Part 2, p. 1222.] 

Ordered by the House of Representatives, 14 March 1928 — on 
motion by Mr. Hawley, a Representative from Oregon, 
and by unanimous consent: That the address of the Presi- 
dent of the United States delivered before a joint session 
of the two Houses of Congress, 22 February 1927, on the 
life of George Washington and the proposed celebration 
of the two-hundredth anniversary of his birth be printed 
as a House document. 2 



i Mr. Tinkham, of Massachusetts, re-introduced the bill during the First 
Session of the Seventy-First Congress: (H.R. 15), 15 April 1929, 
Congressional Record, V. 71: Part 1, p. 27. — 

2 The address delivered by President Coolidge before a joint session of the 
two Houses of Congress, 22 February 1927, as printed in the Senate 
Journal (69th Congress, 2nd Session), pp. 199-203; and, also, as a 
Senate document: S. Doc. No. 249 . . . Serial 8709. 
No House document has been found. 



Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 5 51. 
[Congressional Record, V. 69: Part 5, p. 4709.] 

House bill (H. R. No. 12807) — submitted in the House of 
Representatives by the Hon. S. O. Bland, a Representa- 
tive from Virginia, 9 April 1928, to improve the birth- 
place of George Washington at Wakefield, Westmore- 
land County, Virginia. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 6 57. 
[Congressional Record, V. 69: Part 6, p. 6136.] 

SECOND CONGRESS OF THE SEVENTIETH CONGRESS: 
1928-1929 

Senate Bill (S. No. 5616) — reported to the Senate by the Hon. 
Simeon D. Fess, a Senator from Ohio, 18 February 1929 
(Legislative Day, 15 February 1929), from the Commit- 
tee on the Library, to enable the George Washington Bi- 
centennial Commission to carry out and give effect to cer- 
tain approved plans. 

Journal of the Senate, pp. 199, 179, 244. 

[Congressional Record, V. 70; Part 3, p. 243 8; Part 4, 
p. 3616; Part 5, p. 4714.] 

[S. Repf. No. 1821 . . . . Serial 8977.] 

Communication from Mrs. Susan Whitney Dimock, president 
of the George Washington Memorial Association relative to 
the erection of the George Washington Memorial — read 
into the Record, 20 February 1929, by request of the Hon. 
Charles Curtis, a Senator from Kansas. 

Congressoional Record, V. 70: Part 4, p. 3 812. 

Ordered by the House of Representatives, 28 January 1929 — 
on motion by Mr. Snell, a Representative from New York, 
and by unanimous consent: That, on Friday, 22 February 
1929, immediately after the reading of Journal and dis- 
position of business on the Speaker's table, Mr. Beck, a 
Representative from Pennsylvania, may have an hour in 
which to address the House on the life and character of 
George Washington. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 156. 
[Congressional Record, V. 70: Part 3, p. 2391.] 

House bill (H. R. No. 16665) — submitted in the House of 
Representatives by the Hon. John Q. Tilson, a Represen- 
tative from Connecticut, 28 January 1929, authorizing an 
appropriation to enable the George Washington Bicentennial 
Commission to carry out and give effect to certain plans 
approved by said Commission. — 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 157. 
[Congressional Record, V. 70: Part 3, p. 2397.] 

Report — submitted to the House of Representatives by the 
Hon. Richard N. Elliott, a Representative from Indiana, 

14 February 1929, from the Committee on Public Buildings 
and Grounds, to whom was referred the bill (H. R. No. 

15 524), introduced, 18 December 1928, by the Hon. 
Louis C. Cramton, a Representative from Michigan, for 
the acquisition, establishment, and development of the 
George Washington Memorial Parkway along the Potomac 
from Mount Vernon and Fort Washington to the Great 



78 



The United States Congress 



Falls, and to provide for the acquisition of lands in the 
District of Columbia and the States of Maryland and Vir- 
ginia requisite to the comprehensive park, parkway, and 
playgrounds system of the National Capital. 3 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 69, 2 51, 

335, 336. 
[Congressional Record, V. 70: Part 1, p. 849; Part 4, 

p. 3490; Part 5, pp. 4613, 4614, 4665, 5086.] 
[H. Rept. No. 2523 .... Serial 8980.] 

Ordered by the House of Representatives, 22 February 1929 — 
on motion by Mr. Garrett, a Representative from Tennes- 
see, and by unanimous consent: 

That the address delivered before the House, 22 February 
1929, by the Hon. James M. Beck, a Representative from 
Pennsylvania, in commemoration of George Washing- 
ton's birthday, be printed as a House document. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 299. 
[Congressional Record, V. 70: Part 4, p. 4060.] 
[H. Doc. No. 611 .... Serial 9021.] 

FIRST SESSION OF THE SEVENTY-FIRST CONGRESS: 
1929 

Report — submitted to the Senate by the Hon. Simeon D. Fess, 
a Senator from Ohio, 20 November 1929 (Legislative day, 
30 October 1929), from the Committee on the Library, to 
whom was referred the Swanson bill (S. No. 1784), ap- 
propriating money for improvements upon Government- 
owned land at Wakefield, Westmoreland County, Virginia, 
the birthplace of George Washington. 

Journal of the Senate, pp. 15 0, 199, 211. 
[Congressional Record, V. 71: Part 4, p. 4091; Part 5, 

p. 5832.] 
[S. Rept. No. 45 .... Serial 9185.] 

SECOND SESSION OF THE SEVENTY-FIRST CONGRESS: 
1929-1930 

Senate bill (S. No. 1784) — submitted in the Senate (during the 
preceding session) by the Hon. Claude A. Swanson, a 
Senator from Virginia, 1 October 1929, appropriating 
money for improvement upon the Government-owned land 
at Wakefield, Westmoreland County, Virginia, the birth- 
place of George Washington. — Approved, 23 January 
1930. 

Journal of the Senate, pp. 54, 92, 93, 95, 97, 99. 
Jotimal of the House of Representatives, pp. 101, 168, 

174, 180, 192. 
[Congressional Record, V. 72: Part 1, pp. 95 5, 1078; 
Part 2, pp. 1991, 1995, 2020, 2138, 2169, 2177; 
Part 3, p. 2266.] 

Communication from Herbert Hoover, President of the United 
States, with accompanying letter from the Director of the 
Bureau of the Budget, 2 5 January 193 0, transmitting a sup- 



plemental estimate of appropriation for improvements upon 
the Government-owned land at Wakefield, Virginia. 
Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 199. 
[Congressional Record, V. 72: Part 3, p. 2487.] 
[H. Doc. No. 272 ... . Serial 9252.] 

Joint Resolution (S. J. Res. No. 91) — submitted in the Senate 
by the Hon. Simeon D. Fess, a Senator from Ohio, 3 
December 1929, to amend sections 3 and 4 of the act en- 
titled "An act to authorize and direct the survey, construc- 
tion, and maintenance of a memorial highway to connect 
Mount Vernon, in the State of Virginia, with the Arlington 
Memorial Bridge across the Potomac River at Washington". 
— Approved, 23 January 1930. 

Journal of the Senate, pp. 14, 30, 92, 95, 97, 99. 
Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 58, 72, 

105, 169, 174, 180, 192. 
[Congressional Record, V. 72: Part 1, pp. 31, 305, 541, 
1086; Part 2, pp. 1999, 2020, 2138, 2167, 2177; 
Part 3, p. 2266.] 

Report — submitted to the House of Representatives by the 
Hon. George S. Graham, a Representative from Penn- 
sylvania, 21 December 1929, from the Committee on the 
Judiciary, to whom was referred the Fess joint resolution 
(S. J. Res. No. 91) to amend sections 3 and 4 of the act 
entitled "An act to authorize and direct the survey, con- 
struction, and maintenance of a memorial highway to con- 
nect Mount Vernon, in the State of Virginia, with the Ar- 
lington Memorial Bridge across the Potomac River at Wash- 
ington." 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 105. 
[Congressional Record, V. 72: Part 1, p. 1086.] 
[H. Rept. No. 96 ... . Serial 9190.] 

Senate bill (S. No. 2708) — submitted in the Senate by the Hon. 
Arthur Capper, a Senator from Kansas, 17 December 
1929, for the acquisition, establishment, and development of 
the George Washington Memorial Parkway along the Po- 
tomac River from Mount Vernon and Fort Washington to 
the Great Falls, and to provide for the acquisition of lands 
in the District of Columbia and the States of Maryland and 
Virginia requisite to the comprehensive park, parkway and 
playgrounds system of the National Capital. — x 

Senate bill (S. No. 3 063) — submitted in the Senate by the Hon. 
Guy D. Goff, a Senator from West Virginia, 9 January 
193 0, making an appropriation to aid in the construction of 
the George Washington Memorial Building in the city of 
Washington. — 

Journal of the Senate, pp. 69, 75. 

[Congressional Record, V. 72: Part 2, pp. 1287-1288, 

1488.] 

Letter from the George Washington Birthday Association of Alex- 
andria, Virginia, inviting the United States Congress to be 
present in Alexandria on the 22nd day of February, 1930, 
and take part in the plans to honor the first President on the 



The bill (H.R. 15 524) was not enacted. See H.R. 26, introduced by Mr. 
Cramton, of Michigan, 71st Congress, 1st Session. 



See H.R. No. 26. 



On George Washington 



79 



anniversary of his birth — presented in the Senate, 8 Feb- 
ruary 1930, by the Hon. Claude A. Swanson, a Senator 
from Virginia; presented in the House of Representatives, 
8 February 193 0, by the Hon. R. Walton Moore, a 
Representative from Virginia. 

Congressional Record, V. 72: Part 3, pp. 3 2 80, 3 302. 

Senate bill (S. No. 3 398) — submitted in the Senate by the Hon. 
Simeon D. Fess, a Senator from Ohio, 1 February 193 0, 
to enable the George Washington Bicentennial Commission 
to carry out and give effect to certain approved plans. — 
Approved, 21 February 1930. 

Journal of the Senate, pp. 115, 13 2, 151, 154, 160. 
journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 248, 281, 

288, 298. 
[Congressional Record, V. 72: Part 3, pp. 2812, 2813, 

3278; Part 4, pp. 3897-3899, 3905, 3965, 3966, 

4031, 4135.] 

Communication from Herbert Hoover, President of the United 
States, with accompanying letter from the Director of the 
Bureau of the Budget, 4 March 1930, (Legislative day, 6 
January 193 0), transmitting a supplemental estimate of ap- 
propriation for the George Washington Bicentennial Com- 
mission for the fiscal year 1930. — 

Journal of the Senate, p. 176. 

[Congressional Record, V. 72: Part 5, p. 4663.] 

[S. Doc. No. 97 . . . . Serial 9219.] 

Communication from Herbert Hoover, President of the United 
States, with accompanying letter from the Director of the 
Bureau of the Budget, 10 April 193 0, transmitting a sup- 
plemental estimate of appropriation for the George Wash- 
ington Bicentennial Commission for the fiscal year 1931. — 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 442. 
[Congressional Record, V. 72: Part 7, p. 6995.] 
[H. Doc. No. 345 ... . Serial 9252.] 

Communication from Herbert Hoover, President of the United 
States, with accompanying letter from che Director of the 
Bureau of the Budget, 19 May 193 0, transmitting a supple- 
mental estimate of appropriation for the George Washing- 
ton Bicentennial Commission for the fiscal year 1931 . . . 
in lieu of the estimate made on 3 April 193 0. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 575-576. 
[Congressional Record, V. 72: Part 9, p. 92 5 5.] 
[H. Doc. No. 409 ... . Serial 9252.] 

Report — submitted to the Senate by the Hon. Arthur Capper, 
a Senator from Kansas, 17 April 1930, from the Committee 
on the District of Columbia, to whom was referred the 
Cramton bill (H. R. No. 26) for the acquisition, estab- 
lishment, and development of the George Washington Me- 
morial Parkway 



and 



provide for the acquisition of lands 



requisite to the comprehensive park, parkway and play- 
ground system of the National Capital. 

Journal of the Senate, p. 28 5. 

[Congressional Record, V. 72: Part 7, p. 7190; Part 9, 
p. 9368.] 

[S. Kept. No. 45 8 . . . . Serial 918 5.] 

Report — submitted to the House of Representatives by the Hon. 
Richard N. Elliott, a Representative from Indiana, 18 
December 1929, from the Committee on Public Buildings 
and Grounds, to whom was referred the Cramton bill 
(H. R. No. 26) for the acquisition, establishment and de- 
velopment of the George Washington Memorial Parkway 
. . ■ . and to provide for the acquisition of lands 
. . . . requisite to the comprehensive park, parkway, 
and playground system of the National Capital. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 95. 
[Congressional Record, V. 72: Part 1, p. 926.] 
[H. Rept. No. 5 5 . . . . Serial 9190.] 

House bill (H. R. No. 26) — submitted in the House of Repre- 
sentatives (during the preceding session) by the Hon. 
Louis C. Cramton, a Representative from Michigan, 15 
April 1929, for the acquisition, establishment, and develop- 
ment of the George Washington Memorial Parkway along 
the Potomac from Mount Vernon and Fort Washington to 
the Great Falls, and to provide for the acquisition of lands 
in the District of Columbia and the States of Maryland 
and Virginia requisite to the comprehensive park, parkway, 
and playground system of the National Capital. — Approved, 
29 May 1930. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 95, 212, 

556, 586, 592, 595, 655. 
Journal of the Senate, pp. 113, 114, 285, 349, 372, 373, 

431. 
[Congressional Record, V. 72: Part 1, pp. 926, 1084- 

1086; Part 2, pp. 1986, 2253; Part 3, pp. 2449-2466, 

2708-2724, 2726, 2893; Part 7, p. 7190; Part 8, p. 

8848; Part 9, pp. 9368, 9405, 9485.] 

Report — submitted to the House of Representatives by the Hon. 
Bertrand H. Snell, a Representative from New York, 23 
January 193 0, from the Committee on Rules, recommend- 
ing that the resolution (H. Res. No. 132), providing for 
the consideration of the House bill (H. R. No. 26), be 
adopted. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 186, 211- 

212. 
[Congressional Record, V. 72: Part 2, p. 225 3; Part 3, 

2705-2708.] 
[H. Rept. No. 475 ... . Serial 9194.] 

House Bill (H. R. No. 7393) — submitted in the House of Rep- 
resentatives by the Hon. Fred A. Britten, a Representa- 
tive from Illinois, 12 December 1929, to authorize the pre- 
servation, as a national monument, in the District of Colum- 
bia, of the engineering headquarters of General George 



80 



The United States Congress 



Washington in connection with the execution of the origi- 
nal survey of Washington City. 1 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 73. 

[Congressional Record, V. 72: Part 1, p. 574.] 

House bill (H. R. No. 83 58) — submitted in the House of Repre- 
sentatives by the Hon. James M. Beck, a Representative 
from Pennsylvania, 9 January 1930, making an appropria- 
tion to aid in the construction of the George Washington 
Memorial building in the city of Washington. 2 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 131. 
{Congressional Record, V. 72: Part 2, p. 1342.] 

House bill (H. R. No. 9153) — submitted in the House of Rep- 
resentatives by the Hon. Charles A. Eaton, a Representa- 
tive from New Jersey, 2 5 January 1930, to provide for 
the commemoration of the military encampment at Middle- 
brook Heights, near Bound Brook, New Jersey, where 
George Washington was in camp at the time the United 
States flag was adopted by Congress, 14 June 1777. — 
Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 197. 
[Congressional Record, V. 72: Part 3, p. 2412.] 

House bill (H. R. 11489) — reported to the House of Repre- 
sentatives by the Hon. Lister Hill, a Representative from 
Alabama, 19 May 1930, from the Committee on Military 
Affairs, to provide for the commemoration of certain mili- 
tary historic events. — 3 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 5 73. 
[Congressional Record, V. 72: Part 9, p. 9187.] 
[H. Rept. No. 1525 .... Serial 9192.] 

Concurrent resolution adopted by the House of Representatives 
of the State of South Carolina, 14 January 1930, (the Sen- 
ate concurring) — authorizing the governor to appoint a 
Committee to represent South Carolina at the two-hun- 
dredth anniversary of the birth of George Washington — 
presented in the House of Representatives, 31 March 1930, 
by the Hon. John J. McSwain, a Representative from 
South Carolina. 

Congressional Record, V. 72: Part 6, p. 6197. 

House bill (H. R. No. 10177) — submitted in the House of Rep- 
resentatives by the Hon. Allen T. Treadway, a Repre- 
sentative from Massachusetts, 21 February 1930, to provide 
for the acquisition by the United States of Mount Vernon, 
the home of George Washington. — 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 292. 
[Congressional Record, V. 72: Part 4, pp. 4073-4074, 
4095.] 

Resolution (H. Res. 146) — submitted in the House of Represen- 
tatives by the Hon. John Q. Tilson, a Representative from 
Connecticut, 7 February 1930, proposing that the session of 



i Re-introduced (H.R. 9898), 14 February 1930, Congressional Record, V. 

72: Part 3, p. 3707. — 
2 Mr. Beck, of Pennsylvania, introduced a similar bill (H.R. No. 8522). 

13 January 1930, Congressional Record, V. 72: Part 2, p. 1557. — 
sTo commemorate Genital Washington's encampment at Middlebrook 

Heights, near Bound Brook, N. J., in 1779. 



the House on Saturday, 22 February 1930, the one hundred 
and ninety-eighth anniversary of the birth of George 
Washington, be devoted to a suitable commemoration of 
that event; and that the House members of the George 
Washington Bicentennial Commission prepare a program and 
make all necessary arrangements for the proceedings on that 
day. — 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 242. 

[Congressional Record, V. 72: Part 3, p. 3263.] 

Resolution (H. Res. 161) — submitted in the House of Repre- 
sentatives by the Hon. John Q. Tilson, a Representative 
from Connecticut, 21 February 1930, proposing that on 
Saturday, 22 February 193 0, the House meet at 11 o'clock 
a.m.; that, upon the completion of the reading of the 
Journal the program for the celebration of Washington's 
Birthday be carried out; and that those who speak have 
leave to extend their remarks in the Record. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 291. 
[Congressional Record, V. 72: Part 4, p. 4087.] 

House bill (H. R. No. 10203) — submitted in the House of Rep- 
resentatives by the Hon. John L. Cable, a Representative 
from Ohio, 22 February 193 0, to authorize the coinage of $3 
gold pieces in commemoration of the two-hundredth anni- 
versary of the birth of Washington. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 294. 
[Congressional Record, V. 72: Part 4, p. 4123.] 

Concurrent Resolution (H. Con. Res. No. 23) — submitted in 
the House of Representatives by the Hon. Edward M. 
Beers, a Representative, from Pennsylvania, 10 March 1930, 
providing for printing as House document the Proceedings 
held in the United States Congress on February 22, 1930, 
in commemoration of the one hundred and ninety-eighth 
anniversary of the birth of George Washington. . . 
Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 3 3 9. 
[Congressional Record, V. 72: Part 5, p. 5 024.] 

Joint Resolution (H. J. Res. No. 3 68) — submitted in the House 
of Representatives by the Hon. Charles A. Eaton, a Rep- 
resentative from New Jersey, 14 June 1930, to create a com- 
mission to co-operate with the States of Pennsylvania and 
New Jersey in preparing plans for the construction of the 
Washington Crossing Memorial Bridge across the Delaware 
River.— * 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 700. 
[Congressional Record, V. 72: Part 10, p. 10847.] 

THIRD SESSION OF THE SEVENTY-FIRST CONGRESS: 
1930-1931 

Senate bill (S. No. 5644) — reported to the Senate by the Hon. 
Simeon D. Fess, a Senator from Ohio, 23 January 1931, 
from the Committee on the Library, to amend the act en- 
titled "An act to authorize and direct the survey, construc- 
tion, and maintenance of a memorial highway to connect 



Sec H.J. Res. 369, introduced on the same date by the Hon. Henry W. 
Watson, a Representative from Pennsylvania. 



On George Washington 



Mount Vernon, in the State of Virginia, with the Arlington 
Memorial Bridge across the Potomac River at Washington," 
approved May 23, 1928, as amended. — 

Journal of the Senate, pp. 119, 268, 272. 
Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 421, 488. 
[Congressional Record, V. 74: Part 2, p. 1901; Part 3, 
p. 2917, 3194; Part 4, p. 4468; Part 6, pp. 5729- 
5733, 5807, 5830-5834, 5835, 6306.] 
[S. Rept. No. 1348 .... Serial 9323.] 

Senate bill (S. No. 5740) — submitted in the Senate by the Hon. 
Arthur Capper, a Senator from Kansas, 15 January 1931, 
to amend subsection (a) of section 1 of the act relating to 
the George Washington Memorial Varkivay approved May 
29, 1930.— 

Journal of the Senate, pp. 96, 231, 323. 
[Congressional Record, V. 74: Part 2, 2198; Part 5, 
p. 5257; Part 7, p. 6951.] 

Report — submitted to the Senate by the Hon. Robert D. 
Carey, a Senator from Wyoming, 18 February 1931, from 
the Committee on the District of Columbia, to whom was 
referred the Capper hill (S. No. 5740), to amend subsection 
(a) of section 1 of the act relating to the George Washing- 
ton Memorial Parkway approved May 29, 1930. 
Journal of the Senate, pp. 96, 231, 3 23. 
[Congressional Record, V. 74: Part 5, p. 52 57; Part 7, 

p. 6951.] 
[S. Rept. No. 165 8 . . . . Serial 93 23.] 
Senate bill (S. No. 5724) — reported to the Senate by the Hon. 
Simeon D. Fess, a Senator from Ohio, 3 February 1931 
(Legislative day, 26 January 1931) from the Committee on 
the Library, authorizing the George Washington Bicenten- 
nial Commission to print and distribute additional sets of 
the writings of George Washington. — 
Journal of the Senate, pp. 94, 157, 341. 
Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 245, 2 5 5, 

306, 488. 
[Congressional Record, V. 74: Part 2, p. 2124; Part 4, 

pp. 3875-3876.] 
[S. Rept. No. 1450 .... Serial 9323.] 
Report — submitted to the House of Representatives by the Hon. 
Robert Luce, a Representative from Massachusetts, 12 
February 1931, from the Committee on the Library, to 
whom was referred the Fess hill (S. No. 5724), authorizing 
the George Washington Bicentennial Commission to print 
and distribute additional sets of the writings of George 
Washington. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 245, 25 5, 

306, 488. 
[Congressional Record, V. 74: Part 5, p. 4768; Part 7, 

pp. 7227-7228.] 
[H.Rept. No. 263 6 . . . . Serial 9127.} 
Senate bill (S. No. 6041) — reported to the Senate by the Hon. 
Arthur Capper, a Senator from Kansas, 9 February 1931, 
from the Committee on the District of Columbia, to author- 
ize an appropriation of funds in the Treasury to the credit 



of the District of Columbia for the use of the District of 
Columbia Commission for the George Washington Bicen- 
tennial Commission. — Approved, 24 February 1931. 

Journal of the Senate, pp. 162, 178, 187, 261, 272, 273, 

276. 
Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 284, 308, 

317, 393, 411, 421. 
[Congressional Record, V. 74: Part 4, pp. 3916, 4283, 
4510; Part 5, pp. 4763, 4873; Part 6, 5650-5651, 
5779, 5816, 5921.] 
[S. Rept. No. 1550 .... Serial 93 23.] 

Report — submitted to the House of Representatives by the Hon. 
Frederick N. Zihlman, a Representative from Maryland, 
13 February 1931, from the Committee on the District of 
Columbia, to whom was referred the Capper bill (S. No. 
6041), to authorize an appropriation of funds in the Treas- 
ury to the credit of the District of Columbia for the use of 
the District of Columbia Commission for the George Wash- 
ington Bicentennial Commission. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 284, 3 02, 

317, 393, 411, 421. 
[Congressional Record, V. 74: Part 5, 4873; Part 6, 

pp. 5650-5651, 5779, 5816, 5921.] 
[H. Rept. No. 2659 .... Serial 9327.] 
Senate bill (S. No. 6103) — submitted in the Senate by the Hon. 
Simeon D. Fess, a Senator from Ohio, 9 February 1931, to 
authorize a change in the design of the quarter dollar to com- 
memorate the two hundredth anniversary of the birth of 
George Washington. — Approved, 4 March 1931. 

Journal of the Senate, pp. 179, 182, 338, 344, 345, 347. 
Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 2 84, 302, 

484, 498, 503. 
[Congressional Record, V. 74: Part 4, pp. 4284, 4454; 
Part 5, p. 4764; Part 7, pp. 7210-7211, 7269, 7286, 
7394.] 

Senate bill (S. No. 6271) — submitted in the Senate by the Hon. 
Simeon D. Fess, a Senator from Ohio, 17 February 1931, 
relating to the tenure of Congressional members of the 
George Washington Bicentennial Commission. — Approved, 
4 March 1931. 

Journal of the Senate, p. 3 22, 3 3 8, 3 39, 342, 346. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 476, 48 5, 
492, 502. 

[Congressional Record, V. 74: Part 7, pp. 6905, 7103, 
7212-7213, 7250, 7286.] 
Communication from Herbert Hoover, President of the United 
States, 25 February 1931 (Legislative day, 17 February 
1931) — transmitting, pursuant to law, a supplement esti- 
mate of appropriation for the expenses of the District of 
Columbia Commission for the George Washington Bicen- 
tennial Commission, fiscal year 1931, to remain available 
until June 30, 1932. 

Journal of the Senate, p. 274. 

[Congressional Record, V. 74: Part 6, p. 5917.] 

[S. Doc. No. 302 . . . . Serial 9147.] 



82 



The United States Congress 






Senate bill (S. No. 5665) — submitted in the Senate by the Hon. 
Guy D. Goff, a Senator from West Virginia, 12 January 
1931, to designate the United States Highway No. 50 as 
the George Washington Highway. — 

Journal of the Senate, p. 89. 

[Congressional Record, V. 74: Part 2, p. 1974.] 

House bill (H. R. No. 15497) — submitted in the House of Rep- 
resentatives by the Hon. Thomas A. Jenkins, a Repre- 
sentative from Ohio, 19 December 1930, proposing to desig- 
nate the United States Highway No. 50 as the George 
Washington Highway. — 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 109. 
[Congressional Record, V. 74: Part 2, p. 1169.] 

House bill (H. R. No. 16218) — submitted in the House of Rep- 
resentatives by the Hon. Louis Cramton, a Representa- 
tive from Michigan, 15 January 1931, to amend subsection 
(a) of section 1 of an act entitled "An act for the acquisi- 
tion, establishment, and development of the George Wash- 
ington Memorial Parkway along the Potomac from Mount 
Vernon and Fort Washington to the Great Falls, and to pro- 
vide for the acquisition of lands in the District of Columbia 
and the States of Maryland and Virginia requisite to the 
comprehensive park, parkway, and playground system of 
the National Capital" approved May 29, 1930. — 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 161, 306. 
[Congressional Record, V. 74: Part 2, p. 2298; Part 5, 
p. 4768; Part 7, p. 7236.] 

Report — submitted to the House of Representatives by the Hon. 
Richard N. Elliott, a Representative from Indiana, 12 
February 1931, from the Committee on Public Buildings 
and Grounds, to whom was referred the Cramton bill 
(H. R. No. 16218) to amend subsection (a) of section 1 
of the act relating to the George Washington Memorial 
Parkway approved May 29, 1930. — 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 161, 306. 
[Congressional Record, V. 74: Part 5, p. 4768; Part 7, 

p. 7236.] 
[H. Rept. No. 2628 .... Serial 9327.] 

House bill (H. R. No. 16299) — submitted in the House of Rep- 
resentatives by the Hon. Emanuel Celler, a Representa- 
tivet from New York, 17 January 1931, for the acquisition 
of land in the township of New Windsor, Orange County, 
New York, which was occupied as a camp-ground by the 
American army during 1782 and 1783, and the creation 
there of a national park, in which shall be erected a per- 
petual memorial to George Washington on the site of 
original camp building. — 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 166. 
[Congressional Record, V. 74: Part 3, p. 2 527.] 

House bill (H. R. No. 163 82) — submitted in the House of Rep- 
resentatives by the Hon. Guy E. Campbell, a Representa- 
tive from Pennsylvania, 20 January 1931, to provide for the 



issuing of postage stamps in commemoration of the two hun- 
dredth anniversary of the birth of George Washington. — 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 176. 

[Congressional Record, V. 74: Part 3, p. 2710.] 
House bill (H. R. No. 16973) — reported to the House of Repre- 
sentatives by the Hon. Randolph Perkins, a Representa- 
tive from New Jersey, 14 February 1931, from the Com- 
mittee on Coinage, Weights, and Measures, to authorize 
a change in the design of the quarter dollar to commemor- 
ate the two /mndredth anniversary of the birth of George 
Washington. — 1 

Journal of the House of Representatives, pp. 278, 326, 
484. 

[Congressional Record, V. 74: Part 4, p. 4424; Part 5, 
p. 4991; Part 7, pp. 7210-7211.] 

[H. Rept. No. 2668 .... Serial 9327.] 
Ordered by the House of Representatives, 18 February 1931 — 
on motion by Mr. Tilson, a Representative from Connecti- 
cut, and by unanimous consent: 

That on Monday next the House shall meet at 11 o'clock 
a.m., and that Mr. Beck, a Representative from Pennsyl- 
vania, be permitted to address the House for one hour on 
the life of George Washington. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 362. 

[Congressional Record, V. 74: Part 5, p. 5340.] 
Ordered by the House of Representatives, 24 February 1931 — 
on motion by Mr. Tilson, a Representative from Connecti- 
cut, and by unanimous consent: 

That the address delivered before the House, 23 February 
1931, by the Hon. James M. Beck, a Representative from 
Pennsylvania, in commemoration of George Washing- 
ton's birthday, be printed as a House document. 

Journal of the House of Representatives, p. 414. 

[Congressional Record, V. 74: Part 6, p. 5864.] 

[H. Doc. No. 792 ... . Serial 9167.] 

FIRST SESSION OF THE SEVENTY-SECOND CONGRESS: 

1931-1932 
Senate bill (S. No. 13 06) — reported to the Senate by the Hon. 
Arthur Capper, a Senator from Kansas, 19 December 
1931, from the Committee on the District of Columbia, to 
provide for the incorporation of the District of Columbia, 
Commission, George Washington Bicentennial. — Approved, 
18 February 193 2. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 1, p. 912; 21 De- 
cember 1931, Part 1, pp. 994-995, 4 January 1932, 
Part 2, p. 1274; 8 January 1932, Part 2, p. 1553; 
1 February 1932, Part 3, p. 3041; 8 February 1932, 
Part 4, pp. 3548-3553; 11 February 1932, Part 4, p. 
3735; 12 February 1932, Part 4, pp. 3815, 3844; 15 
February 1932, Part 4, p. 3895; 16 February 1932, 
Part 4, p. 4013; 18 February 1932, Part 4, pp. 4209- 
4210. 
[S. Rept. No. 10 .' . . . Serial 9487.] 



"The bill H.R. 16973 was laid on the table. See S. 6103. 



On George Washington 



83 



Report — submitted to the House of Representatives by the Hon. 
Mary T. Norton, a Representative from New Jersey, 8 
January 1932, from the Committee on the District of Co- 
lumbia, to whom was referred the Capper bill (S. No. 
1306) for incorporating the District of Columbia Com- 
mission, George Washington Bicentennial. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 2, p. 15 53. 
[H. Rept. No. 3 2 . . . . Serial 9491.] 

Senate bill (S. No. 1861) — reported to the Senate by the Hon. 
Simeon D. Fess, a Senator from Ohio, 7 January 193 2, 
from the Committee on the Library, authorizing the 
George Washington Bicentennial Commission to print and 
distribute additional sets of the Writings of George 
Washington. — Approved, 10 March 193 2. 

Congressional Record, V. 75; Part 2, p. 1409; 13 Jan- 
uary 1932, Part 2, p. 1891; 26 January 1932, Part 3, 
p. 2715; 28 January 1932, Part 3, p. 2928; 20 
February 1932, Part 4, p. 4444; 7 March 1932, Part 
5, p. 5415; 8 March 1932, Part 5, p. 5 517; 9 March 
1932, Part 5, p. 5523; 10 March 1932, Part 5, pp. 
5628, 5629. 

Report — submitted in the House of Representatives by the Hon. 
Ralph Gilbert, a Representative from Kentucky, 20 Feb- 
ruary 1932, from the Committee on the Library, to whom 
was referred the Fess bill (S. No. 1861) authorizing the 
George Washington Bicentennial Commission to print and 
distribute additional sets of the Writings of George Wash- 
ington. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 4, p. 4444. 
[H. Rept. No. 5 88 . . . . Serial 9491.] 

Resolution (S. Res. 145) — submitted in the Senate by the Hon. 
Simeon D. Fess, a Senator from Ohio, 21 January, 1932: 
Resolved, That Washington's Farewell Address be read to 
the Senate on the 23rd day of February 1932 instead of the 
22nd day of such month as provided in the standing order 
of the Senate relating to the reading of such address. 1 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 3, p. 2401; 22 Janu- 
ary, 1932, Part 3, p. 2479; 23 February 1932, Part 
4, pp. 4475-4479. 

Communication from the George Washington Birthday Associa- 
tion of Alexandria, Virginia, inviting the United States Com- 
gress to attend the celebration in Alexandria, 22 February 
193 2, in honor of the two-hundredth anniversary of the 
birth of George Washington — presented in the Senate, 
21 January 1932, by the Hon. Carter Glass, a Senator 
from Virginia; presented in the House of Representatives, 10 
February 1932, by the Hon. Clifton A. Woodrum, a 
Representative from Virginia. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 3, p. 2383; Part 4, 
p. 3680. 



Under authority of Senate Resolution 145, the Chair designated Mr. Walsh, 
a Senator from the State of Montana, to read Washington's farewell 
Address on the 23rd of February, 1932. 



Resolution adopted by the Indiana George Washington Bicente- 
nary Commission relative to the distribution of literature by 
the United States Bicentennial Commission — read into the 
Record, 26 January 1932, by request of the Hon. Simeon 
D. Fess, a Senator from Ohio. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 3, pp. 2701-2702. 
Concurrent resolution (S. Con. Res. No. 14) — submitted in the 
Senate by the Hon. Simeon D. Fess, a Senator from Ohio, 
3 February 1932, granting the consent of Congress for the 
temporary removal to the Corcoran Art Gallery of certain 
portraits in the Capitol Building. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 3, p. 3 3 28; 5 Feb- 
ruary 1932, Part 3, pp. 3401-3402; 8 February 1932, 
Part 4, p. 3531; 18 February 1932, Part 4, pp. 4202, 
4245. 

Reports — submitted to the House of Representatives by the Hon. 
Ralph Gilbert, a Representative from Kentucky, 12 Feb- 
ruary 1932, from the Committee on the Library, to whom 
was referred the Senate concurrent resolution (S. J. Res. No. 
14) granting the consent of Congress for the temporary 
removal to the Corcoran Art Gallery of certain portraits in 
the Capitol Building. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 4, p. 3 845. 
[H. Rept. No. 429 .. . Serial 9495.] 

Memorial of the Cambridge Historical Society of Massachusetts 
held at Craigie House, General Washington's headquar- 
ters in Cambridge, Massachusetts, 22 February 1932, relative 
to the proposal to erect a statue to Washington commemo- 
rating his taking command of the Continental Army at 
Cambridge, 2 July 1775 — printed in the Record, 5 April 
1932, by request of the Hon. David I. Walsh, a Senator 
from Massachusetts. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 7, p. 7462. 

Ordered by the Senate, 23 February 193 2 — on motion by Mr. 
Fess, a Senator from Ohio: 

That the address delivered by President Hoover at the 
joint session of the Senate and House of Representatives in 
the House Chamber, 22 February 1932, as well as the ad- 
dress by Mr. Beck, a Representative from Pennsylvania, at 
ceremonies held at the east front of the Capitol, be printed 
as a public document. 2 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 4, 4482; 24 Febru- 
ary 1932, Part 4, p. 4591. 

Ordered by the Senate, 24 February 193 2 — 

That a cablegram from the Baron Wlassics, president of 
the Hungarian Upper House at Budapest, Hungary, to the 
Hon. Charles Curtis, president of the United States Sen- 
ate, 21 February 1932, in honor of the bicentennial of our 
first President, be printed in the Record. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 4, p. 45 84. 

2 The order made by the Senate was rescinded 24 February, 1932, by request 
of Senator Fess, of Ohio, in consideration of the House Concurrent 
Resolution No. 25, which provides for the printing of the Proceedings, 
22 February, 1932, in commemoration of the two-hundredth anni- 
versary of the birth of George Washington. 



84 



The United States Congress 






Ordered by the Senate, 3 March 1932 — 

That a cablegram from the presidents of the Senate and 
Chamber of Deputies of the Dominican Republic to the 
President of the United States Senate, 22 February 193 2, 
expressing felicitation on the occasion of the bicentennial of 
the birth of George Washington, be printed in the Record. 
Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 5, p. 5148. 

Paragraph from letter revealing how the name of George Wash- 
ington is honored in Uruguay and Venezuela — read into the 
Record, 4 March 193 2, by the Hon. Simeon D. Fess, a Sen- 
ator from Ohio. 

Congressional Record, V. 75; Part 5, p. 5238. 

Concurrent resolution (S. Con. Res. No. 20) — submitted in the 
Senate by the Hon. Simeon D. Fess, a Senator from Ohio, 9 
March 1932, authorizing the Joint Committee on the Library 
to accept, on behalf of the United States, the gift of a stone 
tablet, formerly in Duxbury Hall, Chorley, England, and 
dated 1622, bearing the conjoined escutcheons of the Wash- 
ington and Standish families. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 5, p. 5 527. 

Senate bill (S. No. 4204) — submitted in the Senate by the Hon. 
Charles W. Waterman, a Senator from Colorado, 24 
March 1932, to designate a memorial highway to be known 
as the George Washington Bicentennial Highway. 
Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 6, p. 6783. 

Statement in the Senate by the Hon. Simeon D. Fess, a Senator 
from Ohio, 24 March 1932, relative to the publication by the 
George Washington Bicentennial Commission of the Atlas of 
George Washington's Travels. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 6, p. 6787. 

Letter from Franklin L. Burdette, secretary of the West Vir- 
ginia Society of the Sons of the American Revolution indors- 
ing the proposed plan for a George Washington Memorial 
Highivay — printed in the Record, 1 April 1932, by request 
of the Hon. Matthew M. Neely, a Senator from West 
Virginia. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 7, p. 72 50. 

Letter from the Hon. Sol Bloom, Associate Director of the 
George Washington Bicentennial Commission with reference 
to requests for publications on the George Washington Bi- 
centennial — printed in the Record, 4 April 1932, by request 
of the Hon. Simeon D. Fess, a Senator from Ohio. 
Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 7, p. 7349. 

Letter from Edwin S. Bettelheim, Jr., Adjutant General of the 
Military Order of the World War, inviting the United 
States Congress to review the parade on the 6th of April, 
1932 in honor of those who exposed their lives to the dangers 
of the battlefield in defense of our national ideals, and 
honoring the memory of George Washington, first Com- 
mander-in-Chief — presented in the Senate, 6 April 1932, by 
the Hon. David A. Reed, a Senator from Pennsylvania. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 7, pp. 75-7-7528, 
7564. 



Letter written by Major O. R. McGuire, Finance Reserve, 
United States Army, 7 June 1932, to the George Washington 
Chapter of the Reserve Officers' Association, in which he 
pays tribute to George Washington as "one of the really 
great men in the tides of time" — printed in the Record, 8 
June 1932, by request of the Hon. M. M. Logan, a Senator 
from Kentucky. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 11, pp. 12284-1228 5. 

Resolution adopted by the Fort Necessity Chapter, No. 12, Penn- 
sylvania Society Sons of the American Revolution, Union- 
town, Pennsylvania, extending an invitation to the Members 
of the Senate to be present on the 3rd and the 4th of July, 
1932, at the dedication of the replica of Fort Necessity, the 
unveiling of tablets, and other memorials of various patriotic 
organizations — presented in the Senate, 10 June 1932, by 
the Vice President. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 11, p. 12 549. 

Concurrent resolution (H. Con. Res. No. 4) — submitted in the 
House of Representatives by the Hon. Clifton A. Wood- 
rum, a Representative from Virginia, 18 December 1931, 
to provide for the appointment of a joint committee to 
make suitable arrangements for the celebration of the two- 
hundredth anniversary of the birth of George Wash- 
ington. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 1, pp. 792-793; 

19 December 1931, Part 1, pp. 922-923, 924, 967; 

21 December 1931, Part 1, p. 977; 22 December 

1932, Part 1, p. 1136. 

House bill (H. R. No. 6741) — submitted in the House of Repre- 
senatives by the Hon. Samuel S. Arentz, a Representative 
from Nevada, 4 January 1932, to authorize the coinage of 
silver 50-cent, 2 5-cent, and 10-cent pieces in commemora- 
tion of the two-hundredth anniversary of the birth of 
George Washington. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 2, p. 1278. 

Concurrent resolution (H. Con. Res. No. 12) — submitted in the 
House of Representatives, 20 January 1932, by the Hon. 
Clifton A. Woodrum, a Representative from Virginia: 
That in commemoration of the txvo-hundredth anniversary 
of the birth of George Washington the two Houses of 
Congress shall assemble in the Hall of the Hotise of Repre- 
sentatives at 11:30 o'clock a. m. on Monday, 22 February 
1932; 

That the President of the United States . . . is hereby 
invited to address the American people in the presence of 
the Congress . . . ; 

That invitations to attend the ceremony be extended to 
the Members of the Cabinet, the Chief-Justice and associate 
justices of the Supreme Court of the United States, the 
Diplomatic Corps, the Chief -of -Staff , the Chief of Naval 
Operations, the Major-General Commandant of the Marine 
Corps, the Commandant of the Coast Guard, and such other 
persons as the joint committee on arrangements shall deem 
proper. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 3, pp. 2342-2343; 
21 January 1932, Part 3, pp. 2418-2419, 2468; 22 
January 1932, Part 3, p. 2 524. 



On George Washington 



85 



Proclamation by Herbert Hoover, President of the United 
States, 1 February 1932, inviting all our people to organize 
themselves through every community and every association 
to do honor to the memory of George Washington during 
the period from the 22nd of February 1932 to Thanksgiving 
Day — printed in the Record, 18 February 1932, by request 
of the Hon. John Q. Tilson, a Representative from Con- 
necticut. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 4, p. 4245. 

Concurrent resolution (H. Con. Res. No. 18) — submitted in the 
House of Representatives by the Hon. Sol Bloom, a Repre- 
sentative from New York, 8 February 1932, granting the 
consent of Congress for the temporary removal to the Cor- 
coran Art Gallery of certain portraits in the Capitol 
Building. 1 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 4, p. 3 563; 17 
February 1932, Part 4, p. 4181; 18 February 1932, 
Part 4, p. 4245. 

Concurrent resolution (H. Con. Res. No. 19) — submitted in the 
House of Representatives by the Hon. Schuyler O. Bland, 
a Representative from Virginia, 9 February 1932, providing 
for a wreath to be placed on the grave of the mother of 
Washington on the 22nd of February 1932. 2 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 4, p. 3630; 15 
February 1932, Part 4, p. 3962; 16 February 1932, 
Part 4, pp. 4014-4015; 18 February 1932, Part 4, 
p. 4299; 19 February 1932, Part 4, p. 4304. 

Report — submitted in the House of Representatives by the Hon. 
Lindsay Warren, a Representative from North Carolina, 
10 February 1932, from the Committee on Accounts, to 
whom was referred the concurrent resolution (H. Con. 
Res. No. 19) providing for a wreath to be placed on the 
grave of the mother of Washington on the 22nd of Febru- 
ary 1932. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 4, p. 3722. 
[H. Rept.No. 416 . . . Serial 9495.] 

House bill (H. R. No. 9 596) — submitted in the House of Repre- 
sentatives by the Hon. William R. Eaton, a Representa- 
tive from Colorado, 20 February 1932, to designate a 
memorial highway to be known as the George Washington 
Bicentennial Highivay. — 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 4, p. 4444. 

Resolution (H. Res. 156) — submitted in the House of Repre- 
sentatives by the Hon. Allen T. Treadway, a Repre- 
sentative from Massachusetts, 20 February 1932, for the 
purpose of the United States acquiring the property of 
Mount Vernon. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 4, p. 4444. 

Concurrent Resolution (H. Con. Res. No. 24) — submitted in the 



The Senate Concurrent Resolution (S. Con. Res. No. 14) was concurred in 
by the House, 18 February, 1932, for the loan of portraits of George 
Washington, whereupon the resolution (H. Res. 148) calling for con- 
sideration of the House Concurrent Resolution (H. Con. Res. No. 18) 
was laid on the table. 
i To carry out the purposes of the concurrent resolution, Mr. Bland, of Vir- 
ginia, was appointed by the Speaker, on behalf of the House, and 
Senator Glass, of Virginia, was appointed by the President pro 
tempore on behalf of the Senate. 



House of Representatives by the Hon. Clifton A. Wood- 
rum, a Representative from Virginia, 22 February 1932, 
thanking the Governor of the State of Virginia for the 
statues of George Washington and Robert E. Lee. 
Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 4, p. 4473. 

Report — submitted to the House of Representatives by the Hon. 
Ralph Gilbert, a Representative from Kentucky, 1 March 
1932, from the Committee on the Library, to whom was re- 
ferred the concurrent resolution (H. Con. Res. No. 24) 
thanking the Governor of the State of Virginia for the 
statues of George Washington and Robert E. Lee. 
Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 5, p. 5059. 
[H. Kept. No. 640 .. . Serial 9496.] 

House bill (H. R. No. 9641) — submitted in the House of Repre- 
sentatives by the Hon. David J. Lewis, a Representative 
from Maryland, 23 February 193 2, to provide for the 
restoration of the first monument erected in memory of 
George Washington. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 4, p. 4580. 

Order of Proceedings on the part of the United States Congress 
at the joint session of the Senate and House, in the House 
Chamber, 22 February 1932, in commemoration of the two- 
hundredth anniversary of the birth of George Washing- 
ton — printed in the Record by request of the Hon. Henry 
T. Rainey, a Representative from Illinois. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 4, pp. 4449-4451. 

Order of Proceedings at the east front of the Capitol, 22 Febru- 
ary 1932, in commemoration of the two-hundredth anniver- 
sary of the birth of George Washington — printed in the 
Record by request of the Hon. Henry T. Rainey, a Repre- 
sentative from Illinois. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 4, pp. 4451-4453. 

Concurrent resolution (H. Con. Res. No. 25) — submitted in the 
House of Representatives by the Hon. Clifton A. Wood- 
rum, a Representative from Virginia, 24 February 1932, to 
compile and print, with illustrations, the proceedings at the 
joint session of Congress in the Hall of the House of Repre- 
sentatives, together with the proceedings at the east front of 
the Capitol, 22 February 1932, in commemoration of the 
two-hundredth anniversary of the birth of George Wash- 
ington. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 4, p. 4665. 

Communication from Ladislas Almasy, president of the Hun- 
garian House of Representatives at Budapest, Hungary, to 
the Hon. John Garner, Speaker of the House of Repre- 
sentatives, 21 February 1932, in honor of the bicentennial 
of the birth of George Washington — presented in the 
House of Representatives, 22 February 1932, by the Speaker. 
Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 4, p. 4453. 

Communication, by radio, from the president and secretaries of 
the Congress of Nicaragua, congratulating the Congress of 
the United States of North America and the American peo- 
ple on the occasion of the bicentennial of the birth of 
George Washington — presented in the House of Repre- 
sentatives, 29 February 1932, by the Speaker. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 5, p. 4976. 



86 



The United States Congress 



Communication from the president of the Hellenic Chamber at 
Athens, Greece, expressing to the Congress and the people 
of the United States, on the occasion of the bicentennial of 
the birth of Washington, the admiration felt by the 
Hellenic Chamber for his noble memory — presented in the 
House of Representatives, 2 March 1932, by the Speaker. 
Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 5, p. 5118. 

Communication from the presidents of the Senate and Chamber 
of Deputies of the Dominican Republic to the Speaker of the 
United States House of Representatives, expressing felicita- 
tion on the occasion of the bicentennial of the birth of 
George Washington — presented in the House of Repre- 
sentatives, 2 March 1932, by the Speaker. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 5, p. 5118. 

House bill (H. R. No. 11418) — submitted in the House of 
Representatives by the Hon. Frederick W. Dallinger, a 
Representative from Massachusetts, 18 April 1932, to erect 
a statue of George Washington in Cambridge, Massa- 
chusetts. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 8, p. 8449. 
Statement, issued 9 May 1932, from the United States De- 
partment of State, affirming that George Washington was 



"not only actually and really but also in the most strict 
legal sense . . . the first President of the United States" — 
read into the Record, 11 May 1932, by the Hon. Sol 
Bloom, Associate Director of the United States George 
Washington Bicentennial Commission. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 9, pp. 10040-10041. 

Resolution (H. Res. No. 275) — submitted in the House of Repre- 
sentatives by the Hon. Grant E. Mouser, Jr., a Repre- 
sentative from Ohio, 24 June 1932, authorizing the Post- 
master-General to cause to be printed a series of memorial 
stamps in recogntion of the valiant service to this country 
and the martyrdom of Colonel William Crawford, a 
native Virginian, and assistant surveyor to George Wash- 
ington. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 13, p. 13935. 

Concurrent resolution (H. Con. Res. No. 38) — submitted in the 
House of Representatives by the Hon. Sol Bloom, a Repre- 
sentative from New York, 15 July 1932, authorizing the 
acceptance of the gift of a stone tablet bearing the con- 
pined escutcheons of the Washington and Standish 
families to be placed in the Capitol. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 14, p. 15 582. 



PART THREE 

Extracts from the Official Papers and Writings of George Washington 
Read Into the Record During Debates in the United States Congress 

1789-1932 



SECOND SESSION OF THE TWENTY-THIRD 
CONGRESS: 1834-183 5 
Message to the Senate under date of 15 April 1794, upon submit- 
ting the nomination of John Jay as envoy extraordinary to 
Great Britain — read into the Record, March 2, 183 5, by the 
Hon. John Quincy Adams, a Representative from Massa- 
chusetts, during debate in the House on the Report of the 
Committee on Foreign Affairs relative to our relation with 
France. 

Debates in Congress, V. 1 1 : Part 2, pp. 1629-1630. 

FIRST SESSION OF THE TWENTY-FOURTH 
CONGRESS: 1835-1836 
Extracts from Annual Messages, under date of the 8th of Janu- 
ary, 1790, the 25th of October, 1791, and the 3rd of Decem- 
ber, 1793, giving the recommendations of President Wash- 
ington to Congress for the national defense, and an histori- 
cal review showing the policy of the Federal Government, in 
this regard, under Washington's Administration — incorpo- 
rated in the Record, February 23, 1836, by the Hon. 
Thomas H. Benton, a Senator from Missouri, during 
debate in the Senate on the Fortification Bill. 

Debates in Congress, V. 12: Part 1, pp. 59 5-600. 

FIRST SESSION OF THE TWENTY-SIXTH CONGRESS: 

1839-1840 
Extract from Letter to Timothy Pickering, under date of 27 
September 1795, relative to appointment to office — read into 



the Record, May 19, 1840, by the Hon. Aaron V. Brown, 
a Representative from Tennessee, during a speech in the 
House on freedom of elections and faithful administration 
of executive patronage. 

Congressional Globe, V. 8: Appendix, p. 511. 

SECOND SESSION OF THE TWENTY-SEVENTH 
CONGRESS: 1841-1842 
Veto Message, under date of 5 April 1792, upon returning to the 
Congress the Apportionment Bill according to the first 
enumeration — read into the Record, June 13, 1842, by the 
Hon. John Campbell, a Representative from South Caro- 
lina, during debate on the Apportionment Bill under the 
Census of 1840. 

Congressional Globe, V. 1 1 : Appendix, p. 975. 

FIRST SESSION OF THE TWENTY-EIGHTH CONGRESS: 

1843-1844 

Extract from Letter to Robert Morris, dated Mount Vernon, 12 
April 1786, and from Letter to John Francis Mercer, 9 
September 1796, relative to views on slavery — read into the 
Record, February 23, 1844, by the Hon. Charles Rogers, 
a Representative from New York, during a speech in the 
House on the right of petition. 

Congressional Globe, V. 13: Appendix, p. 316. 

Extracts from the Farewell Address to the People of the United 
States, 17 September 1796, relative to views on unity of 






On George Washington 



87 



Government — read into the Record, February 7, 1844, by 
the Hon. George Evans, a Senator from Maine, during a 
speech in the Senate on the tariff. 

Congressional Globe, V. 13: Appendix, p. 714. 

FIRST SESSION OF THE TWENTY-NINTH CONGRESS: 
1845-1846 

Extracts from the Official Papers of George Washington — read 
into the Record, March 5, 1846, by the Hon. William H. 
Haywood, a Senator from North Carolina, during debate in 
the Senate on the joint resolution for giving notice to termi- 
nate the convention between the United States and Great 
Britain relative to the Oregon territory. 

Congressional Globe, V. 15: Appendix, pp. 374-375, 
376. 

Extract from messages to Congress, under date of 7 December 
1796, relative to the encouragement of manufactures — read 
into the Record, June 18, 1846, by the Hon. M. McLean, 
a Representative from Pennsylvania, during debate in the 
House on the bill proposing to reduce duties on imports. 
Congressional Globe, V. 15: Appendix, p. 691. 

Extracts from Messages to Congress, under date of 8 January 
1790 and 7 December 1796, relative to the encouragement 
of manufactures — read into the Record, July 22, 1846, by 
the Hon. Simon Cameron, a Senator from Pennsylvania, 
and July 27, 1846, by the Hon. Spencer Jarnagin, a 
Senator from Tennessee, during debate in the Senate on the 
bill proposing to reduce duties on imports. 

Congressional Globe, V. 1 5 : Appendix, p. 1131 and p. 
1153. 

Extract from Messages to Congress — printed in the Record, Au- 
gust 10, 1846, in an Address to the People of North Caro- 
lina by the Hon. William H. Haywood, a Senator from 
that State. 

Congressional Globe, V. 15: Appendix, p. 1180, 1181. 

FIRST SESSION OF THE THIRTIETH CONGRESS: 

1847-1848 

Veto Message under date of 28 February 1797, upon returning 
to the Congress, with his objections, the bill to alter and 
amend an act entitled "An act to ascertain and fix the 
military establishment of the United States" — read into the 
Record, June 16, 1848, by the Hon. Beverly L. Clarke, 
a Representative from Kentucky, during a speech in the 
House on the Veto Power. 

Congressional Globe, V. 17: Appendix, p. 746. 

SECOND SESSION OF THE THIRTIETH CONGRESS: 

1848-1849 

Extract from Letter to Robert Morris under date of 12 April 
1786, relative to views on slavery — read into the Record, 
February 16, 1849, by the Hon. George A. Stark- 
weather, of New York, during a speech in the House on 
the Treaty of Peace with Mexico; and by the Hon. C. E. 
Stuart, of Michigan, February 26, 1849, during debate in 



the House on the bill to establish a territorial government in 
Upper California. 

Congressional Globe, V. 18: Appendix, p. 93 and p. 180. 

Extract from the Farewell Address to the People of the United 
States, 17 September 1796, relating to unity of govern- 
ment — read into the Record, January 25, 1849, by the Hon. 
R. W. Thompson, a Representative from Indiana, during a 
speech in the House on the question of slavery. 

Congressional Globe, V. 18: Appendix, p. 189. 

FIRST SESSION OF THE THIRTY-FIRST CONGRESS: 
1849-1850 

Extract from the Farewell Address to the People of the United 
States, 17 September 1796, relating to the "fatal tendency" 
of "all obstructions to the execution of the laws" — read into 
the Record, February 8, 18 50, by the Hon. Sam Houston, 
a Senator from Texas, the Senate having under considera- 
tion the Compromise Resolutions offered by Mr. Clay. 

Congressional Globe, V. 19: Appendix, pp. 101-102. 
Extract from the Farewell Address to the People of the United 
States, 17 September 1796, in connection with the territorial 
question — read into the Record, March 12, 18 50, by the 
Hon. Hopkins L. Turney, a Senator from Tennessee, dur- 
ing debate in the Senate on the President's Message trans- 
mitting the constitution of California. 

Congressional Globe, V. 19: Appendix, p. 296. 

Extract from the Farewell Address to the People of the United 
States, 17 September 1796, relating to the "fatal tendency" 
of "all obstructions to the execution of the laws" — read into 
the Record, April 8, 18 50, by the Hon. Thomas H. Ben- 
ton, a Senator from Missouri, in connection with his re- 
marks during debate in the Senate on the admission of 
California. 

Congressional Globe, V. 19: Appendix, p. 449. 

Extracts from Letter to Robert Morris, under date of 12 April 
1786, and from Letter to John Francis Mercer, 9 Septem- 
ber 1796, relative to views on slavery — read into the Record, 
March 26, 18 50, by the Hon. Salmon P. Chase, a Senator 
from Ohio, during debate in the Senate on the Compromise 
Resolutions introduced by Mr. Clay. 

Congressional Globe, V. 19: Appendix, p. 471. 

Extracts from Letters revealing views on slavery — read into the 
Record, May 21, 18 50, by the Hon. Elbridge Gerry, of 
Maine, and on June 4, 18 50, by the Hon. K. S. Bingham, 
of Michigan, during debate in the House on the President's 
Message transmitting the Constitution of California. 

Congressional Globe, V. 19: Appendix, pp. 608-729. 

FIRST SESSION OF THE THIRTY-SECOND CONGRESS: 

1851-1852 

Proclamation of Neutrality issued under date of 22 April 1793 — 
read into the Record, February 9, 18 52, by the Hon. J. H. 
Clarke, a Senator from Rhode Island, during a speech in 
the Senate on Non-intervention. 

Congressional Globe, V. 2 1 : Appendix, p. 1 3~7. 



88 



The United States Congress 






Extracts from the Fareivell Address to the People of the United 

States, 17 September 1796 — read into the Record, February 

12, 1852, by the Hon. Jeremiah Clemens, a Senator from 

Alabama, during a speech in the Senate on Non-intervention. 

Congressional Globe, V. 21: Appendix, p. 181. 

Letter to Thomas Jefferson, Secretary of State, under date of 
12 April 1793, with regard to maintaining a strict neutrality 
— read into the Record, February 26, 18 52, by the Hon. 
Jacob W. Miller, a Senator from New Jersey, during a 
speech in the Senate on Non-intervention. 

Congressional Globe, V. 2 1 : Appendix, p. 181. 

Message to the Senate under date of 8 May 1792, relative to a 
convention with the government of Algiers for the ransom 
of American citizens in captivity there — read into the 
Pvecord, March 9, 18 52, by the Hon. William H. Seward, 
a Senator from New York, during debate in the Senate on 
Non-intervention. 

Congressional Globe, V. 21: Appendix, p. 245. 

Message to Edmund Randolph, Secretary of State, under date 
of 10 June 1794, transmitting to Mr. Monroe, minister to 
France, instructions relative to the policy adopted by the 
United States Government toward the French revolution — 
read into the Record, March 22, 18 52, by the Hon. Pierre 
Soule, a Senator from Louisiana, during debate in the 
Senate on Non-intervention. 

Congressional Record, V. 21: Appendix, p. 3 50. 

Extracts from Letters to Alexander Hamilton under date of 
6th May, 1794, and under date of 8th May, 1796, relative 
to French emigres in the United States during the revolution- 
ary struggle in France — read into the Record, March 18, 
18 52, by the Hon. James C. Jones, a Senator from Ten- 
nessee, during debate in the Senate on Non-intervention. 
Congressional Globe, V. 21: Appendix, p. 30 5. 

Extract from the Farewell Address to the People of the United 
States, 17 September 1796, relative to institutions for the 
general diffusion of knowledge — read into the Record, March 
5, 18 52, by the Hon. L. D. Campbell, a Representative 
from Ohio, during a speech in the House on internal im- 
provements. 

Congressional Globe, V. 21: Appendix, p. 262. 

Extracts from Writings of George Washington, revealing his 
views concerning unity of Government — read into the 
Record, March 9, 18 52, by the Hon. John A. Wilcox, a 
Representative from Mississippi, during a speech in the 
House on the Union and States' rights. 

Congressional Globe, V. 21: Appendix, p. 284. 

Extracts from First Inaugural Address, 30 April 1789, and from 
the Farewell Address ... 17 September 1796, acknowledging 
the "Invisible Hand which conducts the affairs of men" — 
read into the Record, March 31, 18 52, by the Hon. Orin 
Fowler, a Representative from Massachusetts, during de- 
bate in the House on the Homestead Bill. 

Congressional Globe, V. 21: Appendix, pp. 39 5, 397. 

Extracts from Letters and from Messages to the Congress relative 
to agriculture and stock-raising, and their prime importance 



in the up-building of the Nation — read into the Record, 
April 20, 18 52, by the Hon. Eben Newton, a Represent 
tive from Ohio, during debate in the House on the Home 
stead Bill. 

Congressional Globe, V. 21: Appendix, pp. 492, 493. 

Extracts from Letters relative to views on slavery — read into the 
Record, May 19, 18 52, by the Hon. John G. Floyd, a 
Representative from New York, during a speech in the 
House on the constitutional relations of the Northern and 
Southern portions of the Republic growing out of the in- 
stitution of negro slavery. 

Congressional Globe, V. 21: Appendix, p. 5 88. 

Extract from Messages to Congress under date of 8 December 
1790, relative to the subject of protecting our navigation — 
read into the Record, July 9, 18 52, by the Hon. Gilbert 
Dean, a Representative from New York, during debate 
in the House on the deficiency appropriations bill. 
Congressional Globe, V. 21: Appendix, p. 815. 

SECOND SESSION OF THE THIRTY-THIRD CONGRESS: 

1854-1855 

Text of the Announcement to the Army of the Alliance with 
France, dated at Valley Forge, from the Orderly Book, 6 
May 1778 — read into the Record, February 27, 18 5 5, by the 
Hon. Charles W. Upham, a Representative from Massa- 
chusetts, during a speech in the House on the Joint Reso- 
lution requesting the President to tender the mediation of 
the United States to the Powers engaged in the Eastern 
War. 

Congressional Globe, V. 24: Appendix, p. 2 53. 

SECOND SESSION ON THE THIRTY-SEVENTH 
CONGRESS: 1861-1862 

Extract from Messages to Congress relative to the ransom of 
American prisoners at Algiers — read into the Record, March 
31, 1862, by the Hon. Charles Sumner, a Senator from 
Massachusetts, during a speech in the Senate on the bill for 
the release of certain persons held to service or labor in the 
District of Columbia. 

Congressional Globe, V. 32: Part 2, pp. 1450-1451. 

FIRST SESSION OF THE FIFTY-SIXTH CONGRESS: 
1899-1900 

Extracts from the Letters, Speeches, and Messages of George 
Wasfiington, Thomas Jefferson, and Abraham Lin- 
coln, three statesmen whose guiding hands created and 
maintained the most beneficent free government known in 
the world's history — presented in the Senate, 4 June 1900, 
by the Hon. R. F. Pettigrew, a Senator from South 
Dakota, with the request that the paper be printed as a 
public document. 

Congressional Record, V. 33: Part 7, p. 6523. 
[S. Doc. No. 433 .. . Serial 3878.] 

SECOND SESSION OF THE SIXTY-FIRST CONGRESS: 

1909-1910 
Paragraph from the Fareivell Address to the People of the United 
States, September 17, 1796, relative to "the danger of parties 



On George Washington 



89 



in the state, with particular reference to the founding of 
them on geographical discriminations" — read into the 
Record, February 22, 1910, by the Hon. Frank Mellen 
Nye, a Representative from Minnesota, during a speech in 
the House of Representatives on Principles of Government. 

Congressional Record, V. 45: Part 2, pp. 2228-2229. 

SECOND SESSION OF THE SIXTY-SECOND CONGRESS: 
1911-1912 

Message to the House of Representatives, under date of 30 March 
1796, declining to transmit to the House certain documents 
relating to the treaty with Great Britain — read into the 
Record, February 10, 1912, by the Hon. Martin Dies, a 
Representative from Texas, during debate in the House on 
the Cullop amendment to the bill (H. R. 17595) propos- 
ing that . . . before the President shall appoint any 
district, circuit, or supreme judge, he shall make public all 
endorsements made in behalf of any applicant. 

Congressional Record, V. 48: Part 2, pp. 1913-1915. 

FIRST SESSION OF THE SIXTY-THIRD CONGRESS: 
1913 

Extracts from Letters and Messages, quoted by Edwin D. Mead 
in his address on the Principles of the Founders — and printed 
in the Record, June 13, 1913, by request of the Hon. Rich- 
ard Bartoldt. 

Congressional Record, V. 50: Appendix, p. 202. 

FIRST SESSION OF THE SIXTY-FOURTH CONGRESS: 
1915-1916 

Paragraphs from Messages and Addresses of President Wash- 
ington, of John Adams, James Madison, and Andrew 
Jackson, relative to the Military Establishment — read into 
the Record, 22 May 1916, by the Hon. Charles Bennett 
Smith, a Representative from New York. 

Congressional Record, V. 5 3, Appendix, p. 1011. 

SECOND SESSION OF THE SIXTY-FOURTH CONGRESS: 
1916-1917 

Proclamation of Neutrality issued under date of 22 April 1793 — 
read into the Record, March 1, 1917, by the Hon. Moses P. 
Kinkaid, a Representative from Nebraska, in connection 
with the war in Europe. 

Congressional Record, V. 54: Part 5, p. 4683. 

Extracts from the Farewell Address to the People of the United 
States, 17 September 1796, relative to the policy to be main- 
tained as to the position this Nation should hold with regard 
to foreign wars — read into the Record, March 4, 1917, by 
the Hon. John D. Works, a Senator from California, dur- 
ing debate in the Senate on the bill (H. R. 21052) author- 
izing the President of the United States to supply merchant- 
ships, the property of citizens of the United States, and 
bearing American registry, with defensive arms. 
Congressional Record, V. 54: Part 5, p. 4998. 



FIRST SESSION OF THE SIXTY-FIFTH CONGRESS: 
1917 

Extract from Letter to the President of the Congress, dated at 
Orangetown, 20 August 1780, relative to conscription as a 
means to obtain enlistments in the Continental Army — read 
into the Record, April 27, 1917, by the Hon. W. Frank 
James, a Representative from Michigan, during a speech in 
the House on the selective draft. 

Congressional Record, V. 5 5: Part 2, p. 1430. 

SECOND SESSION OF THE SIXTY-FIFTH CONGRESS: 
1917-1918 

Proclamation of Neutrality, issued under date of 22 April 1793 — 
read before the House, and printed in the Record, February 
22, 1918, by request of the Hon. William E. Mason, a 
Representative from Illinois. 

Congressional Record, V. 56: Part 3, p. 2 527. 

THIRD SESSION OF THE SIXTY-FIFTH CONGRESS: 
1918-1919 

Excerpts from Letters of General Washington and from his 
Farewell Address to the People of the United States — read 
into the Record, 21 February 1919, by the Hon. William 
E. Borah, a Senator from Idaho, during a speech in the 
Senate on the League of Nations. 

Congressional Record, V. 57: Part 4, pp. 3911-3914. 

Excerpt from the Farewell Address to the People of the United 
States, 17 September 1796 — read into the Record, 22 Febru- 
ary 1919, by the Hon. James A. Reed, a Senator from 
Missouri, during a speech in the Senate on the League of 
Nations. 

Congressional Record, V. 57: Part 4, p. 4027. 

Excerpt from the Farewell Address to the People of the United 
States, 17 September 1796, relative to the policy of the 
United States with regard to permanent alliances with for- 
eign Nations — read into the Record, 9 December 1918, by 
the Hon. Richard W. Parker, a Representative from New 
Jersey, during a speech in the House of Representatives on 
the League of Nations. 

Congressional Record, V. 57: Part 1, p. 213. 

FIRST SESSION OF THE SIXTY-SIXTH CONGRESS: 
1919 
Extracts from the Farewell Address to the People of the United 
States, 17 September 1796 — read into the Record by the 
Hon. John K. Shields, a Senator from Tennessee, during 
a speech in the Senate, November 17, 1919, on the foreign 
policy of the United States, and, again, during a speech in 
the Senate, November 19, 1919, on the treaty of peace 
with Germany. 

Congressional Record, V. 58: Part 9, p. 8628; V. 58; 
Appendix, pp. 9224, 9226, 9227. 

SECOND SESSION OF THE SIXTY-SIXTH CONGRESS: 
1919-1920 

Extracts from the Farewell Address to the People of the United 
States, 17 September 1796, relative to entanglements with 



90 



The United States Congress 



foreign nations — read into the Record, April 9, 1920, by 
the Hon. Andrew J. Hickey, a Representative from In- 
diana, in support of his argument against a League of 
Nations. 

Congressional Record, V. 59: Appendix, p. 8972. 

Message to the House of Representatives, under date of 30 
March, 1796, relative to the treaty-making power of the 
Government — read into the Record, April 9, 1920, by the 
Hon. William W. Hastings, a Representative from Okla- 
homa, during debate in the House on the treaty of peace 
with Germany. 

Congressional Record, V. 59: Appendix, p. 898 5. 

Extracts from Letters and Opinions of George Washington 
advocating the draft as the best method to obtain enlist- 
ments for war — read into the Record, April 9, 1920, by the 
Hon. George E. Chamberlain, a Senator from Oregon, 
during debate in the Senate on the bill (S. No. 3792) to re- 
organize and increase the efficiency of the United States 
Army. 

Congressional Record, V. 59: Part 6, pp. 5 390-5 391. 

SECOND SESSION OF THE SIXTY-SEVENTH 
CONGRESS: 1921-1922 

Extract from Letter to the President of the Congress, dated 
Camp Above Trenton Falls, 20 December 1776, 1 in which 
General Washington states the plight of his Army and 
appeals to the Congress that "this is not a time to stand 
upon expenses" — read into the Record, 22 February 1922, 
by the Hon. Henry W. Watson, a Representative from 
Pennsylvania, during an address in the House of Repre- 
sentatives on the Battle of Trenton and General Wash- 
ington's conduct of the campaign leading to that en- 
gagement. 

Congressional Record, V. 62: Part 3, p. 2901. 

Extracts from the Letter of Congratulation and Advice to the 
Governors of the Thirteen States, Headquarters, Newburgh, 
under date of 8 June 1783 — read into the Record, February 
22, 1922, by the Hon. Hamilton Fish, Jr., a Representa- 
tive from New York, relative to the pending adjusted com- 
pensation bill. 

Congressional Record, V. 62: Part 3, p. 2908. 

Extracts from Jared Spark's Life of Washington, and from 
John Marshall's Life of Washington — read into the 
Record, June 23, 1922, by the Hon. William E. Borah, 
a Senator from Idaho, in refutation of statements by the 
Hon. Thomas E. Watson, a Senator from Georgia, during 
a speech in the Senate, February 14, 1922, with regard to 
the attitude of General Washington toward a bonus 
for soldiers. 

Congressional Record, V. 62: Part 9, pp. 9243-9244. 

Extracts from the Writings of General Washington, from 
Marshall's Life of Washington, and from Lodge's Life 
of Washington — read into the Record on the 23 rd of 
June, 1922, on the 24th of June, 1922, and on the 28th 
of June, 1922, by the Hon. Thomas E. Watson, a Sen- 



•ord: Writing of Washington, V. 5: 113, 115-116. 



ator from Georgia, during an argument in the Senate to 
sustain his previous statement, questioned by Senator 
Borah, of Idaho, that General Washington approved 
a bonus for soldiers of the Revolutionary Army. 

Congressional Record, V. 62: Part 9, pp. 9244-9245, 
9297-9298, 9545-9548. 

FIRST SESSION OF THE SIXTY-EIGHTH CONGRESS: 

1923-1924 

Extract from General Washington's Answer to the Congress 
on his appointment as Commander-in-Chief , 16 June 1775 — 
read into the Record, March 27, 1924, by the Hon. Thomas 
L. Blanton, a Representative from Texas, during debate 
in the House on the War Department Appropriations bill. 
Congressional Record, V. 65: Part 5, p. 5088. 

FIRST SESSION OF THE SIXTY-NINTH CONGRESS: 

1925-1926 

Extract from the Farewell Address to the People of the United 
States, 17 September 1796, relative to the policy to be 
adopted toward alliances with foreign nations — read into the 
Record, January 15, 1926, by the Hon. Bert M. Fernald, 
a Senator from Maine, during debate in the Senate on the 
resolution (S. Res. No. 5) granting favorable advice and 
consent of the Senate to the adhesion on the part of the 
United States to the protocol of December 16, 1920, with 
reservations. 

Congressional Record, V. 67: Part 2, p. 2100. 

Fareivell Address to the People of the United States, 17 Septem- 
ber 1796 — read before the Senate, January 15, 1926, by the 
Hon. Cole L. Blease, a Senator from South Carolina, 
during debate on the World Court resolution (S. Res. No. 

*)• 

Congressional Record, V. 67: Part 2, pp. 2106, 2107, 
2108, 2109, 2110, 2111, 2112, 2113, 2114, 2115. 

FIRST SESSION OF THE SEVENTY-SECOND CONGRESS: 
1931-1932 

Recipe for making beer, alleged to have been used by General 
Washington, quoted in a letter from Senator Hawes, of 
Missouri, to Senator Bingham, of Connecticut — read into 
the Record, 16 January 1932, by request of the Hon. Mil- 
lard E. Tydings, a Senator from Maryland, during a speech 
in the Senate on the twelfth anniversary of the Eighteenth 
Amendment. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 2, p. 2113. 

Excerpts from letter written by Benjamin Franklin, 16 Sep- 
tember 1789, to George Washington, and from Wash- 
ington's reply, dated New York, 23 September 1789 — 
read into the Record, 18 January 1932, by the Hon. James 
M. Beck, a Representative from Pennsylvania, in an address 
before the House of Representatives on Benjamin Frank- 
lin, greatest contemporary of George Washington, and 
his contribution to the foundation of the American Com- 
monwealth. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 2, p. 2169. 



On George Washington 



91 



Excerpt from the Writings of George Washington together 
with a tribute to Washington by Abraham Lincoln 
quoted in an address by the Hon. Charles Curtis, Vice- 
President of the United States, 26 January, 1932, at a 
meeting of the Chamber of Commerce of Washington, 
D. C. — printed in the Record by request of the Hon. 
Simeon D. Fess, a Senator from Ohio. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 3, p. 2770. 

Letters of George Washington and excerpts from his Mes- 
sages to the United States Congress with regard to means of 
transportation and communication — read into the Record, 
21 May 1932, by the Hon. Clyde Kelly, a Representative 
from Pennsylvania, during a speech in the House on the 
Washington Bicentennial and Tost Office Day, 26 Jtdy 
1932. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 10, pp. 10859, 
10860, 10861. 

Excerpts from the Writings of George Washington revealing 
his thought with regard to the builders of the Republic, the 
reputation of public men, the triumph of principle, moral 
virtue in public life, and the duty of those in office at 
times of crisis — read into the Record, 2 5 May 1932, by the 
Hon. Scott Leavitt, a Representative from Montana, 
during an address at Memorial Services in honor of deceased 
Members of the House of Representatives. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 10, p. 11156. 



Excerpts from the famous letter written by General Wash- 
ington from his headquarters at Newburgh, 22 May 1782, 
to Colonel Nicola, from his speech to the officers of the 
Army at Temple Hill, 1 5 March 1783, and from his letter of 
congratulation and advice to the Governors of the thirteen 
States, written from his headquarters at Newburgh, 8 June 
1783 — printed in the Record, 3 June 1932, in an address by 
the Hon. Hamilton Fish, Jr., a Representative from New 
York, upon the occasion of the George Washington 
Bicentennial Celebration held at Temple Hill in the State 
of New York. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 11, p. 11906. 

Excerpt from letter written by General Washington to the 
President of the Congress, 28 August 1777, recommending 
the Count Casimir de Pulaski for the commission of 
Brigadier-General in the Continental Army — read into the 
Record, 1 July 1932, by the Hon. Samuel B. Pettengill, 
a Representative from Indiana, during an address before the 
House of Representatives on Pulaski and Washington. 
Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 13, p. 14512. 

Excerpts from the Writings of Geocge Washington relative 
to the national defense — printed in the Record, 9 July 1932, 
in an address by Commander William Seaman Bain- 
bridge upon the dedication of the Revolutionary Cemetery 
at Morristown, New Jersey, headquarters of General 
Washington's Army. 

Congressional Record, V. 75: Part 14, p. 14944. 




Brothers, Half Brothers, and Sister 
of George Washington 




Lawrence Washington 

Half brother of George, born at 

Bridges Creek, Va., 1718, died at 

Mount Vernon, July 26, 17 S 2. 



George Washington 
1732-1799 



Elizabeth Washington 
Sister of George, born at Bridges 
Creek, Va., June 20, 1733; married 
Fielding Lewis, May 7, 1750, died 
in Culpeper Co., Va., Mar. 31, 1797. 



Augustine Washington 
Half brother of George, born at Bridges Creek, Va., probably 
in 1720; died there, May 1762. (No portrait of him is known.) 




John Augustine Washington 

Brother of George, born at Mount 

Vernon Jan. 13, 173 5/36 (o.s.), 

died at Nomini, Westmoreland Co., 

Va., Feb. 1787. 



Samuel Washington 

Brother of George, born probably at 

Bridges Creek, Va., Nov. 16, 1734, 

died near Charles Town, W. Va., 

Dec. 1781. 



92 



Charles Washington 

Brother of George, born at Mount 

Vernon May 2, 1738, died at Charles 

Town, W. Va., Sept. 16, 1799. 






Selected 
George Washington Bicentennial 

Addresses 



Delivered by 

Honorable Sol Bloom 

Representative from New York 



and 



Director 
United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



Introduction 



This compilation of selected addresses made in connection with the 
nation-wide George Washington Bicentennial Celebration, was pre- 
pared to meet the increasing number of requests that followed their 
delivery. The majority of the addresses were broadcast to nation-wide 
audiences through the courtesy of the great broadcasting systems. 

This section contains a selected number from more than one hundred 
addresses delivered by Congressman Bloom during the period of the 
Celebration. 

Radio programs have played an important part in the Celebration. 
In this way every section of the United States has been reached and resi- 
dents of the remotest districts enjoyed the same programs available to the 
people in the larger communities. Some of the programs have been de- 
livered for the first time from historic shrines, made sacred by their im- 
mortal associations with George Washington. 

Addresses were made from Independence Hall in Philadelphia; from 
Fort Necessity, Pennsylvania; from the home of Mary Ball Washington 
in Fredericksburg, Virginia; from the old Pohick Church and from 
Arlington National Cemetery, Virginia; from the home of Francis Scott 
Key in the District of Columbia; and before the tomb of George Wash- 
ington at Mount Vernon. 

These addresses have been instrumental in helping to make the true 
character of the Father of Our Country better known throughout the 
nation. They were designed to inspire patriotism and veneration for that 
great American whom the nation has honored in this Bicentennial year 
of his birth. 

This Commission desires to acknowledge publicly its appreciation of 
the cooperation of the National Broadcasting Company and the Colum- 
bia Broadcasting Company, and of the many persons and musical organ- 
izations that helped make these programs effective. 



-ji 



George Washington Bicentennial 
Celebration in 1932 

An Address on the Preliminary Plans of the Celebration, 

Broadcast from Washington, D. C, by the 

National Broadcasting Company, 

June 15, 1930 



To understand George Washington and what he 
means to America of today, we must think of him as a 
man and not as an ideal. 

As a man we can more nearly take his measure and 
estimate his greatness. The glamor that has surrounded 
his name has tended to obscure his human qualities. 

It is not my purpose to dwell upon the heroic side of 
our greatest American. I want to impress upon the 
people of this country that George Washington was a 
normal man, subject to normal temptations, normal 
perplexities, and normal sorrows. 

The greatness of George Washington lies in the fact 
that he surmounted tremendous obstacles and accom- 
plished his purposes through sheer force of character 
and perseverance. 

Let us consider George Washington's career in the 
order of his outstanding accomplishments. 

First, there is the boy, the son of a Virginia farmer, 
living in the country and having limited educational 
advantages. 

This boy, destined by Providence for such historic 
achievements, was a normal boy. He was in every sense 
a good boy, obedient and ambitious. Although he had 
scant opportunities for schooling, he made the most of 
what he had. 

At an age when other boys are mostly concerned in 
sports and play, George Washington was seriously de- 
voted to the study of a profession. When barely 16 
years old he was commissioned to perform a responsible 
piece of surveying work which sent him into the wilder- 
ness. There he encountered dangers and privations that 
would have daunted a less sturdy soul. That he per- 
formed this work of surveying well, has been shown by 
repeated re-surveys along the lines he laid down. 

We find him again when scarcely of age, commis- 
sioned to perform important military and diplomatic 
exploits into the frontier country. 

Inheriting the great estate of Mt. Vernon, while still 
a young man, George Washington showed unusual in- 
terest in the subject of farming. He was among the first 
scientific farmers in this country. He was the first 
student of methods of improving live stock, of rotating 
crops and of diversified agriculture. Had George 
Washington done nothing more than devote himself to 
the study of agriculture, he would have been America's 
pioneer authority on that subject. 

Not only was George Washington a farmer, but he 
was one of the foremost business men of his time. He 
knew how to make his farms profitable. He had a com- 
mercial vision far beyond his contemporaries. He or- 



ganized corporations, drained swamps, developed lands, 
and did a considerable shipping business. 

George Washington was the first inland waterways 
advocate. He actually surveyed and planned waterway 
connections between the Ohio Valley and the Atlantic 
seaboard, which he was unable to complete because of 
the stress of the times. 

George Washington looked beyond the boundaries of 
the original thirteen colonies and his eyes rested upon 
the Far West as the limits of the future republic. 
To him, more than to any other man, is due that im- 
petus to foreign trade which has ever been one of 
America's outstanding business policies. 

But George Washington was too great a man to live 
in the peaceful security of his plantation home. The 
state of the colonies demanded the resourcefulness, the 
courage, the calm judgment and the character of its 
greatest men. George Washington had all of these quali- 
ties to a greater extent than any other man upon Ameri- 
can soil. He was a natural leader, and instilled into his 
countrymen that spirit of confidence and devotion, 
which made the winning of the war of the Revolution a 
possibility. 

It was George Washington who realized more than 
any man of his time what the freedom of the colonies 
meant to the men and women who were to come after 
him. It was his counsel, his judgment and his sure 
knowledge of men, that guided the infant republic in 
the formation of our present system of federal govern- 
ment. 

In advocating American independence, George Wash- 
ington staked his life, his property and the interests of 
his family. He realized, perhaps more than any other 
man, the hazards and uncertainties of a war for inde- 
pendence. 

Great as were George Washington's achievements as 
a soldier, far greater were his achievements as a states- 
man and a citizen. 

As the first President, he faced problems never faced 
by any other man. By his wisdom, by his patience, by 
his persistence, he molded the destinies of the young re- 
public and placed it upon a sure foundation for future 
growth. As we study the life of this great man there 
develop new and interesting phases of his character. 

Has America sufficiently honored the memory of 
George Washington? I unhesitatingly say it has not. 
It is gratifying to every American citizen to realize that 
the United States is preparing now to express in the most 
appropriate way possible the honor which is his due. 

The Congress of the United States, in recognition of 



95 






George Washington Bicentennial Addresses 



the Two Hundredth Anniversary of the Birth of George 

ington winch will be observed in 1932, has created 

a c ommission to formulate plans fittingly to honor his 

Congress has asked the Governors of the various states 

to appoint State C ommissions to cooperate with the 

N uion.il Commission. It is the purpose of the Associate 

tor t0 make this Celebration nation-wide and all- 

American. 

We have no exposition in mind. There will be no 
World's Fair, no concentration of material evidences ot 
the nation's growth. 

I he Celebration will be in the hearts of the people 
themselves. It will be in the nature of a revival of 
knov. ledge of and appreciation for our greatest Ameri- 
can. .u^\ one of the greatest human beings in all history. 

The 1 ederal government has authorized the publica- 
tion of all of the writings of George Washington, 
winch will be published as a memorial edition in ap- 
proximately 25 volumes. The great Memorial Boule- 
\ ard between Washington and Mt. Vernon is under con- 
struction and will be one of the most beautiful highways 
in all the world. A regional park system for the Na- 
tional Capital, unsurpassed in America, is now author- 
ized by Congress as a George Washington Memorial 
Parkway. This great parkway will include some of the 
beautiful and historic places with which George Wash- 
ington lias been identified. 

( ,.n -ress has also established Wakefield, Washington's 
birthplace in Virginia, as a National Monument and 
will erect upon the site a replica of the house in which 
George Washington was born. 

These are federal projects contributed, or to be con- 
tributed, by the Government itself. It is the purpose 
of the Associate Director to bring the message of George 
Washington to every church, every home, every school, 
and every group of citizens in the United States. We 
w.int to offer an opportunity to each man, woman and 
child in America to participate in this national celebra- 
tion. 

In our plans it is proposed to foster and encourage in 
all parts of the country, local, regional and state celebra- 
tions. The people themselves will organize and take 
part in these celebrations. It is hoped that in 1932, 
there will not be a school room or school building in the 
ted States without its picture of George Washington. 
hoped that there will not be a school or a church or 
a home that will not display the American Flag with 
appropriate reminders ot what it means in our national 
hie. It is proposed to hold essay contests, pageants, 
plays and exercises oi similar kinds in public schools. 

In like manner we want to enlist the cooperation of all 

the clubs, associations, fraternal organizations and mis- 
cellaneous -roups oi people. 

Not only do we want to impress upon the nation its 
debt to George Washington, but also our debt to other 
heroes i km i ited with him. We want to remember those 

splendid men and women, many of them of foreign 

birth, who offered then- lives upon the altar of American 



independence. We want to remember Von Steuben, 
De Kalb and the Muhlenbergs. We want to remember 
Carroll, Barry, Knox and the host of other Irish patriots. 
We want to remember with gratitude Kosciuszko, Pu- 
laski and other Polish heroes. We want to remember 
Benjamin Nones, who has been called the "Jewish La- 
fayette," the Pintos and others of the Jewish race, who 
offered themselves and their fortunes to the cause of 
freedom. We want to remember Lafayette, Rocham- 
beau and all that other host of equally heroic men and 
women of the French, Swedish, Dutch and other Euro- 
pean races, who performed their parts so valiantly. 
Many of them came from across the seas to help the 
cause of the colonies. 

George Washington was the magnet who drew all 
those brave men to him. George Washington was the 
man above all others who inspired confidence and devo- 
tion among those ragged, hungry and suffering troops 
who struggled bravely and triumphantly forward under 
his leadership. 

We Americans today still have our differences in origin 
and in character. We still have our different viewpoints 
and our different opinions. We still struggle for various 
ideals and principles, but we can all rally today under 
the leadership of George Washington, as did those splen- 
did Americans of two hundred years ago. 

In honoring the memory of George Washington, there 
can be no division and no dispute. He is so transcendently 
great as to continue his influence down through the 
years. In all the records of his life, in every letter, speech 
and act, which can be traced to him, there is not one 
weakness, and but few mistakes. Wherever the flag flies 
today, those under its protecting folds, should remember 
that it was George Washington who established that flag 
and what it stands for. In a world of bitterness, hostility 
and oppression, George Washington brought freedom 
and human liberty. Wherever people are free, they 
should remember those men who gave the world free- 
dom. Wherever there is protection, peace and security, 
a prayer of thanksgiving should be offered that George 
Washington lived and wrought. 

We of the George Washington Bicentennial Commis- 
sion have a tremendous responsibility. It is our duty to 
arouse throughout the nation a proper sense of gratitude 
to the Founder of the Republic. In this task we cannot 
act alone. It is for all Americans of all nationalities 
and creeds, of all conditions and circumstances, to make 
the year 1932 a year of thought and reverence for the 
memory of George Washington. He was so intimately 
associated with all affairs of life, with the church, with 
statesmanship, with agriculture, with business, with 
education, with commerce and, in fact every phase of 
healthful citizenship, that no class of our people can dis- 
regard their debt to him. 

So let us now dedicate in our hearts the memory of 
this man. Let us resolve that we shall do him honor and 
reverence for what he was and what he has given to us. 
I leave with you this appeal tonight as Americans all, in 
the freedom and enlightenment which George Washing- 
ton brought into the world. 



George Washington Bicentennial Addresses 



97 



9 THE 



Address Before the Twenty-first Annual Convention 

of the George Washington Masonic National 

Memorial Association, Alexandria, Virginia, 

February 23, 1931 



Lives of illustrious men so often concentrate the rays 
of public attention upon their great deeds that their 
normal human qualities are obscured. 

This is more true of the men of George Washington's 
time than of our own, for George Washington was not 
followed by a retinue of news photographers and news- 
paper correspondents to detail his ordinary acts and, in 
the modern sense, "humanize" him. Nor did George 
Washington pose in an absurd and assumed character 
to popularize himself among the plain people. His 
every act and deed was a natural one, fitting into the 
occasion and comporting with the dignity and habits of 
the man himself. 

Also we must remember that more of George Wash- 
ington's life was devoted to public service than that of 
any other great man of his time or ours. This meant 
that not only were his public acts subjects of universal 
comment, but that he was restricted to a great extent 
from the exercise of those homely, domestic occupations 
which as we say, make men human. 

From the time he was of age until the day of his 
death, he was a public character, not from his own in- 
clination, but by the force of those circumstances which 
called him to a conspicuous place in the nation. 

But in all the vast material that has been written con- 
cerning George Washington we find a great many refer- 
ences to George Washington the man, the citizen, the 
neighbor and the farmer of Mt. Vernon. And in all 
these personal side-lights upon his character nothing 
shines forth with such distinctness as his love of his fel- 
low men. Nothing seemed to give him greater pleasure 
than to mingle upon grounds of democratic equality 
with other men of good minds and good characters. He 
enjoyed the association of people of intelligence and 
learning, but he also enjoyed contact with all manner of 
people from whom he learned much. 

The many-sidedness of George Washington may be 
attributed largely to the fact that he learned the view- 
points of people in all walks of life — the great and the 
humble, the rich and the poor. From this vast store of 
information he drew constantly in his administration of 
the nation's affairs. 

If we can disregard for the moment the overshadow- 
ing achievements of George Washington and think of 
him in the simple terms of the man, we will gain an ap- 
preciation of his character that can be mentioned in 
terms of men of our own time. 

I have spoken of George Washington's friendliness, 
of his pleasure in mingling with other men, and this 
leads me to the consideration of his life as a Mason. 
Here I must stress the point that so much is said of 
George Washington the Mason because it interprets the 
man's moral character. It must be remembered that 



George Washington was also a member of various other 
societies of more or less local or specialized interests, and 
Masonry, if not the only fraternal organization of his 
time, was at least, the outstanding one. 

All of us should bear in mind that this instinct of 
George Washington for the fellowship of his kind would 
have led him, in our day, to belong to many other fra- 
ternal and civic groups of citizens. And I am sure that 
most of our prominent clubs and associations would 
have been proud to number him in their membership 
were they existing in his day, or he living in their. So 
that, as a Mason, George Washington assumes a distinct 
relationship to men of all times and to men's organiza- 
tions of all kinds. 

One of the outstanding phases of George Washing- 
ton's character was his sincerity. Slow to make any 
promise or assume any obligation, yet, having made up 
his mind, he did not deviate from his course. 

It is natural, therefore, that upon becoming a Mason, 
George Washington should have devoted himself whole- 
heartedly to its sublime standards of moral and spiritual 
life which so strongly appealed to him. 

It is noteworthy that this ancient Craft should have 
drawn to itself many of the outstanding men of our 
Colonial and Revolutionary periods. They, too, found 
in the tenets of Freemasonry, not only an exalted com- 
panionship of the mind and spirit, but also a yardstick 
for judgment of character and moral influence. 

Masonry constituted a bond of understanding and 
confidence which exists today among many fraternal 
and civic groups, but which in George Washington's 
time existed only in Masonry itself. So in placing the 
influence of Masonry upon the life of George Washing- 
ton we may assume that we are placing the same influ- 
ence upon the lives and characters of many of those 
great men of his time who helped him in his tremendous 
labors in behalf of our country. 

As in practically all of the phases of George Wash- 
ington's life and achievements, there have come down 
to us Masonic traditions which probably have no truth 
in fact. Historians have gone astray in portraying the 
career of this man. One of the most valuable contri- 
butions that has been made to history by the United 
States George Washington Bicentennial Commission has 
been in correcting errors and portraying the true life 
of George Washington. Therefore, in his Masonic ca- 
reer, much has been said and much has been written 
that we know is unintentional error. 

It is my purpose, therefore, in this address to touch 
upon some of the outstanding phases of George Wash- 
ington's Masonic life in order that there may be per- 
petuated the truth, as we have found it. 




Washington Relics of the Alexandria-Washington Lodge of Free 
Masons at Alexandria, Va. The Chair Was Occupied by Washington 
as Worshipful Master of the Lodge. The Clock Was in tfie Room 
Win ki He Died and Was Stopped by an Attending Physician Just 
After the Death. The Lights and Hour Glass Are Originals Used 
bi mi Lodge in Washington's Time. The Knife Belonged to George 
Washington and Is Traditionally Supposed to Have Been Given to 
I h\i r,v His Mother When He Was a Boy. The Key of the Bastille 
\i Paris was Presented to the Lodge by Lafayette in 1825. 



George Washington Bicentennial Addresses 



99 



George Washington and Masonry began their exist- 
ence in Virginia at nearly the same time. 

True to his life-long habit of prompt arrival, Wash- 
ington was a little ahead of Masonry in his native state. 
He was born in 1732 and Masonry was constituted in 
Virginia in 1733. 

As early as 1730, New York, New Jersey and Penn- 
sylvania had Grand Masters. Benjamin Franklin was 
Grand Master of Masonry in Philadelphia in 1734. 
Thomas Oxnard, Provincial Grand Master of Massachu- 
setts, is believed to have issued the warrant constituting 
Fredericksburg Lodge in Virginia in which George 
Washington took his first step in Masonry, November 
4, 1752. He passed to the degree of Fellowcraft on 
March 3, 175 3, and was raised to the Sublime Degree of 
Master Mason on August 4, 1753. 

So George Washington began his Masonic and his 
military careers at about the same time, for it was in 
175 3 that Governor Dinwiddie sent him on his first 
great errand to Fort Le Boeuf to warn the French out 
of the Ohio Valley. 

George Washington spent eight years of his youth on 
a farm near Fredericksburg. He grew up in that vicin- 
ity and was well known to the people of the town. He 
matured early and had such a reputation for honesty, 
industry and reliability, it was natural he should have 
become well acquainted with the members of the Fred- 
ericksburg Lodge. It seems inevitable that he should 
have joined our great fraternity, for the ideals of 
Masonry, its conception of Divine order and guidance 
were, of course, a part of his own training and life. 

From the time he was raised to the Sublime Degree 
of Master Mason until his death George Washington was 
the ideal of our Fraternity. During all the long and 
burdened years when this great man served humanity 
and served our great Republic, he never deviated from 
the lessons he learned within the halls of our fraternity. 
When we consider George Washington's life in its 
fullness can we think of any weakness, any deficiency, 
anything lacking in his manhood? 

Could anyone suggest a trait of character or circum- 
stance of life which would have made him more perfect? 
When we think of the young surveyor, treading the 
pathless wilderness, we know that his every thought and 
act was of noble purpose. When we think of him as a 
youthful soldier beyond the Alleghenies, we think of 
him as a man and a Mason. 

When we think of him as a farmer, as a member of 
the Virginia Assembly, as a member of the Continental 
Congress, as Commander-in-Chief of the Revolutionary 
forces, as President of the Constitutional Convention, 
and finally as President of the United States, we think 
of him as a Mason, always bringing credit and honor 
upon our order. 

Many noted Virginians of George Washington's time 
were Masons. Nearly all the great patriotic leaders 
throughout the colonies were zealous members of the 
Fraternity, including such names as Benjamin Franklin, 
Peyton Randolph, John Hancock, James Otis, Roger 
Sherman, John Jay, Robert Morris, Edmund Randolph, 
Thomas Jefferson, Robert R. Livingston and John 
Marshall. 



It can be readily understood therefore that through 
this common tie of Masonry, many of the great men of 
all the Colonies were enabled to meet a situation which 
gave all concern. 

I am not of the opinion which has been advanced by 
many other commentators, that Masonry itself exerted 
an especial influence in the stirring events of George 
Washington's time. But I am convinced that the fra- 
ternal bond which brought the great men of that time 
together created a confidence, a sense of reliable depend- 
ence, among the members of the Craft which enabled 
them to act with a unity of purpose. 

It has been said that Masonry was the one common 
ground on which the leaders of the colonies could meet. 
There is perhaps much truth in this from the fact that 
until the political unity of the colonies was established 
there was a sharp conflict of opinion upon religion, so- 
cial order and economic problems which tended to keep 
the colonies apart. 

But when the great men of the time assembled in the 
atmosphere of brotherhood it was inevitable that there 
should be developed a better understanding among them 
of each other's problems and a stronger desire of one to 
help the other. 

It was natural under such conditions that George 
Washington should have been active in his Masonic life, 
and through all the fleeting years we catch brief glimpses 
of him in his Masonic character. 

At the outbreak of the Revolutionary War, Virginia 
had nine legally constituted Lodges. They lost no time 
in becoming strictly American. On May 7, 1777, five 
of the nine Virginia Lodges decided to elect a Grand 
Master for the State and on June 23 of the same year 
they adopted a resolution recommending that George 
Washington be named Grand Master of Virginia. 

This honor George Washington felt moved to decline. 
True to his principles he would not undertake any re- 
sponsibility to which he could not give adequate time 
and attention. At that period he had all he could attend 
to as Commander-in-Chief of the Revolutionary Army. 
It was a time when the fortunes of the Revolution 
and the morale of the people were at their lowest ebb. 
The whole issue of the war hung on George Washing- 
ton's courage and spirit. He had no time for anything 
else. So John Blair, afterwards one of the first Justices 
of the Supreme Court, was made Grand Master of Vir- 
ginia. 

After this period all the Grand Lodges and Grand 
Masters of the Colonies appointed by foreign jurisdic- 
tion, gradually disappeared and a strictly American 
Freemasonry arose. 

When George Washington was inaugurated First 
President of the United States, Robert R. Livingston, 
Chancellor of the State of New York and Grand Master 
of the State, used the Bible owned by the St. John's 
Lodge of New York City to administer the oath to 
Washington. 

Not much is known of George Washington's activi- 
ties in Masonry from the time he received his Master 
Mason's degree in Fredericksburg Lodge in Virginia, in 
1753, until the opening of the Revolution in 1775. The 
priceless records covering this period have been lost, but 



George Washington Bicentennial Addresses 



from 1753 until 177 5 Washington probably had few 
opportunities to \ isit any organized Masonic body. His 
rime and energ) were spent upon the frontier, fighting 
the Indians and the 1 rench. When he settled down to a 
quiet life at Mount Vernon he was fifty miles from the 
nearest Masonic Lodge at I redericksburg. 

There can be little doubt, however, that when he went 
to visit his Mother mv.\ his Sister at Fredericksburg, he 
attended meetings in his home Lodge to greet his breth- 
ren. Some of lus most intimate friends and associates 
members of the Craft. Jacob Van Braam, his early 
fencing master was a Mason. So were the Weedons 
And the Mercers. Col. Fielding Lewis, his brother-in- 
law and John Dandridge, his father-in-law, were Masons. 
Washington's deep interest in Masonry is proved in 
man) \\ a\ s. 1 Ic could not have received so many honors 
And attentions from the Fraternity unless he paid atten- 
tion and honor to Masonry. 

The Masons of Virginia wanted him as their Grand 
Master because he was "Grand Master" at everything 
ahead) . 

In 1 ~~ v >. at a festival at Grand Union Lodge, Reading, 
C onnecticut, the first toast was "George Washington." 
In the same year a military Massachusetts Lodge was 
named Washington Lodge and Washington himself was 
an occasional visitor at their meetings. 

At several oilier meetings of Masonic Lodges during 
the war George Washington was present. 

\\ Inle the Revolutionary Army was encamped at 
Morristown, New Jersey, a movement was started to 
appoint (jeorge Washington Grand Master of an Ameri- 
can Grand Lodge. The effort fell through only because 
of t lie unsettled condition of the times. Washington 
was nevertheless unanimously endorsed for the position, 
And it proves that he was foremost in the minds of all 
Masons. 

n alter the victory at Yorktown, Washington, 
I afayette, Marshall and Governor Nelson met and re- 
newed allegiance to the beautiful tenets of Masonry. 

All through the later years of the Revolution, the 
Masons testified their love and respect for Washington. 
w ere named for him, literature was dedicated to 
him. 

•as saluted everywhere not only in America, but 

abroad, as the most eminent Mason. An American- 

I rench mercantile firm, Watson and Cassoul, sent him 

hi "l Masonic ornaments, among which was the 

famous "\\ atson and ( tssoul" Masonic apron, still pre- 

the ( raft. One of the most prized relics of 

M i( \pron embroidered for Wash- 

I ' ''ii I afayette. 

thai the soul of our government and 
i rests on Masomc principles, for 
m laid the verj < ornerstone of our 

Nai ional ( apiti Masonic riles. 

I< ni ot the I 'mied States George Washington 

Masonic honors. On a presidential 

tour ! Icomed to Newport, Rhode Island, by 

oi thai City. ( )n Ins famous 

Southern loui Mordecai ( >ist, his intimate friend and 

Grand Master of South Carolina, ad- 

l< ome on behalf of the Masons of 



the State. Similar honors and courtesies continued 
throughout Washington's Presidency. 

Washington lent his great influence to the growth and 
strength of Masonry, but at the same time Masonry in- 
fluenced George Washington. He freely used Masonic 
language in his private and state papers. His frequent 
referencies to the Diety as the Great Architect of the 
Universe stamp him as a true Mason. 

So also his reliance on Divine Support in the hours of 
stress and trial prove Washington a man whose love for 
Masonry never waned and whose faith in the Great 
Architect of the Universe never wavered. 

Washington's whole life was an embodiment of the 
teachings of Masonry. It is seen in his tolerance and 
fairness and justice. He maintained perfect poise and 
balance under conditions of strife, rancor, discord and 
even treason. 

He fought no battles of conquest or aggression. He 
did his best to promote peace and harmony. He seems 
ever to have had before him the admonition contained 
in the Apprentice Degree. It may be these teachings 
which magnified his natural virtues. 

He held to an unshakeable belief in the Fatherhood 
of God and the Brotherhood of Man and these qualities 
make for international as well as national peace. 

Alexandria, Virginia, is most closely associated with 
the mature career of George Washington. It was his 
"home town." There he had an office and a town 
house, although, of course, he spent as little time as pos- 
sible away from his beloved Mount Vernon. His pres- 
ence at a number of lodge meetings in Fredericksburg 
is recorded and he attended a number of public Masonic 
functions such as the Festival of St. John the Baptist, 
June 24, 1779, with American Union Lodge at the 
Robinson House on the Hudson, New York; the Festival 
of St. John the Evangelist, December 27, 1779, with 
American Union Lodge at Morris Hotel, Morristown, 
New Jersey; the Festival of St. John the Evangelist, De- 
cember 27, 1782, with King Solomon's Lodge at Pough- 
keepsie, New York; the Festival of St. John the Baptist, 
June 24, 1784, with Lodge No. 39 at Alexandria, Vir- 
ginia and the Masonic funeral of Brother William Ram- 
say, February 12, 1785, at Alexandria. 

In 1766 Washington was elected one of the trustees 
of the City of Alexandria and was interested in the or- 
ganization of Alexandria Lodge No. 39, becoming an 
honorary member of the Lodge. 

In 1782 six brethren of Alexandria petitioned the 
Provincial Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania for a Charter; 
in spite of the fact that the Grand Lodge of Virginia was 
organized in 1777-8, the Provincial Grand Lodge of 
Pennsylvania, under the Grand Lodge of England, 
granted the charter. 

The Lodge of Alexandria was chartered in 1783 and 
met for the first time on February 2 5, when four of the 
petitioners and two members of the Grand Lodge of 
Pennsylvania opened on the Entered Apprentice's De- 
gree, read the charter giving them life and the number 
39, and proceeded to exercise jurisdiction "in the bor- 
ough of Alexandria or within four miles of the same." 

Because of some difference in jurisdictional opinion, 
Alexandria Lodge decided to relinquish its charter under 



George Washington Bicentennial Addresses 



101 



the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania and to petition the 
Grand Lodge of Virginia for a charter under its own 
state authority. 

With a desire to honor George Washington, the man 
and brother Mason, who had achieved so much and stood 
so high in public opinion, the brethren of Alexandria 
asked Washington's consent to name him as their first 
Worshipful Master under the new Charter. That new 
Charter was granted on April 28, 1788, by Edmund 
Randolph, Governor of the Commonwealth of Virginia 
and Grand Master, designating the Alexandria Lodge as 
No. 22 with George Washington named as Worshipful 
Master and he was unanimously elected Worshipful 
Master to succeed himself on December 28, 1788, serv- 
ing in all about 20 months. 

He was inaugurated as President, April 30, 1789, and 
thus became the first, and so far only brother to be 
President of the United States and Worshipful Master 
of his Lodge at the same time. 

It was after George Washington's death that the 
Brethren desired to change the name to the Alexandria- 
Washington Lodge No. 22, the name which it bears to 
this day. 

Perhaps the outstanding Masonic event in George 
Washington's life was the laying of the cornerstone of 
the Capitol of the United States on September 18, 1793. 
George Washington acted in the official Masonic cere- 
mony as Grand Master pro tern. 

And finally, when at the end of his long and most 



useful life, George Washington closed his eyes to the 
affairs of this world, December 14, 1799, he was tenderly 
carried to his last resting place by his brethren of the 
ancient and noble craft. Thus his career was rounded 
in perfect Masonic order and Masonry today and for- 
ever can rightfully glory in that life which so beauti- 
fully exemplified the tenets of our Masonic faith. 

And now, to honor the sacred memory of this man, 
to do all humanly possible to acknowledge his Masonic 
virtues, we, the living members of the Order, are erect- 
ing in this historic City of Alexandria a great temple. 

It is a monument built by the Members of the Masonic 
Fraternity. It is their tribute to George Washington 
the Man and the Mason. 

It is of such sound construction that it should outlast 
the centuries. It stands on a hill from which can be seen 
many square miles of land with which George Washing- 
ton was so closely identified. 

Yet, solid as are these granite blocks and marble 
pillars, we know that they will not and cannot outlast 
the memory of George Washington. That memory will 
remain forever green as the sprig of Acacia which will 
flourish as long as human hearts respond to the nobility 
of mankind. 

Centuries will come and go. These walls may crumble 
into dust. But the luminous memory of George Wash- 
ington will flash like a meteor across the firmament of 
God's Heaven to remind future generations of what he 
did for humanity; what he gave that men might be free. 



At Historic Fredericksburg 

Address at a Dinner in Connection with the Annual Meeting of the Kenmore Association, 

Fredericksburg, Virginia 
May 6, 1931 



This occasion is one more evidence of an ancient and 
noble habit of your city. 

Fredericksburg is one of the most fortunate communi- 
ties in the United States. Even in historic Virginia, the 
native state of George Washington and his forebears, no 
other city is so closely associated with his personal life. 

Although George Washington was one of the most 
extensively traveled men of his time, so far as his native 
land is concerned, it is here in this beautiful city that we 
find those early and formative experiences which had 
the greatest influence upon his life and career. Here 
was his early boyhood home. In these streets echoed his 
footsteps upon the normal activities of youth. Here he 
went to school, here he formed those enduring friend- 
ships which he treasured to the end of his life. Here 
lived his mother and that domestic circle of which he 
was so distinguished a part. 

In this city lived his sister, in the home that has since 
become a national shrine. 

Whatever the future held for this boy in glory and in 
attainment; whatever tributes came to him as the 
greatest man of his time, and surely the greatest man in 
our Republic, George Washington's heart was ever 



drawn to your city by the tenderest ties of boyhood 
memories. 

In studying the life of George Washington one is 
struck by the fact that whenever sterner duties per- 
mitted, it was the pilgrimage to this city and these asso- 
ciations that most delighted him. With all of these 
things you are familiar. 

To you George Washington is a living man. He is 
your neighbor, he is your boyhood associate, he is in 
spirit still walking your streets, chatting with your 
people as a familiar friend. 

I feel the stimulation of your splendid pride in the 
reverence which you pay not only to George Washing- 
ton, but more particularly to the mother of this great 
man who sleeps near us in hallowed ground. 

Many men and women have expressed their tributes 
to Mary Ball Washington. I can only add my humble 
expressions of adoration to theirs. I can perhaps but 
repeat what others have said. Yet after all is there any- 
thing more beautiful, more eloquent or more expressive 
than the simple words upon that beautiful monument 
raised to her memory, "Mary, the Mother of Washing- 
ton." Nothing need be added to those words, nothing 




One of the Oldest Memorials to 
George Washington. The Stone 
Tower, as Restored, Erected on 
South Mountain, Near Boonsboro, 
Maryland, in 1827. 




I irs i and Unfinished Monument at 
i m Grave oi Mary, the Mother of 
Washington, at Fredericksburg, Va., 
oi which mi Cornerstone was 
I \id i;v President Jackson, May 7, 
1833. Tin Obelisk on hie Ground 
\\ \s \i vi r l'i \ ( i i. on i in Base. 



(Illustration of present monument to 

tk Mothet of Washington," is 
\/>ou n on page 166.) 



102 



George Washington Bicentennial Addresses 



103 



could be added that would bring more glory or honor to 
her splendid womanhood. 

Historians and biographers have searched the charac- 
ter of Mary Ball Washington and have laid it before us. 
But to me there is one commentary that renders needless 
all that others have said. The character of Mary Ball 
Washington is summed up and the whole story of her 
life is told when we say, "She brought George Washing- 
ton into the world and trained him for life." 

That duty was so great and so well performed that I 
believe America is as fortunate in having possessed Mary 
Ball Washington, as it was in being blessed with her son. 
But no one can doubt that from whatever sources George 
Washington got his intellect, that his greatness and 
strength of character came from his mother. She gave 
to him as a heritage the training that equipped him per- 
fectly for the career which Providence held for him. 

I believe the historians make too much of the austerity 
of George Washington's mother. We hear of her stern 
refusal to let him take to the sea. We hear of the strict- 
ness of her rule. But there must have been in her life 
a rich store of sweetness, of sympathy and of true 
mother love that has gone unrecorded. 

We know this because there was more than duty in 
George Washington's devotion to her throughout his 
life. He was devoted to her with all the ardor of his 
strong nature. He called her the most beautiful woman 
he ever saw and at the height of his success he was proud 
to speak of his "revered mother," and at her death re- 
joiced that she had been so long spared in health and 
mental activity. 

One of his most cherished possessions was the worn 
copy of the book, "Contemplations Moral and Divine," 
which had been her constant companion in her quiet 
hours. 

A woman who could inspire such loyalty in her son 
must have been intensely lovable herself. 

I have dwelt upon these more familiar aspects of 
George Washington's attachment to this city because I 
wish to impress upon you as citizens of Fredericksburg 
the importance of the heritage that has been left to you. 
I also want to impress upon you the fact that the entire 
country should share with you that generous feeling of 
proprietorship which you have in these treasured asso- 
ciations. 

That opportunity has presented itself in the action 
of Congress in providing for a nation-wide Celebration 
next year of the Two Hundredth Anniversary of the 
Birth of George Washington. The Commission ap- 
pointed to have charge of this Celebration has been 
active and the campaign is far advanced. But there is 
still much to be done. Under the stress of modern con- 
ditions of life our fellow Americans have lost touch with 
our own glorious history. To many people George 
Washington is not a man, but a tradition. 

We want to make him a living human being, and to 
impress upon the American people some of the feeling 
of neighborly intimacy which you in Fredericksburg 
have so nobly preserved. 

We want to present George Washington as a man and 
not as an ideal. As a man he stands forth in all the 
glory of his character and achievements. As a man he 



is far greater than the cold and unreal figure upon a 
pedestal. 

Under the direction of Congress it is the duty of the 
United States George Washington Bicentennial Com- 
mission to organize throughout the nation a Celebration 
in the hearts and minds of the people themselves, in 
such manner as is most fitting, to the end that his Bicen- 
tennial anniversary "may be commemorated in such 
manner that future generations of American citizens 
may live according to the example and precepts of his 
exalted life and character, and thus perpetuate the 
American Republic." 

The Celebration of the Two Hundredth Anniversary 
of the Birth of George Washington next year is being 
organized upon the basis of the same dignity and rever- 
ence which you feel here in Fredericksburg. 

We want the people of America to take part in this 
Celebration with full understanding of the man they 
honor. We want them to feel a real sense of this man's 
having lived, as you have who sense it here. 

Just as the feet of George Washington still echo 
through your streets, we want all America to realize how 
actual, how human, how normal and yet how great was 
George Washington. 

So we are spreading over the entire country and over 
the world the full history of George Washington with 
all the facts of his life as collected and sifted by the emi- 
nent historians we have engaged. 

We want this Celebration to be what George Wash- 
ington himself would wish it to be. He would reject 
the idea of a parade of our material riches in his honor. 
He would be impatient of glamor and display. But we 
know that he would wish this tribute to him to come 
from the hearts of the people — his fellow Americans. 

Therefore, we have aimed at no central spectacle, no 
concentration of ceremony, but wherever the flag of 
our nation flies today we want Americans all to express 
in reverence and in love their appreciation of the life 
and character of the man who brought that flag into 
being. 

It is timely, it is appropriate, that Americans should 
pause in this fast-living day and think reverently of the 
man who not only achieved our independence as a 
nation, but who brought liberty, protection and sound 
government to those Americans who were to come after 
him. 

It is well that the government of the United States 
which exists upon the foundation which he laid, should 
provide for this national tribute in his honor. The 
Celebration next year will begin February 22 and con- 
tinue until Thanksgiving Day. Throughout the nation, 
we are asking men, women and children to organize in 
their own homes, in their own schools, churches, clubs 
and other groups special programs to honor George 
Washington's memory. 

The response has been inspiring. Already in thou- 
sands of communities preparations are going forward to 
this end, and we are furnishing to thousands of these 
groups, programs, plays, pageants, posters, books and 
similar material to aid them in the preparation of their 
own ceremonies. 






George Washington Bicentennial Addresses 



; great pleasure indeed if all of you could 

\ isit the headquarters of the United States George Wash- 

n Bicentennial Commission in the City of Wash- 

,n. You would find there such activity, such en- 

thusiasm, and such progress, as would surprise and de- 

light you. 

lor we arc carrying forward the best traditions of 
Americanism. W e arc emphasizing in many ways not 
onrj the Ufe and character of George Washington, but 
w c arc bringing to the American people a vivid picture 



of the conditions under which he created the monument 
of his country now stretching from sea to sea. 

And may I say that it is always equally inspiring to 
me to come to this beautiful City of Fredericksburg and 
here to drink at the fountain of your patriotism, your 
loyalty and your devotion. 

What better influence can be found than to stand 
upon this historic soil? What loftier sentiments can be 
experienced than the heart tribute to motherhood as we 
visit again that hallowed spot where sleeps — "Mary, the 
Mother of Washington." 



Address Broadcast From the Arlington Memorial Amphitheatre, Arlington 

National Cemetery, Virginia, on the American War Mothers' 

Program, by the National Broadcasting Company, 

May 10, 1931 



Today, throughout our country, we are celebrating 
Mothers' Day. 

Upon this beautiful and solemn anniversary our 
hearts respond to a common impulse of devotion. From 
many homes, from many varied occupations, from 
mam conditions of life that occupy our daily thoughts, 
we experience today upon this sacred occasion the exal- 
tation of the finest of human sentiments. 

While we think of motherhood as universal, yet in 
each one of us there is treasured a shrine of love for that 
one being to whom we owe our individual homage — 
our mother. 

1 he heroism of a mother's love — her distinct and 
individual influence — differs from anything else God 
ever thought of, for it fixes in permanent outline the 
t uture hope of us all. 

I he honoring of mothers is as old as the human race. 
We sometimes think of Mothers' Day in our country 
as being something new, yet festivals and ceremonies of 
similar kind were common in the dawning period of our 
civilization. Long before the Christian era something 
closel) corresponding to Mothers' Day was introduced 
through Greece into Rome, where it was known as the 
il of I lil. ii m, and appropriately enough was a 
tival. Kt any i ate, we can not claim monopoly 
of tins fine and noble filial sentiment. 

I contemplate the sacrifices and the sufferings of 
these .md all other war mothers I can not refrain from 
dwelling upon that first American War Mother, who 
her noble son to the service of his country. 

1 P tiful monument in the city of Fredericks- 

carved these simple words, "Mary, the 
Mod hington." Beneath that monument lie 

•I' 1 ' remains oi that remarkable woman who gave to us 
the rich heritage ol i American. It is to the 

mother oi I w" ishington thai tins Nation owes 

i a land of liberty and of oppor 

t unit v. 

did Mary, the Mother of Washington, 



bring into the world a son of rare heredity and charac- 
ter, but we know from research that from his infancy 
this boy was trained and taught in those high principles 
of truth, courage, and honor which equipped him per- 
fectly for the great task to which he was to come. 

Perhaps, had there been no George Washington, some 
other man would have arisen who could have carried 
forward the gigantic task of liberating our country and 
establishing our form of government. But the one 
thing we know is that George Washington did fulfill 
this destiny and that he could not have done so had it 
not been for the training given him by his mother. 

I speak of Mary Ball Washington, the mother of 
George Washington, as the first American War Mother. 
My authority for this is the fact that, while there were 
colonial troops in the field before Washington was ap- 
pointed Commander-in-Chief, the point is that there 
was no American Army until George Washington was 
appointed by Congress to organize it. 

Mary Washington lived through those eight years of 
Revolutionary struggle to witness the final triumph of 
her son at Yorktown and to meet him again at Fred- 
ericksburg on his way from that victorious campaign. 

How beautiful and how characteristic was that 
meeting. George Washington the hero, the conqueror, 
the liberator stopped at Fredericksburg on his way 
north from Yorktown especially for the purpose of 
seeing his mother. Of that meeting in her modest home 
wc have scant record. His visit to the town was prob- 
ably a quiet one; but there is, nevertheless, a tradition 
of pomp and circumstance, of a retinue of distinguished 
generals, both American and French, whom Mrs. Wash- 
ington greeted. It is a charming, even though apocry- 
phal, story, that of the deference of these warriors and 
polite foreigners to the mother of their great chieftain, 
and her courteous and quietly dignified reception of 
their complimentary attentions. 

But when peace was at last established and the Cin- 
cinnatus of the West returned to his farm, his first 



George Washington Bicentennial Addresses 



105 



thought was of the duty to his aged parent, the "revered 
mother by whose maternal hand (early deprived of a 
father) I was led from childhood." He hastened to 
Fredericksburg as soon as the weather permitted, in 
February, 1784, and the rejoicing town made holiday of 
his presence, with a respectful address, a public dinner, 
and a grand ball, a celebration which lasted for two 
days. But the mother had him first as well as last, and 
a picture of that quiet evening would be one worthy of 
Mothers' Day. We have a glimpse through the veil of 
time into that simple scene which brings us into touch 
with the first American War Mother. 

Surely she could not help being proud of this her 
splendid son whose arrival so honored the town of his 
youthful associations; and Fredericksburg's acclaim was 
but one of the many that had greeted his presence and 
would continue to do so for the remainder of his life. 
But she was his mother, the nearness and dearness, the 
divine intimacy, put a check upon her tongue. She did 
not boast of his achievements; she did not speak of his 
heroic deeds; she did not refer to any great act of his 
which drew the admiration and devotion of the world to 
him. To her he was George, the son, and in all the his- 
tories of that time we find but one small reference to 
any compliment she paid him, and that was when she 
said: 

"George was always a good boy and deserves well of 
his country." 

How modest, how retiring, how beautiful is this re- 
nunciation, but we may be sure that love and pride and 
beautiful attachment warmed the heart of this noble 
woman when, after her immortal contribution to the 
world, she rested for a time in the glory of life's setting 
sun, and passed on. 

Today we do well to honor War Mothers. Today we 
bring to them the Nation's thanks and devotion, and it 



is well that we do so. Every Gold Star in that glorious 
constellation of womanhood represents all that could be 
given — all that could be sacrificed. 

But let us not forget those other mothers who have 
made sacrifices that the world might be made better. 

And among those glorious mothers let us exalt that 
mother who brought into the world the man whose Two 
Hundredth Birthday Anniversary the Nation celebrates 
next year in the greatest event of its kind ever held in 
this or any other country. 

The mothers of men are the link between heaven and 
earth. When we think of our mothers whose noble, un- 
selfish, tireless devotion to us is never dimmed, never 
destroyed, no matter how far our footsteps wander from 
the course which they marked out, we are close to the 
Great Creator of us all. 

The constancy of mother love is the divine light 
which shines upon the world. It is the one trustworthy, 
unfailing guide that leads us all safely home. 

The memory of our mothers is a treasure that grows 
more beautiful with the years. It is the one thing that 
we can not forget. It is the one thing that we would not 
forget if we could. 

Whatever the bufferings of fate may be, whatever the 
sorrows and disappointments we encounter in our life 
struggle, we can always be sure that somewhere there 
is one who, although she may be sitting in the shadows, 
yet waits and watches and prays for our return. 

Among all true men and women, every day is 
mother's day. And if we remember her precepts and 
are guided by her example, the world will be full of 
beauty and unselfishness. 

To all mothers everywhere let us pay that heart 
tribute which is due them, but which we more especially 
owe to ourselves, for no thought of motherhood can 
come to us without lifting us nearer to God. 



Address Broadcast From Washington, D. C., 

by the National Broadcasting Company, 
May 30, 1931 



Memorial Day! A day of memories — the one Amer- 
ican holiday which moves us to feelings of solemnity 
and tender retrospection. 

All of our other national holidays are joyful occasions. 
From New Years until Christmas, they mark a new 
prospect, the anniversary of some great man's birth, or 
signalize some outstanding episode of history. 

This day is one of sublime dignity, beauty and rever- 
ence. It stands upon our calendar to mark the passage 
of years, of those who have gone from us, and to re- 
kindle in our hearts remembrance of them and what 
they gave to us. 

Memorial Day has long been associated with rites for 
those who died upon the field of battle in defence of 
their country, and of ours. It takes nothing from honor 
to these noble dead, to include as we do today, all of our 



loved ones who have also passed on. 

Reverence for the dead is one of the oldest and surely 
the most sublime emotion of civilized man. As we 
pause today to do honor to our departed loved ones, we 
ourselves are ennobled, our hearts are made purer and 
our souls come nearer to God. 

We who live in a land that is secure, we who have 
been nurtured in freedom and in equal opportunity, 
cannot think of those heroes who laid down their lives 
for our country, without feelings of humility and over- 
whelming obligation. We cannot think of them with- 
out reverence and tenderness and gratitude. 

The symbol of our flag is a symbol of sacrifice and 
glory. Wherever that flag flies today it means more to 
humanity than any other flag that ever waved in 
majesty upon the background of heaven. But that flag 






George Washington Bicentennial Addresses 



would not be enshrined in our hearts were it not that it 
. orn in battle and has survived through the tur- 
moil of war. 

\\ hen u was first unfolded in the free air of liberty, 
it brought cheer, inspiration and courage to those tat- 
tered soldiers of George Washington who were then 
engaged in that war which established our country and 
decreed freedom throughout the world. 

In honoring that flag we honor all who died that it 
might survive. In honoring that flag we pay tribute 
to the hosts of noble men and women who went bravely 
to their deaths that it might live. 

America is known the world over for the splendor of 
its charities. Our people can hardly wait to attain suc- 
cess before they pour out their wealth in aid of the 
afflicted, or tor founding great beneficial institutions. 

Inn the greatest act of charity, the greatest benev- 
olence ever performed in this land of ours, came from 
those heroes whose memory we honor upon this occa- 
sion. 

The) gave more than money, something infinitely 
more precious than riches. They gave all that man can 
give, when they gave their lives that we who live after 
them may prosper in a country that is free and endur- 
ing. 

All that we have and all that we are we owe to these 
nun who offered their bodies to guard their country 
against encroaching dangers. 

Memorial Day is the formal day when we acknowl- 
edge publicly the debt we owe them. It is the day 
w hen we cease our usual occupations and express from 
our hearts the love we bear them. 

We cannot discharge that debt. Our nation, lasting 
tor all time, could never repay. But we can give that 
character to our devotion which would please those 
heroes most. We can express our reverence to them by 
renewed loyalty to the institutions which they gave us. 

\o words of mine, indeed no words of any man 
could add to the immortal sentiments of Abraham Lin- 
coln in his Gettysburg Address which hold true today 
lor every plot of ground where lie Americans who died 
tor their country. 

\\ e cannot make more sacred the soil wherein they 
lie. We can utter no words of gratitude for ears that 
have long since ceased to hear mortal praise. 

Memorial Day is for us and not for them. It is for 
us to reconsecrate ourselves in patriotism and in devo- 
tion to our country's welfare. It is for us the living, 
to carr) forward the torch of freedom so that when we 
Ives pass into the Beyond, America's freedom may 
be more secure. 

I he services oi this day attune our hearts to nobility 
and honor. As we reverence the dead, so should we 
remember the living. Out of that ocean of unselfish 

love, Upon which our heroes embarked, let us all feel 
toda\ thai God m Mis infinite wisdom, has willed that 
all is well. 

Wherever then are living Americans, let us think of 

all those who fell in the American freedom. 

NVr ,,M1 ' 1 " one oi them. We do not honor 

the heroes oi one tr alone. In the lengthening record 



of our history there are many brilliant pages, many 
pages stained with precious blood. 

Let us have in mind today all of our hero dead. 

Next year this nation is to celebrate the Two Hun- 
dredth Anniversary of the Birth of her greatest son — 
George Washington. Memorial Day must surely in- 
clude those starving, ragged, heroes who marched with 
bleeding feet through the snows at Valley Forge and 
who died by the thousands in field and camp, for the 
America that was to come. In honoring the memory 
of George Washington we are honoring the memory of 
all those who struggled and sacrificed with him. 

The bodies of these heroes are mingled in the democ- 
racy of the dust. But their example and their deeds 
are immortal. Although their very names may have 
vanished from human memory, the spiritual monument 
which they erected will last as long as the hearts of 
humanity beat. 

In dying, these men of America gave more than life. 
They left us more than memory. 

It is inspiring to me to think of the millions of our 
countrymen who are at this moment laying the purest 
garlands of affection upon the graves of those who have 
gone. It is our best hope of security that American 
hearts beat true and that the meaning of this day does 
not diminish with the years. 

Whatever clouds may gather, whatever fears may 
assail us, we know that our country is sound and that 
its people are sane. 

Love of country is not an image of sentimental imagi- 
nation. It is as real, it is as vibrant, it is as sacred, as 
life itself. 

That multitude of heroes who gave the last full 
measure of devotion for their country, did not die for 
a fanciful ideal. They did not die because of imaginary 
sentiments. They did not pay with their lives for a lie. 

They died for the greatest principle which Divine 
Providence has placed in the hearts of men. They died 
for love of their countrymen — love of those who were 
to come after them. 

We cannot honor the memories of these dead by 
eulogy or by flowers unless we consciously express our 
own dedication to the principles for which they died. 

We who survive them and who benefit by what they 
did, are sometimes swayed by passions that effect all 
humanity. We are ambitious, we are striving, we seek 
individual gain. Sometimes we are ruthless in obtain- 
ing what we want. It is the human way. 

But from the graves of these honored Americans 
there comes a message of silent eloquence to admonish 
us to live more kindly, to deal more justly with our 
fellow men. That voice must not go unheeded. Patri- 
otism is not vain bluster. It is not the figment of sen- 
timental emotion. True patriotism is that quality of 
human feeling that safeguards the security and honor 
of our homes and families, our country and our coun- 
trymen. It raises us to the pure air of unselfishness, of 
kindness, of justice. 

Were we to think otherwise would give the lie to all 
that our heroes died for. It would debase the better 
natures of us all. 



George Washington Bicentennial Addresses 



107 



So let us in pride and in beautiful consecration think 
of this America as an edifice risen from the glory of 
self-sacrifice. It is ours to defend and to perpetuate. 

Let us carry forward this mighty republic and make 
it better and more worthy of all who have died to pre- 
serve its honor and its safety. Let us so live that when 
the veil of death shall have closed about us, we may 



join that noble army and face the Great Captain with- 
out fear and without reproach. 

When for us time shall be no more, may the memories 
of our lives we leave behind bring to our resting places 
our portion of those heavenly floral tributes that today 
spread like God's benediction over the hills and valleys 
of our beloved land. 



George Washington and His 
Relationship to the South 

Address from Washington, D. C., 

Over Columbia Broadcasting System 

June 5, 1931 



I am asked to say something to you on "George Wash- 
ington and His Relationship to the South." 

No more agreeable subject could be assigned to any 
one authorized to speak of George Washington. And 
I doubt if there is another topic more agreeable to 
Southern listeners. 

Historians tell us that George Washington now be- 
longs to the world, that a world-wide humanity now 
increasingly aware of the benefits it has received at his 
hands, has taken him to itself. 

We in America must rest content with the honor of 
having presented such a man to mankind. 

As the Two Hundredth Anniversary of his Birth ap- 
proaches, we turn to his character and genius with a new 
interest, a new attention to every detail of his life. 

Search as we may into the life of this man, we do not 
find one deed or trait to which any of us can take the 
slightest exception. 

There seems to have been no great man of all history 
so lofty and stainless in every fibre of his being. 

The greatness of such a man confers a touch of the 
same greatness on the people that produced him. We 
cannot be quite the lost nation that some of our present 
critics think us, if we can produce from our national 
existence a figure of the stature and quality of George 
Washington. 

But no matter how great a man may be, no matter 
how much he may belong to the entire world, that man 
must have his birth and growth. He must have his 
starting point from the immediate forebears who gave 
him his blood, his inheritance, his education and en- 
vironment. For that reason the American South regards 
George Washington as its special property. 

It takes this proud stand with every right and reason. 
For three generations before Washington was born, the 
warm and generous life of the South had shaped and in- 
fluenced the life and the thought of his ancestors. 

Into this same warmth and love of the high and fine 
things of life, George Washington was born. In the 
South he passed his boyhood. He mingled with the best 
of Southern manhood and womanhood. In every way 
the South, and especially Virginia, put its stamp upon 
his character, his mental attitude, his ways of thought. 



Well may our Southland believe that George Wash- 
ington is its especial product. For it molded him in its 
own fine graces, its own high standards of honor, its own 
patterns of rectitude. 

The best authority on the subject of how thoroughly 
Washington was a Southerner and a Virginian, is George 
Washington himself. 

He never broke into rhapsody over the delights of 
Southern life. He never critically analyzed the charac- 
ter and the habits of Southern people, as did that other 
great Virginian, Thomas Jefferson. 

George Washington spoke his love of Virginia and the 
South in more eloquent language than that. Wherever 
he traveled, wherever he fought, whatever the duties 
that so often and so long absented him from the place 
of his birth, he always longed for his home in Virginia, 
and to that home he hurried the moment that duty per- 
mitted him. 

In all his travels, through all his critical examinations 
of American life as it then was, George Washington's 
heart forever yearned for Virginia and Mount Vernon. 

There was his home. There were his beloved acres. 
There were his friends. There was his Southern wife, 
whom he loved with such Southern chivalry. 

For it was in his home, as the husband, the foster 
father, the generous host to a world of friends, that 
George Washington was at his best. There he showed 
the people among whom he was born and trained all the 
high traits they had given or taught him — made finer 
still by contributions from his own noble nature. 

In studying the rise and growth of such a man, we 
can only stand and marvel. When a man so lofty steps 
forth from the common ranks of mankind, it is as if we 
were watching the very hand of God, at work in the 
creation of a miracle. 

In the career of such a man, the Omnipotent Hand 
appears again and again. But for the hand of God, 
working through the material of what we call destiny, 
George Washington might have lived as a Southerner 
and died as a Southerner. 

Even the War of the Revolution might not have made 
him more than a sectional figure, but for one of those 
workings in other men's minds which strike us, in the 



108 



George Washington Bicentennial Addresses 



perspective of history, as unmistakably the act of 
lVo\ idence. 

Through the instrumentality of John Adams and 
others of Washington's fellow patriots, this great man of 
the South was made the leader of all the Revolutionary 
force >\^<-\ spirit. 

In their hearts, the men who made that choice were 
only solving an immediate practical problem of leader- 
ship. We know now what immense consequences flowed 
from their choice. 

Surely the South has honor enough in having bred 
such a man. If the greatness of George Washington re- 
flects a gleam of the same light on all America, that light 
shines brightest on the region that harbored his forebears 
and surrounded his own formative years with its kind- 
ness .\nd grace. 

But Virginia and the South did more for George 
Washington than provide him with the traits that made 
him what he was as the man, the social being. 

It ga^ e his genius its first work to do. It provided the 
tasks that toughened his young manhood's sinews. It 
sent him on difficult errands that gave him first practice 
in war and in statesmanship. 

The South then regarded itself as the richest and per- 
haps the most important section of the young country. 
It had large stakes in the still richer regions to the "West 
and North. It looked with anxious eyes to the safety of 
its properties. It was determined on the safety of its 
political rights and liberties. 

All these were subject to many grave dangers. 
Against these threats and enemies, the South meant to 
he defended. And in that defense it sent George Wash- 
ington on errands as difficult and dangerous as they were 
delicate. 

How well this mere stripling, this youthful major and 
colonel, discharged these duties, history now records. 

But on one page of that early record, George Wash- 
ington left an especially brilliant mark. 

On Braddock Field, this young Colonial officer sal- 
vaged from still worse disaster the pride of the British 
army, although he was merely a volunteer aide without 
rank; ,\nd he personally snatched his dying superior 
I iuii i the scene of his blunder. 

Thereafter not only the South but the entire nation 
knew that it had in George Washington a man un- 
matched in personal bravery, unmatched in high resolve, 
and alreadj a master at lifting a hopeless military situa- 
tion into the heights of a moral success. 

Great is is the honor of having born and bred such a 
man, greater still is the honor of having given him these 
tnd proofs of the stuff that was in him. 

When his first military assignments had been dis- 

Washington married the love of his 

ind Inc. nne a farmer. I le became not simply a 

farmer, but the most practical, the most progressive, 

and the most sueccssiul farmer of his time. 

Throughout his life he showed an almost touching 

p< rit) of Southern agriculture. In 

11 "I hi. military campaigns, he appears to 

P< " 1" .ill that went on ahout him— 



not omitting the farming methods of other sections of 
the country. 

When victory had been won by his military genius, 
he still could come home to Mount Vernon with new 
practices in farming that he sought to impart to his fel- 
low farmers of the South. 

Widely traveled as he was, he journeyed oftenest and 
farthest through the South. Wherever he went his eyes 
saw everything. Nothing escaped his notice. 

As a member of the Virginia House of Burgesses, he 
helped make the laws of the South, and learned his first 
lessons in statesmanship. 

It was that quiet, impressive individual at Mount 
Vernon whose urgence brought about Virginia's accept- 
ance of the Constitution, when even Patrick Henry and 
James Monroe opposed it. 

As President of the United States, Washington turned 
to the South for some of his important Cabinet mem- 
bers — Thomas Jefferson, Edmund Randolph, and Charles 
Lee, and later Habersham, of Georgia. 

Such were the feelings of his heart for his people. 

His sympathies encircle the whole of America. But 
his warmest sympathies and keenest interests seemed 
always centered on the region and the people of his birth 
and his youth — the South. 

Where his beloved home was, where his fathers slept, 
there his heart beat highest, there his energies were most 
lovingly expended. 

If the South loved George Washington from the mo- 
ment of his birth to the moment when the marble at 
Mount Vernon closed forever over his mortal remains, 
then the South may be sure from every word that Wash- 
ington uttered, every deed that he did, that he loved it 
as much in return, and as long as he lived. 

In 1932, the year now closely approaching, this nation 
which owes so much of its being to the mind, the char- 
acter, and the iron courage of George Washington, will 
have an opportunity to express its debt to him, on the 
appropriate occasion of the two hundredth year since 
his birth. 

George Washington was possessed of a vision that saw 
farther than any other man of his day. He fought as he 
did for this country, he thought as he did for this coun- 
try, because he believed in the greatness it was destined 
to achieve and enjoy. 

But not even George Washington with all his far- 
sightedness could envision the great people we have be- 
come — the most courageously pioneering people that 
ever lived. 

Not very long after Washington's death there ap- 
peared mechanical inventions that have transformed 
human life. They have opened avenues to riches never 
dreamed of before. 

We have seized upon those inventions and made the 
most of them. The result is an America of such great- 
ness that would amaze even Washington. We are rich 
to a degree that constitutes danger, unless we forget 
these riches and return to those simple faiths in the 
fundamentals of human nature, those trusts that guided 
George Washington in the founding of this nation. 

For before these material inventions had appeared 



George Washington Bicentennial Addresses 



109 



George Washington had given us the greatest invention 
of all — those principles of government without which 
we would be nothing. 

In thankfulness for what we have, in thankfulness to 
the man who made all these things possible, let us turn 
and convert the whole of next year to a tribute to his 
memory. Even more, let us make it a rededication of 
ourselves to his trust in men, to his labors for others, for 
country more than for self. 

And in this, let the South, which possesses his sacred 
ashes, lead the way. 

All that George Washington was and did, all that he 
thought and accomplished, was actuated by that love he 



bore — that love of his country and his countrymen. It 
was the underlying motive in all his career. 

But in the love he bore to the South, that love took 
on something more intimate and personal. 

So, in additon to all its other claims upon this greatest 
of all Americans, the South has this last and finest claim 
— that it received the warmest and deepest share of his 
personal affections. 

That, I think, is at least something regarding "George 
Washington and His Relationship to the South." It 
was more than a relationship of great deeds. For under 
the deeds was the love of a magnificent son for a proud 
and adoring mother. 



National Security League 

Address Broadcast from Washington, D. C., 

by the Columbia Broadcasting System 

June 23, 1931 



I am asked by The National Security League to tell 
you something of an enterprise definitely and vigorously 
launched by the United States Government about a year 
ago. 

It is different from anything ever before undertaken 
by any country. 

This unique undertaking on the part of our Govern- 
ment is to organize throughout the United States and 
many other parts of the world, a fitting celebration of 
the Two Hundredth Anniversary of the birth of the 
man who did more than any other to make possible our 
nation and our government — George Washington. 

That anniversary comes next year, and it is eminently 
wise and appropriate that we honor it on a national 
scale. For this great occasion marks more than the bi- 
centennial of our greatest American. It marks a mile- 
stone in the progress of the nation so largely established 
by him. 

In the 200 years since George Washington's birth, this 
country of ours has achieved a position unparalleled in 
history. We owe this stupendous progress to the new 
principles of government laid down by this greatest of 
our Founders. 

It is my privilege and pleasure to tell you how this 
nation, led by its Government, will next year render its 
tribute of reverence and gratitude to that benefactor of 
humanity. 

I do so at the invitation of an association of Ameri- 
can patriots — The National Security League. But in 
an enterprise such as this one, of honoring the Father 
of our Country, I am conscious of addressing a nation 
of patriots, both within and without this organization. 

Next year the whole American people will be one vast 
security league, newly consecrating themselves to the 
preservation of their country and the principles of 
George Washington. 

More than a year ago the United States George Wash- 
ington Bicentennial Commission, authorized by Con- 
gress, began the active work of organizing this national 
tribute. 



It was realized that our people would rise in spontane- 
ous honor to George Washington, on the coming anni- 
versary. But the Representatives of the people desired 
to bring this national impulse into unison and give it 
singleness of purpose, under the auspices of the Govern- 
ment itself. 

The United States George Washington Bicentennial 
Commission, of which I am the Director, was formed 
and empowered to do this work. 

To give weight and influence to this Commission, the 
President of the United States was made its chairman, 
with a membership consisting of the Vice President, the 
Speaker of the House of Representatives, four members 
of the Senate, four members of the House of Representa- 
tives, and a group of outstanding citizens from various 
parts of the country. 

The coming Celebration we have planned in Wash- 
ington's honor will be unique in the fact that we have 
considered no concentration of patriotic activities in 
any one place. 

Instead of bringing the people to some central Cele- 
bration, we are taking the Celebration to the people, in 
their own homes, cities and communities. 

This tribute to George Washington in 1932 will begin 
on February 22, the date of his birth, and will continue 
until Thanksgiving Day. Every intervening holiday 
will be marked with special observances appropriate to 
its relationship with Washington's life and achievements. 

During this period of nine months, it is proposed that 
every man, woman and child living under the Ameri- 
can flag shall have some part in honoring the man who 
made possible that flag and all that it stands for. 

The plans for this Celebration are well advanced. 

Our first duty and undertaking was to present the 
facts about George Washington to the people. Wash- 
ington is the greatest figure in our history, and yet he is 
the least known. Scholars and historians have delved 
into every moment of his life, every phase of his career. 

Yet the American of today needs new realization of 



2 10 



George Washington Bicentennial Addresses 



Washington's greatness, a new sense of his service to 
America and mankind, and a renewed gratitude for all 
that we owe him. 

We of the United States Bicentennial Commission de- 
sired to bring to the present generation of Americans a 
new imprint of the personality of George Washington. 
We wished to instill into the hearts and minds of our 
people a new understanding of his life and service, a 
new sense of our own duty to serve our country in 
return. 

For i his purpose we early engaged eminent historians 
to search out the story of Washington's life. 

As these experts have unfolded George Washington's 
record, our information bureau has spread it forth over 
the country, tor publication in newspapers and maga- 
zines. And I am thrilled at the extent to which this 
material has been published. 

It is wonderfully encouraging as evidence of the in- 
terest of our people and the spirit and enthusiasm with 
which they will participate in this Celebration next year. 
It is evidence that this Celebration will be held where it 
should be held, and where we wish it to be — in the hearts 
of a grateful people. 

For we are holding no expositions, no parades of our 
material progress. We are building no new monuments 
to George Washington. 

We want this observance of his birth anniversary to 
be a reconsecration to his ideals and principles. And we 
want that reconsecration to be made in every church, 
home, school, in every individual heart and mind in 
America. 

In order to help the people express themselves in this 
way, the United States George Washington Bicentennial 
Commission has also engaged specialists in the prepara- 
tion of plays, pageants, and other ceremonials. It was 
thought that one excellent way to bring back the facts 
.\nd the meaning of Washington's life, was to re-enact 
it, and see it re-enacted, among the people themselves. 

Such spectacles would afford knowledge mixed with 
pleasure. Better than that, they would provide oppor- 
tunity for all to take some active part in these honors. 
I hese plays and plans and programs are to be made 
available to all who wish to present them. 

I l<>\\ t Ik States and the Territories are swinging in 
behind the United States Bicentennial Commission in 
splendid cooperation! Only a few of the States have 
not yet appointed commissions of their own. In time 
they will all do so. 

It is inspiring testimony to the spirit and the manner 
in which America will come next year to lay its tribute 
at the teet nt George Washington. 

I can not tell you of all the progress that has been 
made during tins past year, and of the progress we ex- 

Ol). 

I momeni I am more interested in what 
and enthusiasm m 
It means that everj good American is swinging back 
tism. The overwhelming ma- 
ioritj <>f us .ire i nal security league. 

ton is calling us all 
back to the old prin< iplei on hi< h our nation was 



founded. We all wish to see our country enjoy peace 
in security. And this occasion of Washington's birth 
anniversary provides the people with a rallying point 
for this deep feeling among them. 

As I see it, that is the reason why our plans for the 
Bicentennial Celebration next year have met with such 
enthusiastic response. 

In the mind of George Washington was always 
dominant that desire to establish national security. In 
many of his great utterances preserved to us today we 
find him making use of that word "security" time and 
time again. 

For without security there can be no freedom. 
Without security there can be no independence. With- 
out security there can be no new nationalism as George 
Washington understood it. 

It was to make our people secure that those early 
patriots risked their lives, their fortunes and their 
sacred honor. It was to establish permanent security 
that thousands of those patriots died in field and camp. 

Security is the keynote of all of those dramatic inci- 
dents in George Washington's life which made him our 
greatest American. 

Surely never in our history since that immortal day at 
Yorktown was there greater need of reading into the 
word "Security" its meaning according to the founders 
of our Republic. 

It is a sense of insecurity that is troubling our country 
today. It is the vague sense of an unknown danger that 
creates anxiety among us all. 

Security means safety. It means a certain survival 
and permanence of those safeguards which the founders 
of our government read into our Constitution. 

A security league is an American institution and de- 
serves the honor and consideration which we give it. 

But security can never be maintained without 
strength, without courage and without patriotism. And 
what we of the George Washington Bicentennial Com- 
mission are doing is to help lay a solid foundation be- 
neath our governmental institutions. 

The American people owe to George Washington 
new pledges to keep safe and secure the country he 
founded for us. I believe a sense of this begins to 
possess us all. 

With the coming of 1932, and the year of tribute to 
George Washington, I expect to witness such a revival as 
we never have seen before, of love for country, of new 
devotion to its security, and a new hatred for every 
element that would render it asunder. 

We Americans of today may have our differences of 
thought in relation to the problems directly before us. 
This is a time that invites such differences. It is a 
period when we are all perplexed with personal worries. 
We need to be called out of our purely personal interests 
and reminded of country. 

I believe this need is felt by every one of us. We may 
differ as to creed, policies, and issues. But we can be- 
come one people, with a single thought, in a return to 
established national ideals, and to the great man who 
more than any other American embodied those ideals — 
George Washington. 



George Washington Bicentennial Addresses 



111 



George Washington calls to us to come out of our- 
selves and become single-minded Americans again. I 
appeal to every American who hears me to heed that 
call and join us in honor to the man who set the im- 
mortal example in thought and labor for the security 
of his country. 

It is especially appropriate that I make this appeal 
under the auspices and with the support of a great 
national organization which has for its sole purpose the 
promotion of solid American citizenship. 

Whether or not you who hear me are members of 
this Security League, we can all be workers for good 
Americanism and solid citizenship. We can all be 



leaders in this movement to turn back to George Wash- 
ington for inspiration and example. 

We all owe to George Washington this offering from 
our hearts, in the form of a new devotion to country, 
new pledges to its safety and the realization of its 
destiny. 

I am grateful to the organization of patriots who have 
asked me to make this appeal, with their support and 
encouragement. In their name, and in the name of 
good Americanism, I appeal to all to resolve on some 
active part next year, that we may display new loyalty 
to our country, and to the teachings of the great man 
who did so much to establish this government and this 
flag — this symbol of our national security, under which 
we enjoy so many blessings. 



Address Delivered at Independence Hall, Philadelphia, and 
Broadcast by the National Broadcasting Company, 
July 4, 1931 



I am standing in Independence Hall, Philadelphia, in 
what is perhaps the most historic room in America. At 
the table before me was adopted and signed the Declara- 
tion of Independence. 

The words I speak on this birthday of the Nation 
come to you from a microphone standing on the very 
spot where this Nation of ours was born. 

Here, on the anniversary of that day, in this hall 
where so many remarkable events have taken place, I 
am permitted to look back from this day of peace and 
security, of enormous social and political progress, and 
measure the immense consequences that have arisen 
from that momentous event that occurred in this room 
a little more than a century and a half ago. 

This extraordinary honor has been accorded me as 
Director of the United States George Washington 
Bicentennial Commission, created by Congress to or- 
ganize among the American people, next year, the 
Celebration of the Two Hundredth Anniversary of the 
Birth of George Washington — the man who did more 
than any other to translate the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence into terms of living reality — the man who did 
more than any other to place the thirteen struggling 
colonies on a firm foundation and build them into one 
great Nation of 123,000,000 people. 

It is impossible to conceive of a more direct and dra- 
matic linkage between the present and the past — be- 
tween this Fourth of July of vast fulfillment and that 
Fourth of July of gigantic political adventure. 

As I stand here where this greatest and strongest Na- 
tion in the history of the world had its birth and these 
beginnings, I am swept with reverence and awe. 

I am lost in wonder as I think of the imperishable 
pages of history that were written here, and the mighty 
forces of progress that were released here by the wise and 
steadfast men who shaped at this table before me a new 
charter of human liberties, and brought into being a 
new era in human affairs that today is the hope of hu- 
manity throughout the world. 

Beneath the flag of our country we Americans must 



pause and realize in our hearts what that flag stands 
for. It is the living symbol of the blood and tears of 
those men and women of a bygone age who went glori- 
ously to their graves that our country might live. 

Beneath its sheltering folds the dying eyes of count- 
less heroes grew dim and closed forever, a prayer upon 
their lips for its preservation. 

It is for us to carry forward those sacrifices and those 
ideals. Who knows but what we say today and what we 
do today may not be translated to that far shore where 
are gathered the heroes of long-gone years? Who knows 
but that our account is being written as to how well and 
how worthily we have kept the faith as Americans? 

May God help us to act well our part. May God give 
us some portion of the courage and devotion which cre- 
ated our country, that we may defend its liberties. 

In our enjoyment of these liberties let us remember 
what they cost. The act performed here by these pa- 
triots required more than wisdom, great as it was. It 
called for another quality which they possessed, and 
which, please Providence, they have handed on. It called 
for the utmost in moral and physical courage. 

In establishing this Nation they had to fling their 
defiance in the face of a powerful foe. They knew the 
risk they took, and that risk was real. On the heads of 
the men who signed the immortal Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, on the heads of every member of their fam- 
ilies, the angry Government they defied placed a price. 

Benjamin Franklin's jest was far more grim and truth- 
ful than humorous when he warned his fellow signers 
that "We must all hang together, or assuredly we shall 
all hang separately." 

Yet, reckless of what it might cost them, these patri- 
ots pledged to the cause all that they had, and all that 
they were — "their lives, their fortunes, and their sacred 
honor." 

If, in the list of great names they attached to the 
Declaration of Independence, we miss the greatest of 
all — the name of George Washington — it is for good 
and sufficient reason. 



x, i s J 1 W i k\ in \i w York City 
as it now Appears, Altered and Re- 
stored Sinci Revolutionary Days. 
1 1 w \s Built in Colonial Times, was 
i i i i Scene of Various Patriotic 
Meetings Before the Revolution, 

l RENDEZVOUS FOR CONTINENTAL 

Officers Diking the Campaign for 

mi IVsm ssion of New York City — 

1776. Its Proprietor at that Time, 

i l Fraunces, Called Black Sam, 

RjEMAINED IN IHE ClTY DURING THE 

British Occupation, but There are 
Evidences i-hat He was Really One 
o] General Washington's Spies 
After the Reoccupation of 
mi (in in 1783, General Washing- 
ton Bade Farewell to His Officers 
Here December 4th. When Gen- 
i k \ i Washington was President, 
Fraunces \\ vs a Part of the Time 
snw \ki> \r the President's Mansion. 
Fraunces' Tavern in New York City, 




\ 



mm v\w ; 

■.i;-- ■■..■■■■ ; ■" .'- 

ti\ rar s^ s & 1 ; v v> a I 

. •. .. 
cssihwsK; «^ . v^inc moo 





George Washington Bicentennial Addresses 



113 



While these men wrote at this table George Washing- 
ton, as Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army, 
was already far away on the field of battle. 

Already he was fighting the cause of independence 
before these others had pondered the terms in which 
that cause should be proclaimed to the world. 

Now, we living Americans are witnesses as to how 
well those patriots planned. The full and rich life we 
live today attests the greatness of the purpose for which 
they fought and struggled then. 

For the sake of that cause which has made us so great 
they endured every loss, every danger, and every sac- 
rifice. 

And yet, in this vast democracy of Americans today, 
self-ruled as the patriots planned, far richer than they 
dreamed, and happy and privileged beyond any people 
that ever lived, I believe the fathers would find their 
plans justified, their struggles rewarded, their dreams 
come true. 

Here on this table before me were shaped those liber- 
ties and privileges which you and I possess today as cit- 
izens of these United States. As I realize this, never 
have those rights and privileges seemed to me so sacred, 
so precious, and so real. 

If I can I want to bring you into this room and give 
you a sense of the feelings this scene inspires. I want 
you to see the vision I see, called up in this birthplace of 
our country, on this, the anniversary of its birth. 

I speak to you through a miracle of modern science, 
an instrument that symbolizes all our marvelous ad- 
vances since 1776. Yet I speak in profound humility. 

These very advances we have achieved make it all the 
more needful that we ask ourselves, on this July Fourth, 
how well we have kept the moral courage of that Fourth 
of July of 1776 — how far are we ready to pledge to our 
country today "our lives, our fortunes, and our sacred 
honor." 

I am one who believes we can answer that question 
with pride and respect of self. 

I believe we can listen to the whispering voices that 
echo from these ancient walls without self-reproach. I 
can but dimly repeople this historic room. Yet my heart 
beats with new devotion, new love for my country and 
my fellow Americans, as there passes before my inner 
vision that procession of patriots. 

Here, in this very chair, sat John Hancock, President 
of the Congress. There, in rows, many others upon that 
everlasting roll of honor. Fifty-six in all! Immortals! 
Americans! 

Before them I bow in humble respect because of the 
sacrifices they made. But, my fellow Americans, I am 
one who believes we have guarded well the great trust 
they placed in our hands. I believe we have fought the 
good fight; I believe we have kept the faith. 

We live in a day when it is common to hear that our 
country has lapsed in patriotism. It is said by many to 
have fallen from the lofty ideals of the founders. It is 
thought that because we have grown rich we must have 
grown corrupt. 

It is said of us that we are lost in material gain; that 
we are dead to the spirit that first breathed life into the 
Nation and is vital to its very existence. 



I am not one who believes all patriotism perished here 
in this sacred hall where it was born. I am not one who 
believes that all self-sacrifice and devotion to country 
disappeared with the men who here first practiced those 
virtues 15 5 years ago. 

I believe these United States of America have grown 
to be the great Nation they are because we have had 
throughout the years of our history unfailing genera- 
tions of patriots. I believe these succeeding generations 
have always defended American rights and liberties in 
a way that would earn them the blessings of the patriots 
of 1776. 

We complain that disaffection is abroad in our land. 
There are those who carp at this Government which 
has achieved so much. They would rip it to pieces and 
set up another. It is taken as one more sign that we have 
slipped from the standards of our fathers. 

If we have indifference toward the public interest to- 
day, let us remember that in the days of its infancy the 
cause of liberty had its way to make against a sea of the 
same troubles. 

Valley Forge is the epic story of men who endured 
every visible hardship for the sake of an invisible cause. 
Yet now we know that the worst of Valley Forge might 
have been prevented by men who should have been true 
to their duties, and instead were not. 

Even in those heroic days of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, when men of lofty character were winning 
liberties for future generations at every cost to them- 
selves, there were men who were willing to profit by the 
sacrifices of these others. 

In the dark days of that winter of 1777, John Adams, 
whose name stands high on the list of Signers of the Dec- 
laration of Independence, wrote home from Philadel- 
phia to his devoted wife the bitter and despairing words: 
"I am ashamed of the times in which I live!" 

Would John Adams be more ashamed of the Ameri- 
cans of 1812— the Americans of 1861— of 1898— of the 
Americans who lie in the fields and the forests of France 
today? 

I can not believe it. The truth of it is that here in 
this room where I stand the founding of our country 
was not finished but only begun. Ever since that im- 
mortal day we have been busy in founding our Nation. 
We are still founding our Nation. The great men who 
shaped the immortal document that once lay on this 
table before me were not the only ones who have signed 
it. 

The Declaration of Independence is being signed at 
this very moment by millions of Americans. It is being 
signed in spirit by every American with a spark of love 
for his native land. It is being signed in spirit by every 
American who labors and plans for the larger good of 
the country. It is being signed in spirit by any Ameri- 
can who contributes any humble thing, be it only the 
digging of a ditch, to the good and comfort of his 
fellows. 

Wherever a devoted American mother toils and denies 
herself for the preservation and progress of her family 
she defies an invisible oppressor and writes her own char- 
ter of freedom. 

I can not believe that the patriots of old would be- 



George Washington Bicentennial Addresses 



little the moral height of that mother and the thou- 
of Americans she represents. I can not believe 
we have lapsed so far. 

1 will not believe that the men who sat here on July 
4. 1 776, would be deeply ashamed of the record we bring 
hack to them here on July Fourth of this year. 

These are some of the feelings inspired by the great 
memories chat will lurk in this chamber forever. 

It we have done thus well with the Nation that the 
fathers placed in our hands, it is only because we have 
: ^mc back, faithfully and often, and refreshed ourselves 
at the fountains of inspiration they left us in their deeds 
and their character. 

[f this Nation is to go on to a future without an end, 
it will he only as we and our children come back, again 
and again, to these memories of the fathers, to their 
teachings mioI to their examples. 

It should be our only purpose in celebrating the 
1 ourth of July and the adoption of the Declaration of 
Independence. This year, next year, and forever, it 
should he the day when we check our course and set 
our national compass from that glorious star of patri- 
otic purpose which they set in the eternal heaven of 
human affairs. 

As I speak these words our people are in the midst of 
material difficulties. We are plagued with personal wor- 
ries. We are afflicted with discontent and threatened 
suffering. Because of these discomforts we have turned 
upon each other in bitter recrimination. It is a time 
that gives rise to violent differences in politics, in busi- 
ness. Our entire system of life is under fire of criticism. 

But even in this we only repeat the experiences of 
the lathers. They also knew what it was to be vexed 
with divided counsels and violent clashes of interest. 

But in the midst of their perplexities they knew what 
it was to turn to the calm, serene, steadfast courage and 
judgment of George Washington. And in 1932, I be- 
lie\ e, we are going to turn again and rally about him. 

I believe that in 1932 the spirit of George Washing- 
ton will rise from his tomb in Mount Vernon and bring 
us together again as the living Washington stilled the 
storms that swept over the days when he lived in the 
flesh. 

I believe this celebration next year of the Two Hun- 
dredth Anniversary of the Birth of George Washington 



is going to afford the American people the greatest na- 
tional rallying point they ever have had. 

I can see this coming. For more than a year the 
United States George Washington Bicentennial Com- 
mission has been guiding and gathering up the Nation's 
slumbering interest in its greatest man. I have watched 
that interest come to life and breathe the fire of en- 
thusiastic vitality. 

I see in this a nation swept with a single emotion. It 
is an impulse on the part of 123,000,000 Americans to 
forget their differences and rally as one about the rock 
of this great American's character. 

Next year, I predict, George Washington will repeat 
in spirit the great work that a century and a half ago he 
performed in fact. He will summon all Americans 
away from their bickerings and their discontent. He 
will bid them forget themselves and remember their 
country. He will bid them rededicate themselves to 
the giving of self for the good of all. 

Out of our deathless love for him he will ask us to 
reconsecrate ourselves to the great and simple principles 
upon which he and the framers of the Declaration of 
Independence built this Nation, to last as long as we 
keep burning the sacred fires of their example and their 
leadership. 

Out from the moving shadows of this impressive room 
there comes the spirit of courage and peace. That Di- 
vine influence which guided the heroes of the past still 
lives, still exerts its potent guardianship. 

The God, our Father, who placed his benediction 
upon the founders, will not neglect those of succeeding 
generations if they remain true to American ideals. 
The shadows whisper this message; this ancient room 
bears witness to its truth. 

To you, my fellow Americans, I appeal over the dis- 
tances of space to carry this message as I hear it in the 
mysterious murmurings of this place. Let us live true, 
let us guard the heritage these Signers of the Declara- 
tion have left to us. 

Let us honor and preserve all that they stand for, 
their memories ever strong in our minds, their spirit 
ever active in our hearts. Thus, in confidence may we 
look forward to a united America strong and enduring 
among the nations of the earth. 



Address for the National Grange, 
Broadcast Over National Broadcasting System 



August 15, 1931 

I deepl) appreciate the courtesy of this opportunity 
to bl ir attention a typical American farmer. 

11 ; l know and should know well. The man 

I have m mind might not he called a great farmer in 
tne * ale production. He was, however, 

the leadin i his time an I > I irmer that every 

other American farmer can understand 



1 be farmer I have in mind and among my Southern 
1 ' fer to him as the Planter 



was George Washington, who became one of the great 
soldiers of history, who won our American independ- 
ence, who directed the writing of the Constitution, who 
became the first President of the United States and put 
our Government in motion. 

Beyond all question, he accomplished more great his- 
toric achievements than any other American. Yet above 
and beyond all this, that which he loved best of all and 
upon which doubtless he would wish to base the re- 



George Washington Bicentennial Addresses 



15 



membrance of his fellow Americans, was that he loved 
the soil, and that he was never happier than in pursuing 
the activities of his farms. 

He went through all the typical problems of other 
American farmers. Droughts and floods ruined his 
crops and hurt him financially. He had all the disap- 
pointments that come at times to every farmer. But 
like the true American farmer that he was, this man for- 
ever tried to improve his farm and his crops, and to find 
new and profitable methods of making agriculture pay. 
He tried new kinds of grains, fruits and vegetables and 
found new ways of tilling the soil. He even invented a 
combined plow and drill for his own use. He was not 
only a farmer, but he was an independent, progressive 
farmer. 

He died long ago. But if he could live again he would 
still be a farmer because he loved farming above every- 
thing else — and he did a great number of other things 
and did them heroically. 

But to his dying day he loved his beautiful estate of 
Mt. Vernon on the Potomac River a few miles south of 
the city of Washington, beyond any other spot on earth. 

Even during his military campaigns, even when he was 
President, in all the arduous public duties that came to 
him, and amid all of the tremendous responsibilities from 
which he never retreated, his mind forever turned back 
to his beloved farm at Mt. Vernon. 

Whenever public duty allowed him he went back to 
Mt. Vernon. Through all his public career he found 
time to send frequent letters to his manager at Mt. Ver- 
non, directing the affairs of his fields and of his live 
stock. Mt. Vernon was a magnet to which his heart 
turned. There he lies buried in the heart of the beauti- 
ful farm he loved so well. 

It is most appropriate that when the Congress of the 
United States decided to organize a nation-wide cele- 
bration in honor of the memory of George Washington, 
his farming activities should form an important part 
of that celebration. 

For we cannot think of George Washington without 
remembering that he was a product of the soil. He came 
from a family of farmers. He was born upon a farm. 
He knew from the labor of his own hands what farming 
meant. 

Throughout the length and breadth of the nation, 
beginning February 22 next year, and continuing until 
Thanksgiving Day, thousands of celebrations will be 
held among the American people in every hamlet, every 
farming community, and every home in the United 
States, so that men and women, boys and girls every- 
where, will have an opportunity to pay their tribute 
to George Washington where he would wish it to be 
— in the hearts of his own people. 

I have been asked to give you an outline of this 
coming Celebration as organized by the United States 
George Washington Bicentennial Commission, of which 
the President of the United States is Chairman, and 
which I have the honor to serve as Associate Director. 

During the year and more that this Commission has 
been at work, our plans have become widely known. 
We are not giving an exposition, or a show in any one 



place. We are not asking the people to come to Wash- 
ington, or to any other place to take part in any cere- 
mony. We are taking the celebration to the people 
themselves, so that the Celebration of the Two Hun- 
dredth Anniversary of the Birth of George Washington 
next year will be truly a national tribute, among all 
Americans living under our flag, to that man who did 
more than any one else to make our flag a reality and 
our nation great upon earth. 

In organizing this nation-wide celebration, we have 
naturally solicited the active cooperation of all patriotic 
bodies of citizens. We realized that without such co- 
operation there could be no successful celebration. We 
have, therefore, joined with patriotic societies, schools, 
libraries, churches, clubs and all similar bodies of people 
so that organization assistance could be given us 
throughout the nation. 

We have felt the need of means by which we could 
reach the great agricultural people of the country. That 
means has been supplied by the National Grange and 
other great organizations of farmers and by the 4-H 
clubs of boys and girls of the country. We are now 
working out plans so that the active cooperation of all 
of these citizens can be secured in promoting the Cele- 
bration next year. 

Surely if any class of our citizens should be interested 
in honoring the memory of George Washington it should 
be those who live upon the farms, and I am convinced 
that if George Washington himself could influence this 
Celebration in his honor, he would take no greater de- 
light than in having his name and his services com- 
memorated among the farmers of today. 

We are not asking that elaborate preparations be 
made. We are not seeking or expecting that great sums 
of money be spent upon any forms of celebration. 
Rather do we hope that the memory of George Wash- 
ington will be honored as he would have it honored, in 
a simple, sincere tribute, among those who love America 
and those who would see it preserved. 

The United States Commission has issued hundreds of 
thousands of books, posters, plays, pageants, and mate- 
rial of similar kinds upon the life and achievements of 
George Washington. From our offices in the National 
Capital we have sent out a steady stream of information 
concerning the celebration that has reached every nook 
and corner of our land and has also extended into many 
other parts of the world. We have prepared plans and 
programs of celebration for every kind of organization. 
These plans we have consistently attempted to make 
simple and inexpensive. In fact, in the vast majority 
of these celebrations, there will be no expense whatever 
involved. 

Any organization, at its regular meeting, may have 
an address or a little playlet that will not involve finan- 
cial expenditure, but will be a valued part of the nation- 
wide tribute. 

In 1932 our Government will issue special George 
Washington coins and postage stamps. The mint will 
stamp a special medal to be awarded by the United 
States George Washington Bicentennial Commission as 
prizes in oratorical and essay contests in schools and col- 
leges. We are preparing plays, pageants, motion pic- 



16 



George Washington Bicentennial Addresses 



of George Washington's life, radio addresses, 
. s, booklets and similar material in large quantities 
which arc given away tree to the people of the United 
States so that every group of American patriots may 
take active part in these honors to the Father of Our 
Country. 

The response of the American people to these efforts 
we are making is indeed wonderful. Every one of our 
forty-eight States and our Territories has appointed 
State and Territorial Commissions to organize the cele- 
bration within its boundaries. 

All of these people are enthusiastically behind the ef- 
forts of the United States George Washington Bicenten- 
nial Commission, to make the coming celebration the 
greatest tribute ever paid a human being in the history 
of the world. 



Next year an entire nation of 123,000,000 people 
will rise to a new patriotism and a new unity of devo- 
tion to country, as we review the labors of George 
Washington in founding our country and presenting to 
the world a new model of freedom and opportunity in 
the enjoyment of life. 

I ask every American farmer especially, to join in 
this mighty tribute to another American farmer who 
knew from his own experience every trial and yet every 
satisfaction that comes to those patriots whom he him- 
self would honor the most — those who perform the 
great work of tilling the soil and feeding the nation. 
See that your homes, your churches, your schools, join 
with the millions of other Americans next year in this 
grand hymn of gratitude to the man to whom we owe 
nearly all we have and enjoy, in this greatest nation that 
the world has known. 



Fort Necessity 



Address Delivered at Fort Necessity, Pennsylvania, and Broad- 
cast Nationally Through Station KDKA, Pittsburgh, Pa., 
September 29, 1931 



We are here to break ground for a national monu- 
ment long neglected; to perform a duty long overdue. 

It pleases me to think that the motive leading us now 
to the building of this monument comes from the ap- 
proaching world-wide celebration next year of the Two 
Hundredth Anniversary of the Birth of George Wash- 
ington, an enterprise which I have had the honor to ad- 
vance as Director of the United States Commission 
created by Congress for that purpose. 

The entire nation is aroused to a feeling that the 
coming Anniversary will serve not only as a measure 
of George Washington's greatness, but as a measure of 
our progress as his countrymen. In that feeling we are 
turning to Washington with a new and burning inter- 
est m everything he did, and with a new sense of the 
great debt we owe him. 

So I can say with excellent reason that amid all we 

do in George Washington's honor next year, the dedi- 

of this monument at Fort Necessity will be one 

ol the most appropriate and outstanding tributes we 

cm pa) him. 

I or here, on this sacred soil, once reddened with pa- 
triot blood, George Washington began his labors in our 
behalf. We, oi the United States of today, who stand 
represent the results of what he here began. 

In tins place George Washington opened the eyes of 
the world to North America, and stirred two great na- 
tions to possess it. 

Here he Inst inspired the Colonies to possess it for 
themselves. 

Where we now stand a boy of 22 changed the map 
ol the world and altered th< >urse of history. 

All our own struggles for freedom, for the right to 
gO our own wav, came 20 year But to this point 



we may trace all those threads of influence that culmi- 
nated in the War of the Revolution. 

Here, in reality, began the United States of America. 
And here, in a forge of fire, was welded the courage and 
the character of a man who chiefly made us what we 
are. 

If ever a few acres of American soil deserve to be 
marked out forever, it is this site of young George Wash- 
ington's "Fort Necessity." 

With all my heart I congratulate the people of this 
community, of this State, and of the nation, in liberally 
contributing to this splendid enterprise. You have al- 
lowed no discouragement to stand in your way. Next 
year we shall dedicate the fruits of your patriotic self- 
sacrifice, in your gift of this monument to the nation. 

But we are here for a purpose beyond ourselves. It 
is our privilege on this occasion to rewrite American 
history, as George Washington himself wrote it here, 
in deeds of blazing valor. 

For years historians have regarded Washington's fight 
at Fort Necessity as a defeat. Washington himself was 
unaware, at the time, of the real significance of what he 
had done, and wrote to his brother that he was "soundly 
beaten." 

Now the events that then confused him have cleared. 
Not only that, we have found long-buried contem- 
porary records, which I am here giving to the country 
perhaps for the first time. 

I am straining no terms of language, I am twisting no 
facts of history, in pronouncing this fight at Fort Ne- 
cessity not only a great moral victory for George Wash- 
ington, but a potential military success. 

To understand what he did, let us take ourselves back 
177 years. Let us stand here at George Washington's 



George Washington Bicentennial Addresses 



117 



side, facing the tremendous odds that we now know he 
defied. 

It is 1754. Pioneering American settlers have pene- 
trated this region, and so have wakened England and 
France to what this great wilderness is worth. Now 
both these nations are reaching for the prize. The 
French are driving our settlers out and fencing the re- 
gion off with a line of forts from Quebec to New 
Orleans. 

Virginia's Governor intends to stop this, and the year 
before sent George Washington, a youth of 21 and al- 
most alone, to warn the French out of this, our terri- 
tory. It is a miracle for him to come out of the wilder- 
ness alive, but he brings back word that the French are 
determined to stick. 

It alarms the Colonies. Some of them act at once. 
Virginia sends Capt. Trent to build a fort of her own 
at the forks of the Ohio. Ample forces are to back 
him up. 

George Washington, now a lieutenant-colonel and 
second in command, heads the vanguard of a few hun- 
dred men. He is ordered to stick to defence, but fight 
if he must. Soon his superior officer dies of an accident, 
and Washington is in sole command of the expedition 
— at 22, the age of a West Point cadet. 

Early in April he strikes across the Maryland line and 
over the mountains, cutting his road as he goes — for the 
supporting artillery that never arrives. Reinforcements 
of more than 1,000 men are promised him and only a 
handful ever reach him. 

It takes him two months to get a little beyond this 
place. His food runs short. The only plentiful thing 
is alarming news. 

He learns that the little Virginia fort at the forks of 
the Ohio has been taken by the French. The meaning 
of that is war — with George Washington a boy never 
before in battle, sixty miles from his base of supplies, 
in a wilderness crowded with enemies, while his provi- 
sions vanish, his men tire, and no adequate reinforce- 
ments appear. Only the French receive substantial re- 
inforcements. 

Against such odds, retreat would not have been a dis- 
grace. Washington chose to fight it out. 

It may be that the amazing sense of clear judgment 
he possessed compelled him to stand. Retreat would 
have meant the loss of his Indian allies and perhaps the 
desertion of his men. But I think that what settled the 
matter was the Washington spirit. Again he was there 
on a definite errand, and it was the Washington habit 
to do what he set out to do. 

He wrote to his Governor, "I doubt not if you hear 
I am beaten, but you will at the same time hear that we 
have done our duty in fighting as long as there was a 
possiblity of hope." 

Those words alone justify this monument here. 

He heard of a scouting party of French beyond the 
Great Meadows and attacked it, killing several including 
the commander, Jumonville, and taking the rest prison- 
ers except one who escaped to tell the tale. Returning 
to the Meadows he began the erection of a rough forti- 
fication with a palisade which later he named Fort 



Necessity. This he completes on June 1, and having by 
reinforcements increased his command to 400 advanced 
again, meeting almost insuperable difficulties, and fail- 
ing to receive necessary supplies. When it became 
known that a superior French force was advancing 
against him a retirement was decided upon. When 
Fort Necessity was reached a halt became necessary and 
here the French and Indian force overtook him. This 
force has generally been stated to have been about 900, 
more than double Washington's, and it may have been 
considerably larger. 

Military engineers of today have criticized Washing- 
ton for planting his fort here in the open, surrounded by 
woods on higher ground. 

He knew his business. He knew French and Indians 
fought from behind trees. He knew the range of their 
muskets. He planted himself where his enemies, in or- 
der to hit him must leave their shelter and be hit them- 
selves. 

Precisely this happened. But only now do we learn 
the full facts, from accounts at the time, some of them 
supplied by Washington himself, as published in a re- 
mote Colonial newspaper, and buried from sight until 
now. 

On July 3, at 11 o'clock in the morning, one of Wash- 
ington's sentinels opened fire. It is reported that he 
killed three Frenchmen before hurrying to the fort. 
The action was on. 

Washington drew up his forces before the trenches, 
ready to die to the last man, but alert not to be fooled. 

At first the enemy kept at long range, hoping to draw 
Washington's fire. It must have amazed the young 
colonel not to be charged by an enemy of such strength. 
Finally he ordered his men behind the trenches to shoot 
it out, wherever an enemy left his shelter. 

For nine hours of a rainy day, until 8 o'clock at night, 
his men did shoot, and only now do we know that every 
man in his command accounted for one of the foe. This 
old newspaper tells us that 300 French and Indians were 
killed, and large numbers were wounded, although the 
French acknowledged a much smaller loss. 

That is why Washington was further amazed when 
the French twice called him to parley. Twice he de- 
clined, suspecting a trick. Twice he declined the terms 
presented him and compelled a change. Finally, at mid- 
night, in a driving rain, he did agree to terms that he 
largely shaped himself. 

Washington lost some 30 men killed and 70 wounded, 
but, again the old newspaper tells us, all that night and 
part of the next day his enemies were secretly burying 
their dead and removing their wounded. 

In the morning they marched awav to the west with 
all their remaining numbers, while George Washington 
and his little band trooped east, their drums beating, 
their flags flying. He had stood off more than twice his 
number and sent them away, glad to be gone. 

Can that be called a defeat? 

The immediate consequence of the fight that happened 
where we stand was to make young Colonel Washing- 
ton a man discussed all over Europe. The ultimate con- 
sequences of what he did here were the retirement of 






George Washington Bicentennial Addresses 



the French, our War for Independence, and the creation 
of the United States. 

C .m that be called a defeat? 

Do we not rather see the hand of Destiny asserting 
itself even thus early in the life of the nation, in the fact 
that George Washington marched his men proudly away 
from this Fort on a date later to become more memo- 
rable still— the 4th of July? 

Did 1 s.n the hand of Destiny? It was the hand of 
Almighty God. For never in my heart have I been 
more convinced of an intervening Providence in the af- 
fairs of men, than the conviction which has come to me 
through a study of the life of George Washington. 

From boyhood, until he passed beyond this life, 
George Washington was an instrument chosen by the 
Ruler of us all for a career which shaped the history of 
the world. 

Through all his trials, perils, sufferings and sacrifices, 
he was upheld by that strong consecration to duty which 
comes only to those chosen of God. In my heart 
1 know that the unseen hand of Divine Providence 
itself guided the career of this most useful of mortals, 
and in paying tribute to the life and character of 
George Washington we acknowledge the source of his 
greatness and of his power. 

George Washington never met defeat. His was a 
triumphant and successful career, always. What we 
may term defeats were mere incidents in a chain of sub- 
lime achievements. 

It is high time we took this battle of Great Meadows 
out of the shadows of defeat and placed it in the glori- 
ous light of triumph and military success. 

In raising this monument, we are commemorating 
more than the glory of arms. We are for the first time 



truly interpreting the genius of a man and the genius 
of a people. 

It is twice hallowed soil where we stand. George 
Washington thought so much of these consecrated acres 
that fifteen years after the battle he bought Great Mead- 
ows and kept it until his death. 

Next year, on this historic ground, we shall dedicate 
a monument of stone. Around it, throughout the land 
and throughout the year, we shall raise a still greater 
monument — the monument of a nation's gratitude, felt 
in a nation's heart. 

Yet even this is not all we shall have built in George 
Washington's memory. The greatest of all memorials 
to George Washington is spoken of by a forgotten biog- 
rapher, in words that I wish to repeat: 

"There is a greater Washington monument, still un- 
finished but appropriate and significant in all its parts. 
It covers an area bounded by the lakes and the gulf, the 
Atlantic and the Pacific. Its final completion may be de- 
layed for centuries, but the quantity of treasure lavished 
upon it, and the number of workmen employed, in- 
creases from year to year; for expense is no object while 
the country is persuaded that it is perfecting a monu- 
ment to Washington after Washington's own plans — 
the United States of America." 

So, we the People, are the real memorial to George 
Washington. Let us see, next year and forever, that we 
worthily wear his name engraved upon our hearts. Let 
us truly live according to his precept and example, that 
the glory of our country may never be dimmed, that our 
flag may never be dishonored, and that a free, enlight- 
ened and happy people may rightfully claim kinship 
with the immortal George Washington. 



George Washington, the Builder 

Address Delivered at the Meeting of the National Rivers and Harbors Congress, 
Willard Hotel, Washington, D. C, 
December 8, 1931 



You have honored me with an invitation to tell you 
oi the celebration that we of the United States George 
ington Bicentennial Commission have prepared for 
America's commemoration in 1932 of the Two Hun- 
dredth Anniversary of the Birth of George Washington. 
I am going to respond by telling you how we are go- 
ing to celebrate, hut first of all why we celebrate. And 
1 am going to begin with the reasons why the great 
ion next \ear is of special interest and importance 
i members of the National Rivers and Harbors 

I TCSS. 

For George Washington belonged to your organiza- 
tion a hundred and fifty years before it was formed, 
ami when u consisted <>l one member. That member 
was George Washington himself. 

What I mean l>\ that is, that George Washington was 
tin- Inst man in America to see the immense importance 

ot transportation. And he set up a drive for improved 
communication that he kept up with all his energy until 
he died. 



George Washington saw the importance of transpor- 
tation in two lights — the commercial aspect, and the 
political. He knew that if the scattered elements of this 
country were to grow commercially, they needed trans- 
portation facilities for the exchange of their goods. He 
knew that if they were to form a political Union, they 
needed transportation facilities to bind their interests 
together. 

No man saw this as clearly as George Washington 
saw it. No other man had traveled over the country so 
extensively as he had. No man of the time so thor- 
oughly knew and understood the American people and 
their needs. No man so fully realized that without 
proper means of transportation, the country would fall 
apart. And no other man had the everlasting energy 
to get behind such a movement and put it through. 

George Washington had seen all this from his early 
youth. As soon as he was able to realize anything, he 
realized the importance of transportation, and the 



George Washington Bicentennial Addresses 



119 



longer he lived the more vigorously he strove for its 
extension and improvement. 

He was not only a strong advocate, he was an organ- 
izer. He not only wrote about developing transporta- 
tion in order to interest other people, but helped to form 
companies to carry out his ideas. It became one of the 
great interests and efforts of his life. 

I am safe in saying that after the winning of the 
Revolution, and after the founding of the United 
States Government, the creation of better roads and 
waterways was the third major interest in the life of 
George Washington. 

In the reverence we all feel toward George Washing- 
ton, we are naturally inclined to render him the fullest 
possible credit for all his endless labors in the building 
of our nation; but there is no disputing the fact that 
water and land transportation, as we know it today and 
are destined to know it in the future, owes everything 
that it is and will be to the vision and the labors of 
George Washington. That great credit does belong to 
him. And let us render it to him in full. 

This is the thought I want to develop this evening. 
And when I speak of George Washington's hand in the 
development of American transportation, I mean the 
three forms of it which you include in the three-circled 
emblem of your organization — River, Road and Rail. 
All three of them, singly and together, derive straight 
from the thought and the effort of George Washing- 
ton — as I think you will agree, when I have sketched in 
the picture. 

By the time George Washington was 19 years of age 
he was occupied with big problems. He was concerned 
with big business of the day. He was surveying for one 
of the biggest landowners of the times, and he was in 
the confidence of a brother who was interested in the 
Ohio Company, an organization formed to develop the 
Great West. 

At the age of 21, George Washington saw this great 
new open country for himself, and had good reason for 
seeing it. His Governor had sent him on an important 
errand — to demand that the French troops withdraw 
from the Ohio territory. 

When he was 22, Virginia and the Ohio Company 
were through with merely telling the French to get out. 
They sent out armed forces to drive the French out of 
what was then the Great West, and George Washington 
was at the head of the troops. 

The next year the British sent Braddock to oust the 
French. In the end the French got out. But the im- 
portant thing is that George Washington saw two big 
things that stuck in his mind for the rest of his life. 

He saw the enormous riches of Western America, as 
it was then, and he saw the enormous importance of 
tapping those riches by means of roads or other means 
of transportation. And he never forgot what he then 
had learned. 

He had seen Braddock defeated mainly by having to 
lag and delay while he built a road for his army. 

So the lesson of roads, roads, roads, was branded on 
George Washington's brain while he was still a young 
man. 



From that time on he became the greatest traveler of 
his time. And wherever he went, the lesson of roads 
was always present. His Diaries are full of his com- 
plaints at the terrible condition of the roads. 

When he married and settled at Mount Vernon, and 
became a farmer, the question of transportation was 
more than ever brought to his mind, because he had 
goods of his own to transport. He used the river that 
flowed past his farms, and here the importance of water- 
way transportation took a firm grip on his mind. 

As early as 1754, he had seen the advantages of water 
transportation. Now that he was settled at Mount 
Vernon, he had time to think and do something about it. 

Before the Revolution broke out, he was busy with a 
project to improve the navigation of the Potomac, with 
an astounding idea for that time — the linking of the 
Potomac with the Ohio River by means of a portage by 
land across the mountains of Pennsylvania. 

The Revolutionary War put a stop to this for a time. 
But the War itself only impressed deeper on George 
Washington's mind the conviction that the country 
must be united, if it was to last, and that the great need 
for this was better communication. 

In 1783, while the Revolution was still on, he paid his 
historic visit to northern New York. His outward pur- 
pose was to inspect the army posts, as Commander in 
Chief. In reality he wanted to inspect the proposed 
route of the Erie Canal, that possible rival of the water- 
way he long before had planned from the Potomac to 
the Ohio. 

Soon after the Revolution, he set out from Mount 
Vernon to find the best possible route to tap the rich 
Ohio Valley. 

In a word, he became a Rivers and Harbors Congress 
all by himself. 

Throughout his busy life he remained just that. And 
as I have already said, he not merely advocated better 
means of transportation, he everlastingly worked to that 
end, being the intensely practical man that he was. And 
it goes without saying that the country has never seen 
a greater man at the business. With his complete dis- 
interestedness and his high reputation, he probably ac- 
complished more in this way to wake up the country 
than by the company he formed or the daring engineer- 
ing works he started, in building canals and deepening 
rivers. 

In 1784, when he got back from this newest trip to 
the West, he wrote first of all to Governor Benjamin 
Harrison, of Virginia, urging immediate appointment 
of commissioners to get busy and survey every mile of 
the Potomac and the James, from tidewater to their 
sources, together with every stream tributary to the 
Ohio, with the ultimate aim of adding the Great Lakes 
to his scheme of transportation, and Detroit as a great 
port and outpost of trade. 

For the time this was a gigantic scheme of public im- 
provement, but its vastness only encouraged Washing- 
ton to labor the harder for it. He appeared before com- 
mittees of the Virginia and Maryland legislatures. He 
used his great influence and wrote voluminous letters to 
other influential men. He even looked into Rumsey's 
contraption that preceded the steamboat. 






George Washington Bicentennial Addresses 



his water rou 

ridges of Perms} Lvania 



And he got things going. The Potomac Company 
came into being, largely because of his efforts, and he in- 
vested si (M)00 in its stock and served as its president. 
This project was the construction of the locks and the 
stretch n\ canal at Great Falls, on the Potomac, to link 
te from the sea to the Lakes, over the 
lvania. The wonderful locks of this 
construction still remain to us. 

So, it the story of George Washington's work for 
transportation is a story of struggle, it is also a story of 
magnificent accomplishment. It was a struggle against 
indifference, against opposition, against financial handi- 
caps, against the obstacles of Nature itself. 

But there is not the shadow of a doubt that the trans- 
portation system of America today— by river, by road, 
and even by rail— has grown from the vision, the plan- 
um-, and the driving energy of George Washington. 

He never lived to see more than the beginnings of 
what he had achieved. But two years after his death, 
the Potomac Company paid a 5 l / 2 percent dividend. In 
not main years longer the Chesapeake & Ohio Canal fol- 
lowed the line he laid down. And most astounding of 
all, in 1834 the Jauniata Canal in Pennsylvania was 
lmkcd with the West by a portage haul over the moun- 
tains at the very point that Washington had picked. 

It is all eloquent testimony to the fact that in the 

power to see and plan on the grand continental scale, 

ge Washington was potentially one of the greatest 

of engineers, even though he was too busy at other great 

things to be an engineer in actual practice. 

It is true that Stephenson's locomotive and the rail- 
road came after Washington's death. But another elo- 
quent fact remains — that the first practical railroad, 
the Baltimore & Ohio, ran its line beside the water route 
to the West laid down not long before by George Wash- 
ington. He it was who had pointed the way. 

And not much later the Pennsylvania Railroad 
crossed the Alleghenies beside the same portage route 
that Washington was the first to indicate. 

All this George Washington achieved without thought 
of personal gain, except as he was entitled to benefit as 
an investor in the enterprise he had founded. Yet, had 
he been -rasping and selfish, he might have made him- 
self enormously rich. As a result of his development 
ot transportation, George Washington's coal lands in 
Pennsylvania later brought 20 millions of dollars. 

1 le did it all for his country. Behind all of George 
Wash in- ton's mighty efforts to give the country its 
needed transportation, was the political vision of the 
great statesman. 

All through his life, Washington had seen the need of 
i, it the country was to survive. We know the 
part he played in bringing about that political Union. 
We I. now his constant iv.w of its breaking apart. All 
through Ins two administrations as President, George 
Washington was troubled with the spectre of dis-union. 
I he great I arewell Address is tinged with this fore- 
boding. 

I his u.is tin- other reason, the political reason, why he 

toiled so hard to see the I asi and the West, the North 
and the South, bonded together in ties that began in 
commercial ge and ended in political solidarity. 



We know, now, how well he succeeded. We are 
assembled here in the city that he himself founded, and 
that he placed on this particular spot as a part of his 
dream of transportation. 

He wanted the very capital of government to stand 
at the head of tide-water and at the beginning of his 
vast vision of a water route to the West, so that it might 
grow from the growth of the whole country. 

So there is abundant reason why this meeting of the 
Rivers and Harbors Congress should turn its mind to 
thoughts of George Washington, the first and the great- 
est advocate and promoter of America's transportation. 

It is why the members of this organization, and why 
every American concerned for the growth and welfare 
of his country, should have a personal interest and an 
active part in the honors we are to pay to this man to 
whose greatness we owe whatever is great in ourselves 
and our country. 

I have told you some of the reasons xvhy you and all 
America should honor the memory of George Washing- 
ton. Let me tell you now something of how we expect 
the nation to do so, as planned by the United States 
George Washington Bicentennial Commission. 

Seven years ago, in 1924, Congress took a long look 
ahead and saw the importance in our national history of 
the Two Hundredth Anniversary of the Birth of George 
Washington in 1932. It saw the necessity of planning 
for a fit commemoration of such an event, and accord- 
ingly passed a joint resolution creating the United States 
George Washington Bicentennial Commission. 

It was understood from the beginning that the 
American people would need no urging in the matter 
of celebrating the two hundredth birthday of the 
greatest American. The purpose of the United States 
George Washington Bicentennial Commission was but 
to guide and harmonize this national impulse. 

As Associate Director of this Commission, I can safely 
say that we have fulfilled this purpose. With the open- 
ing of the celebration now less than three months 
away, it begins to be clear that next year the Ameri- 
can people will rise in the greatest tribute ever 
accorded any man in all history. I believe I can say, 
further, that these honors will be of the kind that 
George Washington himself would approve. 

From the beginning we planned no world's fair, no 
great exposition, no show of our material progress. We 
had in mind no one central celebration, or group of 
such celebrations, to which the people would be invited 
to come. 

We planned instead to carry the celebration to the 
people themselves. Better than that, we planned to let 
the people themselves do all the celebrating. And that 
is what they are going to do, in every state, city, and 
town in the nation, in every country abroad, all over 
America and all over the world. 

Furthermore, this celebration which the people are 
to undertake is to be held where George Washington 
would wish them to hold it — in their schools and 
churches, in their homes, in the hearts of a grateful 
people. From beginning to end, it is to be an outpour- 
ing of the spirit, and not a material show. 



George Washington Bicentennial Addresses 



121 



Our people have been left to shape in whatever form 
and manner they please this tribute they are ready to 
pay to the Father of Our Country. We of the Commis- 
sion have striven, only, to aid, to suggest, to inform the 
people, and to offer them plans and programs. 

This we have done, and faithfully done. Our first 
duty to the people was to bring before them George 
Washington and his history in true human form. To 
carry out the desire of Congress "that future genera- 
tions of Americans may live according to the example 
and precepts of his exalted life and character and thus 
perpetuate the American Republic." 

In order to perform this most important service, the 
United States George Washington Bicentennial Com- 
mission engaged the services of eminent historians who 
have searched the whole record of Washington's life, 
from the cradle to the grave. Their findings have been 
put into brief and readable form, and offered to the 
people of America in pamphlets, programs and news- 
paper releases. 

In November, the month just closed, more than 
20,000 of these sharp and accurate pen-pictures of the 
real George Washington were published by the news- 
papers of America. 

It has been called "an entire nation sitting in on the 
greatest history lesson ever taught." 

But this widespread publication and reading of 
George Washington's story means far more than that. 
It is living proof of the tremendous hold that George 
Washington still has, and will ever have, on the hearts 
and minds of the American people. 

It means that the people of this country are never 
tired of hearing of George Washington. It means that 
they want to draw close to him and understand him. 
It means that they are glad to discover, at last, that 
George Washington was not a cold and aloof man, but 
a human being like themselves. Our people want to 
love George Washington, and this is what we have 
enabled them to do, with these intimate, touching 
glimpses into his warm heart, his busy mind, and his 
kindly character. 

Our whole people are going to turn back to George 
Washington in 1932 in a new understanding, in a new 
dedication to the principles he laid down, in a new 
patriotism patterned after his, in a new willingness to 
think of country before the serving of self. 

It is in such a spirit that we are going to stage the 
greatest celebration ever held in the history of civiliza- 
tion. During the year and a half that the United States 
George Washington Bicentennial Commission has been 
actively at work in organizing this demonstration, I 
have sat in awe as I watched this spirit grow among our 
people, until it has become a great national movement. 
Next year, I predict, the people of America will rally 
behind George Washington's memory as our fore- 
fathers rallied about him in the flesh. I predict that 
George Washington's spirit will rise and summon this 
country out of its trials into new triumphs of achieve- 
ment, precisely as he did when he carried the Revolu- 
tion to victory, directed the writing of our Constitu- 
tion, and launched the new Government on its way to 
greatness. This is something of the national impulse 



that is destined to express itself when we open this cele- 
bration next year. 

Just as we planned to hold no one central celebration, 
in the city of Washington or anywhere else, so we are 
planning not to confine the celebration to any one day. 
It will begin on Washington's Birthday, and it will end 
only on Thanksgiving Day in 1932. And every inter- 
vening local and national holiday will everywhere be 
marked by ceremonies linking that day with the memory 
of George Washington. What he did for our Country 
has its part in them all — Patriots' Day, Constitution 
Day, and every other day of local or national signifi- 
cance. 

Congress laid upon the United States George Wash- 
ington Bicentennial Commission the duty of engaging 
the cooperation of the States, in this undertaking. This 
we have done, so that every State now has a cooperating 
Bicentennial Commission, to transmit to its people the 
thrill of energy and purpose flowing from the United 
States Commission as the central clearing-house and 
power-house of all. 

I cannot begin to tell you of all the suggestions and 
helpful plans that have flowed out in every direction 
from the United States Bicentennial Commission. It is 
hard to give you even a comprehensive outline. 

But we began with the youngest generation — the 
children in the kindergarten and the grade schools. We 
prepared for them new accounts of George Washington 
to stir their interest, warm their hearts, and quicken 
their patriotism. We have sent to each classroom of 
America a large size portrait of George Washington. 
We have carried the same effort up through the col- 
leges, with complete courses of study in the life and 
achievements of George Washington. 

We have arranged oratorical, essay and declamatory 
contests on the subject of George Washington's life. 
We have had designed for use a special medal by a noted 
artist to be struck off at the United States Mint-, as an 
award to the best pupils and students in these contests. 

In order to give the people an opportunity to par- 
ticipate actively in the coming celebration, we have had 
specialists prepare a large and varied number of plays 
and pageants picturing Washington's time — all for free 
distribution to any responsible group. Nothing, we 
thought, would give our people such pleasure, or serve 
to bring back more vividly the very scenes and inci- 
dents of his life. These have been eagerly sought, from 
every locality, so that in 1932 the country will be alive 
with pageantry, brightened by the colors of Colonial 
uniform and costume, and enlivened by the very music 
George Washington loved to hear. 

Our Post Office will issue twelve commemorative 
postage stamps of the occasion. Our Treasury Depart- 
ment will issue a special George Washington quarter 
dollar to supplant the regular coin in 1932. 

These are but a few features. The year 1932 will 
belong to George Washington. The country will be- 
long to him. Our hearts will belong to him. For nine 
months, 123 millions of people will pour out their praise 
and gratitude to God for His gift to us and to the world 
of George Washington, one of the greatest and noblest 
characters that our Divine Ruler ever created. 



Hall Clock of Mary Ball Washing- 
ton, Mother of George Washington, 
Preserved at Kenmore, the Home of 
Her Daughter, Betty Lewis, in 
Fredericksburg, Virginia. 



Tin Homi Ol Mary Ball Washington, Mother of 
George Washington, in Fredericksburg, Virginia, 
Preserved as a Shrine. The House was Bought by 
Geoiu.i Washington for His Mother and Here She 
Lived I ROM Bi i ore the Revolution Until Her Death, 
August 2 5, 1789. Her Bedroom in Which She Died 
wi> Win re She Saw Her Illustrious Son for the Last 
Time, Is the Corner Room with the Closed Shutters. 





122 



George Washington Bicentennial Addresses 



123 



At the Home of 



Address Delivered at the Mary Ball Washington Home, Fredericksburg, Va. 

Broadcast by the National Broadcasting Company, 

January 1, 1932 



I am speaking to the people of the United States from 
a shrine made sacred by its immortal memories. 

I am in the home of Mary Ball Washington, mother 
of George Washington, in historic Fredericksburg, Vir- 
ginia. Beside me is an object of special reverence. It 
is the most precious timepiece in all America. This 
beautiful "grandfather" clock belonged to Mary Wash- 
ington and solemnly tolled the passing hours when 
George and his mother met here in that exalted com- 
munion of mother and son. 

In a few minutes this clock of artistic design and fully 
eight feet tall, will strike for the mothers and sons of 
our country the twelve strokes that will mark the first 
high noon of 1932, the two hundredth anniversary year 
of George Washington's birth. 

You will hear over the infinite spaces of the air the 
resonant tones of the very clock that voiced the hour 
when our greatest American opened his eyes to a waiting 
world. Those first sweet notes of an historic hour will 
re-echo through the universe. They will never die away 
but will continue on and on until the end of recorded 
time. The impulses of those vibrations surround us to- 
day, after two hundred years, and will exert their in- 
visible influences upon us as long as America lives. 

When this clock strikes again it will be the voice of 
history and Destiny itself, calling us back to our own. 

I know of no more significant expression of this sol- 
emn hour. And surely there could be no more appro- 
priate setting where this reverential act could be staged, 
than in this bed-room, with the hush of the years upon 
it, yet vibrant with the echoes of the past. 

They crowd upon me — those sweet voices of the dead. 
I am oppressed and confused by the voices so long silent, 
that strive to speak again. For every article in this low- 
ceilinged room bears witness to those touching and dra- 
matic scenes that were enacted here. 

I face the colonial fireplace where comfort glowed 
and which symbolizes the beautiful provision the duti- 
ful George Washington made for his aged and ailing 
mother. By its side is the low chair where she sat those 
many, and oft-times lonely hours, thinking of her boy, 
leading his tattered troops in war. Can we not read in 
these contemplations the anxiety, the fears, the love and 
the prayers of that mother who gave to humanity so 
great a son and who sent him forth with noble self- 
sacrifice to serve his fellow men? 

Here by this window I look out upon scenes perhaps 
little changed from that day when Mary waited for her 
son's return. 

Out through the garden door I see the Colonial 
kitchen with its utensils for domestic concerns much 
as they were when Mary, with her own hands, prepared 



her boy's favorite cakes. Beyond, through the serene 
beds of old Virginia flowers I see the box-bordered walks 
that led to beautiful Kenmore, the mansion home of 
George's sister, Betty, who kept careful watch upon her 
mother's comfort when he was far away. 

And shortly before the outbreak of the Revolution, 
he bought for his mother this modest house, among her 
friends in Fredericksburg, amid the scenes and the peo- 
ple she loved. Here, in this quaint old house in which I 
speak, he placed her to live out her days in peace. 

So our return to this house is sanctified by some of 
the most beautiful memories of American history. The 
walls of this house are witness to the most sacred hours 
in George Washington's life, the hours when he was at 
his greatest and best — the hours when he came back 
from war and chambers of State, from stress and tur- 
moil of public life to seek counsel at the knees of his 
adored mother. This same clock which you will hear 
measured those precious hours. 

When the notes come to you the memory of these 
scenes in George Washington's life cannot fail to inspire 
in each heart an exalted feeling of gratitude and love for 
the mother and the son. 

Hardly had George Washington grown to manhood 
before his countrymen realized his qualities of leadership 
and gave him important duties and responsibilities, 
greater perhaps than were ever placed upon the shoul- 
ders of mortal man. 

I know that the women of America in whose breasts 
beat the universal heart of motherhood, can realize how 
Mary Washington longed for her boy. Mothers of 
America who have lost sons in battle know with what 
trembling, with what prayerful anxiety, Mary Washing- 
ton sat here waiting for his home-coming. I know that 
the mothers of Americans everywhere join with me in 
the conviction that those prayers which were uttered 
here in this room to the God of infinite mercy, had their 
answer then as they have now. 

Those prayers gave George Washington to the world. 
They saved him in time of peril and they have preserved 
his spirit which surrounds us all at this moment. Here 
in this house where he placed her to live in comfort, he 
always returned as often as he could. 

He came to see her in sickness and in health. He came 
to ask as to her comfort. Even when mountainous cares 
of state came to burden George Washington's mind, and 
crowded his life with labor, he always found time for a 
visit to his mother. May we not think with truth that 
this great man returned here for that spiritual guidance 
that so influenced his eventful career. May we not feel 
that he came here because at his mother's knee he felt 
closer to God. 



124 



George Washington Bicentennial Addresses 



George Washington resembled his mother in many 
ways. Mary Washington gave more than a great son 
to the world — she gave herself. 

Something of George Washington, the boy, lived on 
in George Washington, the man. He never went away 
on an errand of great importance without first visiting 
his mother to receive her blessing. 

And for the unselfish sacrifice of Mary Washington 
God rewarded her as no other American mother has ever 
been row aided. She saw her son grow tall and strong 
and she saw him raised to greatness that no other man of 
our country has ever surpassed. She saw him acclaimed 
by all the world, adored by his fellow men. And yet to 
her he was always the son, the boy — her George. 

At last it was permitted Mary Washington to greet 
her son at the end of his physical danger. For here he 
came after Yorktown. He had won the war of the 
Revolution. He had made America independent. He 
had made these United States of ours forever free. He 
stood at the pinnacle of his greatness — a colossal figure 
in the world. 

Possibly he had seen her when he and Rochambeau 
passed through Fredericksburg on their way to com- 
mand at the great siege now so propitiously terminated; 
but there is a tradition that she had gone beyond the 
Blue Ridge at the time of Cornwallis's foray and not 
yet returned. After the siege he had hastened to 
1 It ham to stand at the death bed of his beloved stepson, 
John Parke Custis; and the sad duties of that disaster 
attended to, he was again on the road for Philadelphia 
h\ way of Fredericksburg and Mount Vernon, accom- 
panied probably only by his military family and escort. 

Yet when he came to Fredericksburg, crowned with 
the laurels of success, his mind, I am sure, went back to 
the days when he was a little boy and he and his mother 
were impoverished and obscure. He came here to this 
house, not with the pomp and glory of the mighty 
warrior; not as a hero of a grateful people, but as the 
son. He came alone, on foot. 

He had discarded the trappings of command. He was 
the son. Here at this window through which I am now 



looking sat the mother, waiting as she had done so many 
times before, for those familiar footsteps. 

Here in this room where I am now standing, with this 
clock ticking away their all-too-brief time together, 
they met again. Upon that meeting the veil of time has 
closed, as too sacred a thing for other eyes to witness. 

He came again in February, 1784, under even more 
auspicious circumstances, for America was at peace at 
last, recognized by the parent country as an independent 
nation. He came, as he wrote General Knox, "to pay 
my duty to an aged mother." But Fredericksburg 
turned the visit into a celebration, and there was an 
address and reply, a public dinner, and a grand ball — 
Fredericksburg's Peace Ball. 

When George Washington saw his mother for the last 
time it was in this room and he was still a greater man, 
for the people of the United States had demanded with 
one voice that he be their First President. 

Yet he could not assume this office given him with 
such overwhelming public trust, without first coming 
here to Fredericksburg, to this little house to receive the 
blessing of his now fast-failing mother. It was probably 
the sweetest re-union of their lives and it was God's will 
that this meeting should be their last. 

Mary Washington knew it. A wasting disease was 
eating her life away. In vain her great son tried to put 
away her fears and looked forward to seeing her again 
and again. Mary Washington stilled him with this im- 
mortal blessing: "You will see me no more; my great 
age and disease warn me that I shall not be long for this 
world: I trust in God that I may be somewhat prepared 
for a better. But go, George, fulfill the high destinies 
which Heaven appears to have intended for you; go, 
my son, and may Heaven's and a mother's blessing be 
with you always." 

These words were only too true. It was not long 
after this scene that Mary Washington died to the tick- 
ing of this old clock. 

The whispering voices still crowd upon me. The 
solemnity of this scene chokes my voice. I can only bow 
my head in reverence and ask my countrymen every- 
where to join in tribute to the memory of the great 
mother and the immortal son. 



George Washington Bicentennial Addresses 



125 



To the People of Somerville, Mass< 

Address Broadcast from Washington, D. C, 

to somerville, massachusetts 

January 1, 1932 



I congratulate the Mayor of Somerville, its George 
Washington Bicentennial Committee and all its people 
for the enthusiasm, the patriotism and the unselfish en- 
deavor they have thrown into their preparations for 
joining the whole United States this year when 
America and the world celebrate the Two Hundredth 
Anniversary of the Birth of George Washington. 

As you know, Congress created the United States 
George Washington Bicentennial Commission, of which 
I am the Director, for the express purpose of linking 
together such activities as yours with those of every 
other city and town in our great country, so that 
all Americans may honor George Washington this year 
in one great chorus of reverence and gratitude. 

So it has been my pleasure to watch the growth of 
your plans from the beginning, and I want to say to 
you now that the people of Somerville, of Boston, and 
of all Massachusetts and through the East, have set an 
example to the entire country. 

Your section of the United States was honored by 
the very presence of George Washington at some of 
the most critical moments of our history. Now you 
have risen to return this honor by commemorating those 
historic occasions in ways that are beautiful in their ap- 
propriateness. 

The whole of the United States may well pause at 
this instant and listen to what you people of Somerville 
do and say today. For on the sacred soil which it is 
your privilege to occupy, occurred one of the most 
momentous, the most significant, and the most beautiful 
events in our national existence. 

That moment came when George Washington raised 
on Prospect Hill in Somerville the first flag representing 
the American people. 

It might be said that with that act, George Washing- 
ton first made us a nation, in giving his patriot coun- 
trymen their first rallying point as a united people. 

The flag he raised was soon to be made still more faith- 
fully representative of American ideals and American 
unity. But the banner that Washington first flung 
forth in the siege of Boston was the first emblem that 
informed England and the world that here was a people 
with determination to be free. 

You do well to commemorate a moment that lives in 
our history surrounded with a meaning so profound for 
us all. I hope the whole nation draws from your ex- 
ample the lesson we all must learn this year — the lesson 
of new thought for country, a new devotion to the 
great man who gave of himself so generously to build 
and make it secure. 

I congratulate you all for still another reason, it is be- 
cause your patriotism has been so eager and so prompt. 
You have not waited for this anniversary year to grow 



old before launching these honors to Washington. You 
have chosen the very first day of 1932. 

I see in that the sign of an enthusiasm that I believe 
fills the entire land. 

Throughout the two years that we of the United 
States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 
have been planning and preparing this Celebration, I 
have seen the great heart of America slowly swelling 
with this new love of our greatest and noblest man. 
And that love has shown itself in the most far off places. 
For wherever there are Americans, there also is love for 
George Washington, and this year it is going to come 
forth and express itself as never before. 

I predict to you, my good friends in Somerville, that 
all over the United States there is going to be found a 
new Americanism in 1932 that will rise to match your 
own. 

When schoolboys ask to be allowed to "appropriate" 
funds to our Commission, when bed-ridden preachers 
offer us all they have — their prayers — when lonely men 
in the Arctic Circle hang up George Washington's pic- 
ture as all they can contribute to this Celebration, you 
and I know that a tribute is coming from the rest of 
America. 

As if in answer to the common instinct, our people 
have realized that this year of 1932 is a mighty milestone 
in their history. We see in this year more than an anni- 
versary measuring two hundred years since George 
Washington's birth. We see in this year a measure- 
ment of our own progress and a test of our character 
as a people. 

We can not think of George Washington without 
thinking whether we have been true to George Wash- 
ington. We can riot think of what he did for us with- 
out asking ourselves how worthy we have been to re- 
ceive it. 

We can not think of his labors to found this nation 
without asking ourselves whether we have kept that 
nation safe. 

We can not remember the great precepts and teach- 
ings he left us, without asking how far we have carried 
them out. 

We can not admire the great example of his character 
without questioning how much we have been impressed 
by it. 

So this year we are going back to the feet of George 
Washington and ask him to teach us again. We are 
going to ask him to lead us once more in spirit, as he 
led his fellow countrymen in the flesh. 

This 200th year since Washington's birth is more than 
an anniversary; it is going to be a rallying point for 
these United States to unite in a new dedication to that 
giving of self to country which first made this nation, 
and is the one spirit which can keep it eternally secure. 



126 



George Washington Bicentennial Addresses 



I believe it is a feeling that this is the most important 
thing in life at this moment that moves these Americans 
everywhere to unite in this patriotic demonstration. I 
believe it is this feeling that has stirred the people in 
your community to be the first to open this year of 
Celebration. 1 believe the feeling possesses all America, 
and will lift it into the greatest tribute ever offered any 
mortal in history — the gratitude of an entire people, 
reverently offered to the man to whom they owe their 
all. 

And now 1 want to leave one last word of congratula- 
tion with the good citizens of Somerville and New Eng- 
land. It is because you have not allowed the passing 
cares .\nd perplexities of these times to deter you from 
this Celebration of George Washington. 

Nothing could be more appropriate, in fact, than that 
we should turn to George Washington in times like these. 
Who could better cheer us in present anxieties than the 



man who endured the winter of Valley Forge, who kept 
waiting during the long years of the Revolution for the 
victory at Yorktown that crowned all his efforts and 
justified all his courage. 

The historic truth is that our country was born amid 
trial, and doubt, and suffering. It is also historic truth 
that almost the one thing that brought the young na- 
tion through these trials triumphant was the will, the 
invincible determination of George Washington, and 
his utter refusal to think of defeat. 

Now these again are "the times that try men's souls," 
and it is one more reason for turning back, that we may 
learn again from George Washington, the lesson of his 
courage and his faith. 

Let us make this year we now enter a year-long re- 
solve, not merely to honor George Washington, but to 
be like him. If we succeed in that, then our country 
is safe. 



Address Over Columbia Broadcasting System From Pohick Church, Virginia, 

Sunday, February 21, 1932 



On a lovely, rolling hill characteristic of Northern 
Virginia, is one of the most beautiful and historic shrines 
associated with the life of George Washington. I am 
privileged today to stand within the ancient walls of 
Pohick Church, which is as intimately connected with 
the life of George Washington as Mount Vernon itself. 

Here in the reverential stillness of this sacred place I 
come as a humble pilgrim, and from this place I have 
been permitted to broadcast to the nation the thoughts 
and impressions that come to me. 

Virginia is unusually rich in its religious history. 
Dotted over its area are scores of historic churches dating 
back from the earliest Colonial days. Of all of these 
line mementoes of the time of the established church in 
the Old Dominion, this building is notable, and one of 
the outstanding landmarks which the hundreds of thou- 
sands of tourists who come to this State during the 
period of the Celebration of the Two Hundredth Anni- 
\ersary of the Birth of George Washington, should visit. 

We are told that the present Pohick Church is lo- 
cated on land selected and purchased by George Wash- 
ington in 1767, and is successor to the old Pohick 
< Inn eh, a frame building which stood on King's High- 
leading to Occoquan Ferry, a few miles south, 
which was built about 1690. It is not only a finely pre- 
served type ot Colonial brick edifice, but it has a his- 
tory, romantic and fascinating. Truro Parish was es- 
tablished m 1732, the year of George Washington's 
birth, and continued to use the old church until about 
1767, when it was decided to build a new one some 
distance from the old. 

The new Pohick Church was ready for occupancy 
by the ( ongregation in 1772. George Washington drew 
the plans lor this ehurch and as in other similar plans, 
nc wc "' "" detail, not only designating the pro- 



portions, the character and the material, but also the 
decorations and church furniture. We may be sure that 
he exercised a potent influence in these matters since he 
had himself purchased the land upon which Pohick 
Church is located. 

When it was proposed to erect this so-called new 
church, the argument over its location waxed strong, 
but Washington ended it by making a survey so com- 
plete that it indicated the exact distance which each of 
the parishioners had to travel as between the new and 
the old sites. In Washington's surveys this location was 
shown to be nearer and most convenient for the larger 
number of the church members. 

It must be recalled that George Washington was a 
vestryman of this parish at the time. As in all things 
with which he was concerned, George Washington took 
a deep and active interest in the building and the con- 
duct of this church from the time it was planned until 
his death. 

It must be recalled also that the position of vestryman 
of a parish in Virginia during the time of the established 
church was a position of considerable civic as well as re- 
ligious importance. 

However, it is not with this side of the church his- 
tory that we are concerned today. Our whole atten- 
tion is centered upon the church itself and the intimate 
relation which it bore to George Washington, his friends 
and neighbors. 

Pohick Church occupies a site directly upon the high- 
way between Washington and Richmond. It is located 
about three miles beyond the point where the old road 
branches off from the highway to Mt. Vernon. Within 
the church yard surrounded by a brick wall there is 
about an acre and a half of ground in which are the 
tombs of the parishioners of long ago. 




Interior of Christ Church, Alexandria, Va., Where Washington Purchased a Pew in 1773, and Where He 
Frequently Worshipped When Living at Mount Vernon, Eight Miles Away. 



G. W. 




28 



Pohick Church, Virginia. The Parish Church of Mount Vernon, Six Miles Distant from the Mansion. It 
was Built During the Years 1767-73 from Plans Drawn by General George Washington, Who was a Mem- 
ber of the Building Committee. He was a Vestryman of the Parish for Twenty Years. His Pew Is Num- 
ber 28 as Shown by the Number Upon the Panel Under His Initials. The Plate Upon the Left Is on the 
Door of the Pew and Indicates That George Washington was a Vestryman in 1773. 



127 



i:s 



George Washington Bicentennial Addresses 



There is an atmosphere of serene tranquility about 
this edifice, which impresses us like a benediction, and 
the gentle breezes move through the old oak trees and 
whisper oi i he mystery of time. What a colorful, what 
a romantic, what a beautiful setting for the quiet and 
dignified events that took place here during the youth 
of our country . 

One can not come to this placid old house of God 
without drawing aside in his imagination the curtains 
of the years to look backward to the days when George 
Washington, his dear family, his friends and neighbors 
gathered here to worship. 

As I look out through the open doorway to the bury- 
in- mound that holds the ashes of some of the noblest 
personages of Virginia's great history, to my mind comes 
back again that pageant of beauty, of citizenship and 
of neighborly kindness which was witnessed here on 
i hose Sunday mornings long ago. 

I et us within the limitations of our fancy place our- 
selves as members of the Mount Vernon family prepar- 
ing to come to this meeting place nearly 175 years ago. 

It was customary for the family at Mount Vernon 
to attend church regularly and for the usual guests of 
whom there were always from two to three, to a dozen, 
to attend with the family, although none was urged to 
go. Carriages were provided, of course, and an early 
breakfast was the rule because it consumed practically 
a day to attend church and return. 

Pohick Church is about six miles from Mount Ver- 
non over the old road, but this six miles which now can 
be traversed upon a beautiful roadway in a few minutes 
by automobile, was a formidable journey 175 years ago. 

Only those who are familiar with the primitive Vir- 
ginia roads can realize what travelling meant in those 
days. The road led through the wood and partly swamp 
ground. In winter it was usually deep in clay, rutted 
and difficult of passage, except by carriages drawn by 
from four to six horses. In summer it was dusty and 
rough, as little care was given to roadways in those days, 
for water transportation among the plantations along 
the Potomac was in common usage for transporting 
goods AtM.\ produce. 

So the coaches going from Mount Vernon to 
Pohick Church were sturdily built. Some times there 
were three or four coach loads of family and friends. 
Men, women and children of the household and guests, 
in what we would consider somewhat gay attire for such 
an occasion, went by coach. The servants and retainers 
oi the estate usually travelled horseback following the 
coaches, ready to lend assistance in case of need. 

rhe great Washington himself with the beloved 
Martha and the adopted children of Mrs. Washington 
usualK occupied a carriage by themselves. We the 
ta intermingle among the other guests in the 
,w " "' *ree < images of this pilgrimage, and we alight 
Wl,n reliei ai the- gate of tins ancient church yard. 

Here, as General Washington and his party arrive, 
are gathered many men, women and children who are 
upon terms -,i familiar intimacy with the Mount Ver- 
""" "mily. V tround to the southern entrance 



which is in reality the original front, we mark the lovely 
pedimented portals in gray sandstone. 

As we pass through these lovely portals we observe 
the box pew arrangement drawn by Washington, and 
note the great pulpit standing at the head of the cross 
aisle in the middle of the north wall of the church. 
Proceeding to this point of vantage we inspect the more 
striking details of the church, and we turn to the altar 
piece. 

We are told that if we could see this in its original 
condition — for the interior of the church has suffered 
from the ravages and devastations of war — we would 
mark the gold-lettered Creed, Lord's Prayer and the 
Ten Commandments in gold leaf, and the ornaments 
in the tabernacle and the capitols of the pilasters also 
covered with gold leaf. The palm leaves and festoon 
design on the pulpit are also covered with gold leaf fur- 
nished by George Washington and his dear friend, 
George William Fairfax. 

Immediately in the center of the cross aisle stands the 
original fount, made by William Copein. This was taken 
out of the church during the Civil War and was se- 
creted upon a nearby farm. If we follow the Washing- 
ton family along the west aisle toward the altar piece, 
we pause at pews 28 and 29 and know that these pews 
were owned and occupied by Washington and his fam- 
ily on all occasions of public worship. 

The form of that worship then resembled closely the 
form of worship still familiar to the people of this con- 
gregation. The Washington family go sedately to the 
ancient box pew in which we take our seats. This pew 
and all others of the church has comfortable cushioned 
benches partitioned off in rectangular form, so that 
there are seats on three sides and a small gate leading 
into the aisle. Upon that gate is still a silver plate bear- 
ing the name of George Washington. 

We now assume that the beautiful service has closed. 
The congregation has filed sedately into the outer yard 
where for an hour or so there will be pleasant neighbor- 
hood gossip and much comment upon the affairs of the 
vicinity. Soon all are gone and we stand alone in the 
hush of this sacred place, and the shadows come creep- 
ing into the corners and back into the gallery which 
was reserved for humble worshippers. 

I wish it were in my power to convey through the 
miracle of radio, the impression of beauty, of stillness, 
of solemnity, that enfolds me. Again do I people this 
beautiful room with the images of those long gone. 
Again do I hear in imagination the whisperings of those 
who gathered here to worship an everlasting God, who 
knows neither time nor place. Again do I see those 
kneeling figures and heads bowed in prayer that echo 
back through the years as though 'twere yesterday. 

Again do I see the mighty form of General Washing- 
ton, the Father of His Country, kneeling in humble 
supplication to his Father on high. In simplicity, in 
child-like faith, the great man bows in prayer. The soft 
music of forgotten hymns seems to come to me as the 
echo of an angel's song and I feel that my humble pres- 
ence here is as it were a ghost that intrudes upon another 



George Washington Bicentennial Addresses 



129 



era, another state of social order, another age when our 
history as a nation was beginning. 

Gone are those mighty souls who left their indelible 
impress upon our history and our culture. Gone is the 
romance, the color, the drama of their sumptuous lives. 
Gone is the rich bounty of old Virginia, although the 
inheritance of its hospitality will never fade. 

Here I feel that exaltation and an emotion that I can- 
not express in words. Here lingers within walls hallowed 
by memory the very scent of the old-fashioned flowers. 

To Americans everywhere I would that I had the 
power of bringing you in spirit to my side. To Amer- 
icans everywhere I would that you could feel this sacred 
presence as I feel it now. To the hearts of all humanity 
I would convey the meaning of this place at this mo- 
ment, that we could all unite in a common impulse of 
devotion to our God; to a sense of that ancient neigh- 
borly friendliness which was actually part of the old- 
time religion. 

I would that we could join together in the simple 
hymns they sang; be impressed by the devotions of their 
day and dedicate ourselves to the sincerity, the simplicity 
and the beauty of their lives. They are not far away. 
They seem to be here at my side, and the rhapsody of 
memory exalts my soul to their worship and to mine, in 
humility in the presence of our common Creator. 

We need it, fellow Americans. We need a return not 
only to the wisdom, the courage and the character of 
George Washington, but we need a return to his calm 
faith in the God of human destiny. We need a new 
consecration to that morality which guides and stimu- 
lates the acts of our daily lives. "We need a devotion that 
surmounts difficulties, that overcomes opposition, that 
triumphs in the relationship of men with men. 

These devoted people who builded this church, who 



worshipped here in these inspirational surroundings, who 
set us an example of good living, fine companionship 
and steadfast honor, would bring us back again into the 
stream of life as they knew it. 

We need the calm, sobering influence of practical re- 
ligion by which we may set our course, and we need to 
re-examine these landmarks of public and private de- 
cency which point out the undeviating course of jus- 
tice and kindness and love. 

The lessons of this hour are the lessons of simplicity, 
the lessons of child-like faith, the lessons of the immor- 
tality of the soul. Mark it well, "Lest we forget, lest we 
forget." 

I seem to feel as George Washington felt, the influence 
of all these great sermons that were preached here by 
men of God. I seem to feel that from every word they 
spoke there continues an echo that swells into a majestic 
chorus of Divine praise. 

Here the greatest American found companionship 
with God. Here he received those sacraments that 
strengthened his character, steadied his purpose and 
fitted him for the momentous part he played in the epic 
drama of his time. And there at beautiful Mount Ver- 
non, a few miles away, he sleeps, beside his beloved 
Martha, to the requiem of immortal adulation of all 
mankind. 

This is God's house and here we know we are close to 
our Creator, and as we go hence, a glorious recessional 
of the ancient faith must ring always in our hearts. 

Reluctantly, I turn to go. The spell is still upon me. 
In this mid-winter afternoon the shadows gather early 
and as I slowly walk toward the world and its concerns, 
the words of that sweet poem come back to me with a 
new revelation of truth: "Standeth God within the 
shadows keeping watch above His own." 



Broadcast Over the Columbia Broadcasting System, 
February 23, 1932 



The great Celebration of the Bicentennial of the Birth 
of George Washington has been formally opened and 
from now on interest in the observance of this historic 
event will gather momentum until its climax and the 
end of the Celebration on Thanksgiving Day of this 
year. 

Yesterday witnessed the opening of these nation-wide, 
I should say world-wide, plans which have been matur- 
ing for the past two years. We of the United States 
George Washington Bicentennial Commission of which 
I have the honor to be the Director, are proud of 
the overwhelming response of the people of the United 
States to the work which we have been doing. We are 
gratified beyond all measure of expression at the coop- 
eration, the sympathetic helpfulness and the deep pa- 
triotic feeling that have been exemplified in every part 
of our beloved land. 



I speak from the heart when I say that all of us who 
have been concerned in this momentous work are deeply 
touched at the appreciation which has been given to our 
humble efforts, and we are inspired by the obvious fact 
that the people of the United States everywhere have 
rallied to the spirit and purpose of this occasion beyond 
anything that could have been anticipated. 

The events of the past two years have occupied our 
minds, our hearts and our hands beyond any similar 
work that was ever undertaken. The beginning of this 
Celebration yesterday was marked by observances in 
thousands of towns and cities throughout the nation and 
in millions of homes and schools and churches. From 
one end of the country to the other, in our Insular pos- 
sessions, in foreign lands, wherever Americans reside, 
there has been exhibited an interest and a wholehearted 
sentiment of the true American spirit which should 



130 



George Washington Bicentennial Addresses 



hearten evei ) real American living under the protection 
of our flag. 

The Nations of the world joined with us yesterday 
in paying homage to our great Washington. In prac- 
tically all foreign countries radio broadcasts were made 
b\ the heads of government, statesmen and patriots so 
that the name oi George Washington resounded 
throughout the world. 

The Celebration in the National Capital naturally 
was the center of immediate interest because here the 
government itself in the most formal, dignified and mag- 
nificent way, paid its tribute to Washington with sol- 
emn and beautiful ceremony. 

The address of the President of the United States and 
the singing of "America" by a grand chorus of the en- 
tire nation was carried by the miracle of radio to every 
part of the world. Yesterday the man who still is and 
ever will be to us, the Father of Our Country, reached 
the hearts of his people as never before. Today the 
press of the world tells us how the hearts of humanity 
responded. 

Today it is my proud privilege, through the courtesy 
of this great broadcasting system to thank the 123,- 
000,000 Americans who responded so magnificently 
to this call to a great occasion. 

On behalf of the United States George Washington 
Bicentennial Commission I tender the thanks of this 
government to our people everywhere and to those 
across the seas for their interest and their help in this 
fitting testimonial to the memory of our greatest Amer- 
ican. 

I can hardly realize what has come to pass. The 
Celebration has begun in a manner that overwhelms 
me. It is not only the greatest event of its kind ever 
held in the history of the world, but it is impossible now 
to conceive how anything could have been added to 
tins mighty tribute of the people of all countries. The 
words 1 speak are hopelessly inadequate to express what 
I, an American citizen, and lover of George Washing- 
ton, would like to convey to my fellow-Americans. 

Nfo precedent guided us, for no such Celebration was 
ever attempted by any nation at any time. We set to 
work with energy and enthusiasm which have not abated 
during all these months and years of effort. 

We were sustained by an unfaltering confidence that 
Americans were eager to participate in this form of 
tribute. I hat confidence grew with the passing of time 
and wuh the thousands upon thousands of letters that 
came to the Commission from all over the world and 
ialrj from all over our own country. We were in- 
spired with new confidence, new faith and new energy. 
1 llllx sa) truthfull) that I do not believe any organiza- 
tion oi tin government, in time of war or peace has ever 
uch unstinted service, loyalty and talenl as have 
' l"< have aided me in the conduct of this mighty 
( , " behalf of Americans everywhere I want 
m\ appreciation of tins service which is as 
1 ' lllv •' tribute to V i S an y ceremony or any 

material monument, 

xvl '" Wl ' witm sed here in the National Capital yes- 



terday was an awakening that gives encouragement to 
all of patriotic hearts and minds. 

When the President of the United States stood in the 
National Capitol and delivered his wonderful tribute to 
the memory of George Washington, I felt a thrill I 
cannot describe. It was what we had worked for, 
planned for, hoped for, all these years. It was the great- 
est historical celebration in the life of our country and 
not at least for another hundred years will there be any- 
thing like it. Our dream was realized, our hopes ful- 
filled and I know thai George Washington received the 
tribute that he would have liked to receive, because it 
was not in the form of a new monument or material evi- 
dence of our growth, but was an expression from the 
hearts and minds of his people — the people of the 
United States. 

I say this with the pride of an American. I say it 
with a heart full of gratitude to those who have joined 
with us in the planning of this great Celebration. We 
Americans have always loved George Washington, but 
today we love him with a new revelation of understand- 
ing. We love him because we know more about him, 
and knowing more about him we realize the mighty 
stature of the man. 

What the United States George Washington Bicen- 
tennial Commission needed to do was to awaken the love 
of our people to this new understanding of Washington. 
It was a mighty task and we are proud to feel that with 
the support of the people themselves the task has been 
well done. 

Eight years ago far-sighted men in Congress had a 
vision of just what we witnessed yesterday and took 
steps to prepare for it. 

The program which was launched was broad and com- 
prehensive. It ramified to every corner of the earth and 
reached every stratum of humanity. When we began 
our work George Washington was something of a myth 
— to many, a cold impersonal figure of history, remote 
and almost unknown. Today there is hardly a man, 
woman or child in this land of ours but knows a great 
deal about George Washington. They know something 
of his mighty character, they know of his services, his 
sacrifices, his victories and his triumphs of statesman- 
ship. But more than that they know of George Wash- 
ington as the man. They feel a different sentiment 
toward him, a nearness, an understanding, a personal 
love. 

From the least known of Americans, George Wash- 
ington has become one of the best known. We have 
succeeded in large measure at least, in making him 
familiar to Americans for what he really was — a simple 
farmer, like millions of other American farmers — a bus- 
iness man, like many other American business men — a 
friend worshipped by troops of friends, a father to all 
the children he knew, a devoted husband, a mighty con- 
querer without the glamor of ambition, a statesman 
without selfishness — the ideal American. 

I believe that if this Celebration had served no other 
purpose than in making George Washington understood 
and loved, it would have been worth all the planning 
and all the effort. 



George Washington Bicentennial Addresses 



131 



So I have reason not only to thank the American peo- 
ple for their cooperation, but to congratulate them 
from the depth of my heart for the long, earnest, self- 
giving efforts they themselves have put forth to make 
this memorial to George Washington what it should be. 

During these two years of active preparation 60,- 
000,000 people — half the population of the United 
States — with half a million committees to lead them, 
have found the time, the willingness, and the initiative 
to plan the great tribute which opened in the National 
Capital yesterday, and in cities, towns and hamlets all 
over our beloved land. 

But it is the 3 5,000,000 young Americans in our 
schools and colleges who have touched my heart most 
profoundly. It was the patriotism of these future gen- 
erations of American citizens that we wished to awaken 
first of all to a response in love of country that has 
stirred me deeply. 

The United States George Washington Bicentennial 
Commission has found it almost impossible to meet the 
demands for school studies of Washington. We have, 
however, placed his picture in every one of the 8 50,000 
schoolrooms of the country. We have supplied these 
schools with literature of all kinds, touching every phase 
of the life of George Washington. These young peo- 
ple have enrolled themselves with the same enthusiasm 
in the contests we have arranged through the year for 
excellence in essay, declamation and oratory on the sub- 
ject of George Washington and the Americanism he 
lived and taught. 



Nothing could have pleased and touched George 
Washington himself so much as this overwhelming 
tribute of affection from these young Americans of to- 
day. Childless himself, he loved all the children that 
he could draw near him. Yesterday the children of a 
later America paid him the same homage of love in song, 
in parades in every form of exercise. 

This tribute from those who will love Washington all 
their lives and strive to be like him was one of the finest 
touches to the whole Celebration and I am proud to 
have had a hand in bringing about a stirring'of hearts 
so deep, so fine and so patriotic. 

No greater distinction or self-satisfaction could come 
to any man, woman or child than to have had a part in 
this inspiring work. 

Throughout the months to come there will be thou- 
sands upon thousands of celebrations of all kinds 
throughout our country. For the most part these will 
be simple, inexpensive forms of tribute — the kind 
George Washington himself would most like. I ask the 
people everywhere and especially the boys and girls to 
become active in these celebrations, for everyone will 
have his opportunity. 

Let us upon all appropriate occasions find ways of 
joining in these manifestations of honor to the great 
American, for in honoring George Washington we honor 
ourselves; in teaching George Washington we are doing 
the most important work in the preservation of our 
common country. 



The Date of George Washington's Birth 



Explanation of the Date and Day of George 

Washington's Birth, February 11, 1731, and 

How It Corresponds With February 22, 

the Date We Celebrate 



Extension of Remarks Made in the House of Representatives 
February 23, 1932 

Reprinted from the Congressional Record of February 23, 19)2 



As we celebrate the Two Hundredth Anniversary of 
the Birth of George Washington, it may be of interest 
to consider certain points with reference to our calen- 
dar, inasmuch as they have a direct bearing upon the 
date on which the celebration is to be held. 

The use of the Julian calendar in Great Britain and 
her colonies, including the United States, ended with 
December 31, 1751, in accordance with an act of 
Parliament. A part of this act, as contained in Hen- 
ning's Statutes at Large, Laws of Virginia, volume 1, 
page 394, is as follows: 

"So much of the act of Parliament of Twenty-fourth 
George II, chapter 23, as relates to the establishment of 
the new style, is in the following words: 'Throughout all 
His Majesty's dominions in Europe, Asia, Africa, and 
America, subject to the Crown of Great Britain, the 



supputation according to which the year of our Lord 
beginneth on the 25 th of March shall not be made use 
of after the last day of December 1751, and the 1st day 
of January next following the said last day of Decem- 
ber, shall be deemed the first day of the year of our 
Lord 1752, and so on, the 1st day of January, 1752, the 
days of each month shall be reckoned in the same order; 
and the feast of Easter, and other movable feasts thereon 
depending, be ascertained according to the same method, 
as they now are, until the 2d of September in the said 
year 175 2, inclusive; and the natural day next immedi- 
ately following the said 2d of September shall be called 
the 14th of September, omitting for that time only the 
1 1 intermediate nominal days of the common calendar; 
and the natural days following the said 14th of Septem- 
ber shall be numbered forward in numerical order from 



n; 



George Washington Bicentennial Addresses 



the said 14th of September, according to the order now 
used m the present calendar; and all acts, deeds, writ- 
ings, notes, and other instruments executed or signed 
upon or after the 1st day of January, 1752, shall bear 
date according to the said new method of supputation, 
etc' The section then goes on to provide for the ses- 
sions of courts, and so forth, according to the new 
method. 

"With respect to leap years, the second section de- 
clares, 'that the years 1800, 1900, 2100, 2200, 2300, or 
any other hundredth year of our Lord, except only every 
fourth hundredth year, whereof the year 2000 shall be 
the first, shall not be bissextile or leap years, but shall be 
common years, consisting of 365 days and no more; 
and the years of our Lord 2000, 2400, 2800, and every 
other fourth hundredth year of our Lord, from the year 
2000, inclusive, and all other years of our Lord, which 
by the present supputation are bissextile or leap years, 
shall be bissextile, or leap years consisting of 366 days.' " 

It is seen from the above that the year 1751 was a 
short year, in that it began with March 25, and ended 
with December 31; 1752 was also a short year, in that 
1 1 day dates were omitted in September of that year. 
That is, no days were designated as September 3 to Sep- 
tember 13, inclusive. The day immediately following 
Wednesday, September 2, was designated Thursday, 
September 14. There was no interruption of the regular 
succession of the days of the week. 

From the foregoing, and from consideraton of a 
known error in the Julian leap year rule, it is apparent 
that on bringing into our present calendar events that 
occurred between February 29, 1700, and September 
2, 1752, both dates inclusive, and "old style," a correc- 
tion of 1 1 days must be made because of the 11 dates 
omitted from September, 1752, and in addition, if the 
event occurred between January 1 and March 24, in- 
clusive, the year date must be increased by one. For 
example, George Washington was born on February 11, 
1731, according to the calendar in use in Great Britain 
and her colonics at the time of his birth, but on extra- 
polating our present calendar back to that time the date 
becomes February 22, 1732, and we shall celebrate the 
two hundredth anniversary of his birth on February 22, 
1932. 



Having been born on February 11, 1731, Washington 
was 19 years old on February 11, 1750, and 20 years on 
February 11 of the year following. This would have 
been 1751, under the old calendar, but the year 1751 
ended with December 31, and the following February 
became February, 1752. Washington's twentieth birth- 
day was, therefore, celebrated on February 11, 1752. In 
the following September, 175 2, 11 day dates were 
omitted, so that Washington's twenty-first birthday was 
celebrated on February 22, 1753. From that time on- 
ward February 22 has been counted as the anniversary 
of his birth, and February 22, 1932, will be correctly 
celebrated as the two hundredth anniversary of his birth. 

For many years both before and after the adoption 
of the Gregorian calendar in this country the practice 
of "double dating" was customary, or, at least, not un- 
common, and sometimes led to confusion. Thus George 
Washington himself writing to Sir Isaac Heard, Kings 
Garter at Arms, May 22, 1792, recorded his own birth: 

"Augustine then married (Mary) Ball, March 6th, 
1730; by whom he had issue George, born February 11th 
(old style), 1732"; meaning 1731/32. This slip has 
caused some people to claim that he was born in 
1732/33. 

This practice of double dating was necessary before 
the adoption in order to avoid uncertainty in official 
records, correspondence, and especially in documents re- 
lating to foreign trade, because of the fact that the Gre- 
gorian calendar was in use in Catholic countries from 
1582 onward and its use in these countries was recog- 
nized in Great Britain and her colonies, although it was 
not put into effect in Great Britain and her colonies 
until January 1, 1752. After the adoption, double dat- 
ing was also used, presumably to eliminate all possibility 
of confusion which might have resulted from inertia in 
changing calendars, but the practice soon died out. 

Of special interest in this connection is the fact that 
the Washington family Bible, now at Mount Vernon, 
records the birth of George Washington in the follow- 
ing manner: 

"George Washington, son of Augustine and Mary, his 
wife, was born ye 1 lth day of February, 1731/32." 



Colonial Garden Tribute 

A Di ik i ss Broadcast by the National Broadcasting Company 

from Washington, D. C. 

March 17, 1932 



toi of the United States George Washington 
Bicentennial ( ommission, 1 am invited to launch on this 

ion .i campaign wind, is one of the most beautiful 
and touching honors we can render to George Wash- 
ington during tins yen when the nation and the world 

lemorate the Two i [undredth Anniversary of his 
birth. 



I am asking all those who hear me to plant flowers in 
memory of George Washington. 

In order that this loving tribute, this burst of color 
from the very earth, shall not be for this year only, you 
are asked to plant those perennial flowers that bud and 
bloom year after year, in glorious memorial succession. 

Nothing could be more appropriate than such a 



George Washington Bicentennial Addresses 



133 



tribute. George Washington himself loved scenes of 
beauty. Time and again in his letters and in his diaries, 
he tells of pausing, even in the midst of his gravest 
military anxieties, to admire the beauty of some view, 
or some locality. 

Washington was a gardener himself — a landscape 
gardener of the first rank in his time. He was a leader 
in the pleasing work of beautifying his home and the 
grounds about it, in a State that was famous even in 
his day for the splendor of its great and beautiful estates. 

If you have visited Mount Vernon, or when you do 
visit Mount Vernon, you have seen there, in every 
tree and shrub and plant, the magic touch of his hand, 
creating its serene and peaceful beauty. 

Many of the trees that he planted with his own hand 
are still there, each placed where he knew it would add 
its cool green color and graceful form to the loveliness 
of his home. 

You will see at Mount Vernon the garden designed 
and laid out by Washington. There is the mystic maze 
it amused him to plan — the walks lined with their box- 
wood — the ivy-draped fences and walls in a curtain of 
velvet green. 

You will see there some of the very flowers he loved to 
grow — the old and simple blossoms that were as honest 
and true and unpretentious as he was himself. 

Mount Vernon was beautiful because the soul of 
George Washington was beautiful. It is beautiful today 
because he coaxed from the bosom of nature, the sweet- 
ness and charm to match the sweetness and charm of his 
own soul. 

We do not all possess broad lawns and rolling acres, 
and the room for rows of blushing flowers. But every 
patriotic American can plant some floral tribute to 
George Washington this year, if it is only a geranium 
pot that he places in the sunshine at his window. 

It will be an offering of beauty to a lover of beauty, 
in a language that speaks across all boundaries of space, 
and beyond the grave itself. It will be the spirit of 
America today, exchanging greetings with the spirit of 
Washington, as if differences in time had disappeared. 

The planting of flowers in Washington's name this 
year will be like covering the fair face of our land with 
visible symbols of the beauty of Washington's own char- 
acter and life. 

In this growing of lovely things, this covering of the 
land with a canopy of beauty, I see one more instance 
proving that Washington's hand is still lifted in blessing 
over the hearts of our people and the welfare of our 
country. 

In this age of industrialism, and in the rush of material 
pursuits, we need, as never before, to restore true culture 
to our lives. We have covered our land with factories, 
and have covered the sky with the smoke of industry. 
We live in a day of tremendous accomplishment. In 
all this there is a beautv of achievement, and enrichment 



of human life. George Washington would approve all 
this. Indeed, he largely foresaw it and planned it. 

But always he loved to retire to his beloved and tran- 
quil Mount Vernon — to the shade of its trees — the peace 
of its rolling fields — to stroll through its flowery gar- 
dens. And he bids us do the same today. 

This broad continent has room for flowers, as it has 
for factories. Our lives have room for roses and violets 
as well as for material desires and business aims. We 
need to give our busy land its needed decoration, with 
the gifts that nature has placed at our hands, if only 
we use them. 

In so doing we are only turning back to the ways of 
George Washington, who made himself one of the most 
prosperous men in America, and still found time to 
make his home a place to gladden his eye and to rest his 
soul. 

So I hope that every patriotic American who hears 
me will cooperate in this movement to plant flowers in 
honor of George Washington and will plant as many 
beautiful things as he possibly can this Bicentennial year. 
Plant a garden if you can, if not, only a circle of posies 
in your dooryard will be a fine tribute to pay to Wash- 
ington. It will be doing something fine for your coun- 
try, and it will be doing something fine for yourself. 

We of the United States George Washington Bicen- 
tennial Commission, want America to be one great gar- 
den this year, and for all years to come. We want to 
see unlovely yards and lots veiled in the petals of buds 
and flowers. We want all America to be more like 
George Washington's Mount Vernon. 

But to attain this fine spiritual end, practical means 
are necessary. So I am glad to say to all good Ameri- 
cans who are stirred to go forth with spade and trowel, 
that we are working to help you, with practical advice 
and suggestion. 

We have working with us the United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, American Society of Landscape 
Architects, the Garden Clubs of America, the Agricul- 
ture colleges, and many other floral organizations. The 
Bicentennial Committees and Commissions in all the 
States stand ready to do everything possible in promot- 
ing this planting of flowers in George Washington's 
honor. 

Experts will tell you of all the varieties of plants and 
flowers that were loved by Washington or were familiar 
in his time. They will tell you how to utilize plots of 
land, how to prepare the soil, how to watch the growth 
of what you plant — and how to make it a lasting and 
endless growth, a permanent addition to the loveliness 
of our land. 

I can assure you of a satisfaction in knowing that you 
are doing something for George Washington, in making 
your America a happier and more beautiful place in 
which to live. 



134 



George Washington Bicentennial Addresses 



One Hundredth anniversary of the 
Death of Goethe 



Address Delivered in the House of Representatives 

March 22, 1932 

By HON. SOL BLOOM 

Director of the United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission, 
and Member of the Goethe Society of America 

Reprinted from thi Congressional Record, March 22, 19} 2 



Mr. BLOOM. Mr. Speaker, I ask unanimous con- 
sent to address the House for five minutes on the one 
hundredth anniversary of the death of Goethe. 

The SPEAKER. Is there objection to the request of 
the gentleman from New York? 

There was no objection. 

Mr. BLOOM. Mr. Speaker, today marks the one 
hundredth anniversary of the death of Johann Wolfgang 
von Goethe. It is only fitting, at a time when the entire 
world is participating in a bicentennial celebration 
honoring our George Washington, that we recognize 
this great date. 

It is fitting and appropriate, for a number of reasons, 
that we pause in our thought of George Washington to 
turn out attention to the great German poet, philoso- 
pher, dramatist, novelist, and scientist. 

Far apart as the two men were, in the fields assigned 
them by the great Creator, the two were alike in many 
respects. 

The}' were alike, first of all, in being among the very 
few supreme minds that humanity has produced. 

No statesman was greater than Washington. No 
poet, not even Homer or Shakespeare, was greather than 
( roethe. 

I he great German did his work for human advance- 
ment in the peace of his study, while the great American 
wrought the good that he did on the field of battle or 
m political councils. But in essentials the two men 
thought alike. 

One oi Goethe's first dramas concerned itself with 
the celebration oi a great sixteenth century champion 
oi liberty. And in the last great work of his life, the 
completion oi I aust, he raised the hero of that immortal 
v "' 1 to the plane that Washington occupied through- 
out his life— the plane of simple wisdom and disin- 
terested service tO one's fellow men. 

\ mii \e\ oi Goethe's contributions to human thought, 
an estimate of what he did for the lifting up of the 



human heart is the task of scholars and critics. But the 
person of even limited reading knows something of 
Goethe's place among the immortals. 

So much of human life is gathered up in his varied 
works — he explored so many human problems, he lighted 
up so many deep recesses in the human heart — that it is 
little wonder that critics assign him the honor of having 
given shape to an entire era of human culture. 

Goethe is Germany's pride, as Washington is ours. 
And the nation which sent to Washington's aid the mili- 
tary genius of Von Steuben and De Kalb, and the 
loyalty of thousands of German-Americans in Wash- 
ington's ragged army, deserves the compliment of 
America's tribute to its chief adornment. 

Though Washington and Goethe never met, their 
purposes ran parallel, their efforts were alike for human 
good, and the two were one in their counsels of good 
will. 

Could we honor them in any more fitting way than 
by putting into our everyday relations that same good 
will, not only among ourselves but with all other 
nations? 

Is it not possible for surface differences between 
peoples to sleep, as the bodies of these two great men 
sleep, while the spirit of concord they voiced lives on? 

I suggest that in the name of George Washington, 
whose last public words expressed that spirit, we Ameri- 
cans extend to the German people a fitting return for 
the honors they have tendered the memory of George 
Washington in this bicentennial year. [Applause.] 

On March 6, under the patronage of President Von 
Hindenburg, the German Reichstag held a celebration 
in honor of the George Washington Bicentennial, at 
which time the walls of that chamber rang with the 
strains of the Star-Spangled Banner. 

Today let us pause and think of their great hero — 
their gift to civilization — Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. 
[Applause.] 



George Washington Bicentennial Addresses 



135 



Address Before Veterans of Foreign Wars, 

York, Pennsylvania 

April 6, 1932 



It is my privilege this year to turn the thoughts of 
the American people toward George Washington on 
every available occasion. 

Outwardly, the reason for this is that we may pay to 
George Washington the endless honors that are due him, 
and that have a special timeliness this year, because 1932 
is the Two Hundredth Anniversary of his Birth. 

But beneath this year of celebration there is an inward 
and far deeper meaning. George Washington himself 
would spurn these honors we pay him, as empty and 
worthless, without this deeper meaning of the words we 
utter in his praise. 

The one way in which we can truly honor George 
Washington at all is to revive those principles on 
which he founded our government and our country, and 
apply ourselves to a new effort in living up to them. 

So it is that every other passing anniversary this year 
is a fit occasion for refreshing ourselves at the fount of 
Washington's patriotism. Every other memorable 
moment in our history has its attachment to him. For 
we would have had no such glorious history, if we had 
not had Washington in the beginning. 

This occasion today, April 6, is the anniversary of 
that day when our nation was drawn into the recent 
World War. 

It is the day when you who now look toward me, 
turned your faces to America's enemies and prepared to 
save your country. 

Could there be a closer link between this year and 
this day, and that former day when George Washington 
made the same appeal for men to stand with him, facing 
an enemy of America and willing to suffer and die for 
the safety of their country? 

If George Washington could stand here in my place, 
I believe the tears would well in his eyes, as they did 
sometimes when the loyalty of his brave men especially 
touched him. 

The only difference he would see would be the differ- 
ence between olive drab, and the ancient buff and blue. 
Under the different uniforms, he would see the same 
type of American, the same loyal patriot, the same lover 
of his country, as the men who stayed with him, from 
Boston to Yorktown and the victorious entry into New 
York on the heels of the British invaders. 

If there is one thing about you that would touch 
George Washington more than the sameness of you vet- 
erans and his devoted Continentals, it would be your 
vast numbers. 

When Washington lived and carried this nation to 
victory on his own courage and character, nothing tried 
his courage and his patience more than the problem of 
raising enough men to fight to victory with him. 

He never could collect from the little country that 



America then was, enough men to make his victories 
quick and decisive. 

He was forced to drag along through eight years of 
struggle and toil and blood and discouragement. He 
had to lose bitter battles on Long Island, at the Brandy- 
wine and Germantown. He and his nearly naked army 
had to suffer all the horrors of Valley Forge, and be con- 
tent with little successes snatched here and there before 
there came at last that stirring situation at Yorktown 
that crowned with God's own gift of success the great 
Commander in-Chief and his little army in which every 
man was a hero. 

What a leap his heart would give, to see millions of 
American patriots rush to arms a few years ago, where 
in his day he sighed in relief when he gained a few thou- 
sand more recruits to his ranks! 

In 1776, America had a few thousand defenders. In 
1917, she had millions to rise and dare a thousand 
deaths for her safety. 

In 1776, war was fought with clumsy weapons. In 
1917, the man who came to the defence of his country 
faced a war made tenfold more horrible by every device 
that science could invent for the maiming of human 
bodies and the taking of human lives. Yet millions were 
read>' to meet these dangers. How Washington's heart 
would go out to you who formed that and other great 
American armies. 

I am sure he would heartily agree with what I say 
here now — that American patriotism is not dead, but 
lives as strong as of old. 

All honor to the heroes who fought by Washington's 
side and marched with their bleeding feet through the 
snow, wherever he ordered them to go. But I contend 
that love of country did not die and disappear with 
Washington's men in buff and blue. It lived and flamed 
again when America once more called to you, her sons 
of this later day, and placed her destiny in your keeping. 

She clad you in different colors, but the hearts that 
beat beneath your uniforms ran with the same red blood 
of courage, willing to be shed, if need be, for the nation 
that George Washington gave us to preserve forever. 

You who fought these later battles in the cause of 
America's safety and in the name of liberty were really 
fighting for George Washington just as much as if he 
were to rally and command you. 

So we are gathered here in singleness of spirit with 
the Father of the Land, on soil made sacred by his very 
presence, and rendered still more holy by our country's 
history. 

About us as we meet here is a city that has grown 
with America's growth, from struggling Colonial days. 

But it was here that history was made when our 
nation was young and when George Washington him- 
self was alive and already thinking of America's future. 






George Washington Bicentennial Addresses 



Into this city, a little more than a century and a half 
ago, Washington rode on one of his frequent travels 
about the country. He had taken his step-son, Jackie 
Custis, to New York, to place him in King's College, 
now Columbia University. 

Al'ur this happy and peaceful errand, and when he 
had turned back toward his beloved Mount Vernon, 
Washington came through Pennsylvania, and stopped 
at York Town, as [t then was called. That was in 1773, 
while America still was at peace, and nothing distracted 
Washington from his favorite pursuit of observing the 
qualit) of the land and dreaming of the prosperous fu- 
ture he foresaw for his fortunate countrymen. 

Then came the struggle for Independence, with its 
eight long years of doubt and toil and discouragement 
and suspense. The most powerful nation then on earth 
had sent its trained and disciplined armies here to keep 
us enslaved to their king. 

During the darkest period in all that anxious time, 
tins city was for nearly a year the capital of the United 
States. 1 Have said that history has made this sacred soil. 
I et me tell you why it is made so sacred. 

It was here that the Continental Congress sat while 
George Washington and his army were going through 
the horrors of Valley Forge. 

The powerful foe had driven the Commander-in- 
Chief to hide his little starving and freezing band in the 
hills and hollows of that camp which has been forever 
hallowed by their sufferings. 

Before the same all-conquering foe, Congress had been 
forced to flee from Philadelphia and hold its sessions here. 

Had Congress remained in Philadelphia, every mem- 
ber would have been made a prisoner, and might have 
been hanged as a traitor to the British King. Over the 
head of George Washington himself hung the same pos- 
sible fate. He too would have been hanged, if any one 
of the many efforts to capture him had been successful. 

We know what happened instead. Washington lived 
to triumph over his enemy and establish our land, while 
a weak but patriot Congress supported him to the best 
of its power. 

But that glorious end of the struggle was far from 
visible in that winter of 1777 and '78. On the contrary, 
it looked almost impossible for this impoverished people 
to conquer the powerful forces arrayed against them. 

I I ere in this city, then a pioneer village, they thought 
and fought it out —George Washington watching his 
starving men at Valley Forge, and Congress sitting here 
and striving to raise the men and the money so sorely 
needed lo win the war. 

[nto tins town Washington sent his despairing and 

ling letters from Ins camp of starvation and distress. 

he told C t must somehow feed and clothe 

and pa} hii suffering men. I [ere the heart and the soul 

ot the infant nation was tested as it never has been in 

all us history. And here American courage won. 

So when I compare you patriot Americans of today 

with the heroes gathered aboui George Washington, I 

ou the great mpliment that human lips could 

frame. Mow let tne the compliment by telling 

JTOU bow true it is, and how well deserved. 



To you also came the call of service to country in the 
face of death and danger. To you it meant the same 
sacrifice that was paid by the patriots of 1777. 

Let us never forget what it cost the men of Washing- 
ton's army to fight at his side. They left their families 
in danger of want, sometimes in danger of hostile sav- 
ages. They left their farms to suffer neglect and ruin. 

Many of Washington's officers had been well-to-do 
men, and lost their all in order to serve him. Love of 
country could rise to no greater heights than that. 

But you, too, when you heard the call of your coun- 
try, laid aside your occupations, your comfortable 
homes, and the loving embrace of your children, your 
wives, your loved ones. 

You, too, had a menacing enemy to face. When 
America entered this recent war, that struggle was at 
the stage of its Valley Forge. The foe appeared to be 
victorious, with a helpless world at its feet. The heart 
of humanity was stilled with fear. The fate of the 
world lay in America's hands, and America was unready 
and far away. 

The only difference between that dark time and the 
anxious months that Washington had to endure in 1777, 
was that the danger in 1917 was more fearful, and the 
cost and the effort needed to meet it was greater still. 

Not only that, Washington's men were stimulated to 
desperate courage from seeing the enemy before their 
very homes, on their own soil. This later call to Ameri- 
can patriotism was to take millions of men thousands of 
miles to foreign soils, across seas as dangerous as the fields 
of battle. 

This is the very day, fifteen years ago, when many of 
you heard the call, and prepared to answer it without 
a murmur. 

First came the months of dreary training and drilling 
the army that had sprung to arms over night and hur- 
ried to the great camps hastily prepared throughout the 
country for it. Then a united nation cheered you on, 
while you sailed the seas to prove that Americans fight 
for their high ideals no matter where the threat may 
rise against them. 

The hottest fires of war ever kindled waited to test 
American courage, American spirit, American endur- 
ance and the will to win. 

In hardly more than a year from the moment you 
Americans planted your feet on soil reddened and torn 
by three years of fire and slaughter, the waves of de- 
struction had been beaten back, the thunder of thou- 
sands of mighty guns had been stilled, and once again 
American might and courage had rendered safe the cause 
of Liberty and the rights of mankind. 

That glorious rounded record you bring here today, 
on the anniversary of the day when most of you began 
that record. Here you lay it at the feet of George 
Washington, on the very ground he once trod, on the 
very spot where his impassioned appeals for help were 
heard. 

You have only his memory to salute today. The hand 
of death and a century and a half of change have placed 
an impenetrable curtain over the great events that oc- 



George Washington Bicentennial Addresses 



137 



curred when he passed this way. Not all the passionate 
love we bear him can reach his ears. 

But I believe — I know — his spirit is with us here. You 
who have met here can only mutely lay before him this 
record of yours, for his equally mute approval. But if 
some miracle would let us break the grand and solemn 
silence that reigns where George Washington sleeps — if 
we could hear his beloved voice once more — I believe we 
would hear him say: 

"Well done, my patriotic Americans. The fire that 
stirred your fathers to high deeds for a high cause, lives 
on in you. In you the same soul that made this coun- 
try, flames on to keep it safe. Raise your sons to re- 
ceive my blessing, even as I give it in pride to you." 

Yes, I believe the great American we honor this year 
would have more than approval for your deeds, your 
sacrifices, the risks you ran and the losses you have taken. 
He would feel every pride in you. 

In all the years since Valley Forge, not one thing has 
lessened the courage of this country, or the constancy 
of its people. On America's roll of honor, which began 
early and will never end, you, too, have placed your 
names in letters that will blaze with the brightest that 
are there. 

But just as George Washington fought and won a 
war only to issue from it a friend and counsellor of 
peace, so I believe that you also, who know battle from 
having faced its perils, are with him in a hatred of its 
waste and sacrifice of lives. 

Washington himself proved what a sublime thing it 
is to offer one's very life for country — but what a still 
greater thing it is to live for country. Nobler even than 
dying for country, is achieving for one's country and 
adding to its progress. 

In that George Washington shone most sublimely of 
all. And it is along the paths of peace that we need 
most of all to follow him now. 

It may be that not even yet has Almighty God, in his 
wisdom, lifted the curse of war from the souls of men. 
It may be that not yet may we hope to have seen the 
last of carnage and bloodshed. But we do know that 
mankind has lived up to one of Washington's principles 
of honor — that only injustice, only the invasion of 
fundamental human rights, can justify the argument of 
battle. No longer will the opinion of humanity permit 
nations to wage wars for mere love of conquest. And 
George Washington looked forward to a day when en- 
lightened mankind shall have found a way to rule out 
even the justifiable causes of war. 

George Washington not only foresaw that day, he 
labored to bring it about. As a soldier, he fought to 
win. As President of the United States he strove for 
peace. 

During his administration this country was under a 
thousand temptations to enter into the raging disputes 
of other nations. George Washington underwent some 
of the bitterest abuse ever heaped on a public officer of 
this country, in his steadfast and resolute efforts to keep 
us neutral and aloof. When passions had cooled, when 
reason returned to men's minds, it was seen that in his 



labors for peace, George Washington had but added to 
his greatness. 

Today the world is slowly striving toward a goal that 
George Washington visioned even before the Constitu- 
tion of the United States was framed and signed. He 
then expressed a belief in a permanent future world 
peace, and he stated this belief in a letter to a great 
French warrior — Lafayette — who had fought with him 
throughout the Revolution and who knew war as it was 
known to Washington himself. 

In that expression he looked forward to a time when 
"mankind may be connected like one great family in 
fraternal ties." He told Lafayette that even then the 
world was growing less barbarous. The nations were 
becoming more humanized. The causes for hostility 
were daily diminishing. And he believed the period was 
not remote when a free and liberal commerce would 
take the place of the horrors and devastations of war. 

The same man who stated these beliefs could still in- 
sist that the best way to avoid war was to be amply pre- 
pared for war. The same man who hoped for a future 
world peace could still insist that the only satisfactory 
peace was "peace with justice and honor." But he 
nevertheless hoped and believed that humanity was 
moving upward towards those principles of interna- 
tional honor and harmony which would one day make 
war impossible. 

Toward that goal George Washington himself strove 
with all his counsels and teachings, and by his own great 
example. 

So, if it is noble to live for one's country and to strive 
for our nation's progress, it is noblest and best to follow 
George Washington's guidance in this exalted purpose. 

We could not better honor George Washington, not 
only this year but in all years to come, than by living 
for our country in the George Washington way — by liv- 
ing up to his precepts — by "cultivating peace with har- 
mony"; by "observing good faith and justice toward all 
Nations," just as he has urged us in that greatest state 
paper ever composed by the hand of man, the Farewell 
Address. 

Let us honor George Washington this year by dedi- 
cating ourselves to these counsels he has left. We could 
not begin this re-dedication at a better time than during 
this year we have set aside to commemorate the Two 
Hundredth Anniversary of his Birth. We could not 
select a more appropriate day than this 15 th anniversary 
of the entrance of our country into the great war for 
the preservation of world liberty. 

In that spirit, and with that high purpose, I invite 
you who have been warriors in the George Washington 
spirit, to join with our country this year in its tribute to 
this great preacher of peace with honor. 

You will be like Washington's own veterans, saluting 
your old Commander. You will be taking a solemn 
vow for the continued safety of your country — by war 
only in the last resort, and all the rest of the time 
through the channels of peace. And so you will be 
adding a deep and solemn note to the reverence and the 
affection we pour forth this year to one so well de- 
scribed as "First in war, first in peace, and first in the 
hearts of his countrymen." 



13! 



George Washington Bicentennial Addresses 



Before the National Security League 

Address Delivered Before the National Security League 

and Broadcast by the National Broadcasting Company 

April 9, 1932 



If there is one thought uppermost in the mind of 
ever} American today, it is the thought of security — 
the security of our nation, and the security of every 
person in it. 

It is a time when every one of us is thinking of the 
welfare of our country, as it relates to us in our daily 
problems. 

Mam of us are so disturbed over present conditions 
that we think no other period in history can compare 
with this one, in the grave uncertainties presented to us 
on e\ cry hand. 

So I am going to draw a comparison between this 
\ .ist country of ours today, and the very small and 
struggling country that it was 143 years ago. 

The little country I speak of also experienced difficult 
times. In fact its troubles were so overwhelming that 
the great men it contained — and they were some of the 
greatest men that ever lived — were afraid they never 
could get it going. 

That little country had never known anything but 
pinch and struggle, warfare and discontent. 

It had a population of less than 4,000,000, and most 
of these people were comparatively poor. 

It had no general system of taxation. Hence it had 
no national income. It had no credit, and it was loaded 
down with debt. 

It owed its own soldiers for back pay. 

It had no such thing as a national commerce. The 
trade it once enjoyed had been ruined by war, and in- 
dependence had cut it off from the chief colonial chan- 
nels. Its currency had been so debased that it took a 
wagon-load of money to buy a wagon-load of food. 

One section of the country was the rival of all the 
other sections, and it seemed impossible to get them to- 
gether into a national plan of action. 

In a word, these 4,000,000 people were not a nation, 
and main people despaired of them ever being one. 
I 1 1 \ were i ust so many confused individuals and States, 
wondering as many of us are wondering today — what 
was coining next? 

We think there is a good deal of confusion and chaos 
today. But we have all the accumulated wealth and 
nee "I the world to draw on, where that little 
county o! the past had none of these things. It had 
nothing Inn a passion tor security, and I am going to 
tell you how it got n . 

The httle stru ountry was the United States 

oi America, in 1789, when General George Washington 
ibout to be inaugurated as its First President. 

Washington's record up to that time had stamped 
him as the bravest man in the country. Yet is it strange 

that whin he look the oath of office as President of this 
untried i periment iment, his hand trembled 

and his voice sh. 



No one realized better than he the terrible task be- 
fore him — the task of bringing security to a new nation. 
None saw more clearly than he the possibilities of 
failure. 

It lived down or wiped out every political and eco- 
nomic menace to its safety, and it will do so again, if 
we follow in the footsteps of the great men and the great 
leader who brought this nation into being. 

You may say that it was easy for the American people 
of that day to accomplish what they did, because they 
had George Washington to lead them. 

He is as much our leader today. 

He left his teachings to us as an immortal possession. 
And they apply to our present problems as they applied 
to the problems they solved in those early years of our 
life. 

I am not going to trace George Washington's course 
and methods, step by step, as he brought the new nation 
into security. The historians have told that story in 
eloquent words. George Washington himself has told 
it best of all, in his own writings. 

I am safe in saying that the United States of America 
owes its existence to two traits in George Washington. 

They were: 

The possession of courage and faith, and a passion for 
thinking of country first. 

George Washington had faith in America and its 
Americans. 

The whole story of his life consists of his acts and 
thoughts in placing that faith in the service of his coun- 
try. And one word sums up what he achieved — se- 
curity. Security for the nation, and for every one in it. 

The whole struggle for independence was fought and 
won on George Washington's physical and moral cour- 
age, backed by his faith in his countrymen. 

The Constitution of this country was written under 
his watchful eye and under the inspiration of his cour- 
age, and his passion for its security. 

He was the center of all the great legislation which 
was passed during his Presidency, which started this 
nation in motion on its true and straight course. Every 
bit of it had for its purpose national security. 

To understand what Washington achieved for na- 
tional security, it must be remembered that he had 
everything to do for the first time. And no one knew 
better than he that the whole future of the United 
States depended on how wisely he made these beginnings. 

Presidents who came after Washington have had to 
appoint one or two justices to the Supreme Court. 
Washington had to fill that court for the first time — 
and it was the first great tribunal in history with power 
to pass on the constitutionality of legislative acts. 

Washington had to establish our foreign policy for 



George Washington Bicentennial Addresses 



139 



the first time. And he had to do this in a world filled 
with wars and revolutions. 

Through all the eight years during which the Ameri- 
can people were privileged to have George Washington 
for their President, his every act was for their perpetual 
security — their safety as a nation, and the safety of 
every individual in his rights and possessions. 

"Let us have a Government," he said, "by which our 
lives, liberties and properties will be secured." 

And again he said: "Although we cannot by the best 
concerted plans, absolutely command success, although 
the race is not always to the swift nor the battle to the 
strong, yet, without presumptously waiting for miracles 
to be wrought in our favor, it is our indispensable duty, 
with the deepest gratitude to Heaven for the past, and 
humble confidence in its smiles on our future opera- 
tions, to make use of all means in our power for our 
defence and security." 

Washington scarcely opened his lips, or touched pen 
to paper, without pouring forth this passion within him 
for our national security. 

But the greatest gift he left his beloved country is that 
immortal document — The Farewell Address — in which 
he sums up all the accumulated wisdom and counsel he 
has to impart on national security and how to pre- 
serve it. 

There he tells us in words that will live forever what 
it is that national security must rest upon. And as 
always with this simple man, you find these funda- 
mentals simple. 

"Observe good faith and justice toward all Nations. 
Cultivate peace and harmony with all." 

But this man who could put things so simply, could 
think of many things, all necessary to our safety. 



He could counsel against "those overgrown military 
establishments, which under any form of government 
are inauspicious to liberty, and which are to be regarded 
as particularly hostile to republican liberty." 

And he could add: 

"Against the insidious wiles of foreign influence, the 
jealousy of a free people ought to be constantly awake. 
. . . The great rule of conduct for us, in regard to 
foreign nations, is, in extending our commercial rela- 
tions, to have with them as little political connection 
as possible. ... I hold the maxim no less applicable to 
public than private affairs, that honesty is always the 
best policy. . . . Harmony, and a liberal intercourse 
with all nations, are recommended by policy, humanity 
and interest." 

But the same man who so strove to avoid offense to 
other people and to other nations, was as quick to resent 
offense to him or to his country. The same man who 
hoped for permanent world peace and who said "Culti- 
vate peace and harmony," could also say, "To be pre- 
pared for war is one of the most effectual means of pre- 
serving peace." 

What we need is to put those words into action. We 
need to emulate his courage in facing discouragement. 
We need to emulate George Washington's unshaken 
faith in his country. We need to copy his trust in an 
all-wise Providence. 

George Washington believed this country was safe so 
long as the character of its people was sound and up- 
right. 

If we would honor George Washington this year, if 
we would have our country safe and secure, let us dedi- 
cate ourselves again to the simple honesty and patriotism 
with which he made this nation safe. 



Under the Cherry Blossoms 

Address Delivered at the Tidal Basin, Washington, D. C , 

After Introducing the Japanese Ambassador, 

Broadcast by the National Broadcasting Company, 

April 13, 1932 



It is rarely the privilege of any American to take part 
in such an inspiring program as is being presented today 
beneath this glorious canopy of cherry blossoms in the 
Nation's Capital. 

As I stand here in the presence of this distinguished 
company to express the inspiring thoughts that come to 
me, I can, in memory, retrace the years to the fairyland 
of my childhood. My heart responds to this scene as 
the most bewitching abode of elfin beauty ever unrolled 
before human eyes. 

Above me, and all about, framing the edges of the 
lovely Tidal Basin as far as the eye can see, are the most 
gorgeous, most colorful, blossom-laden trees in all 
America. 

We are here to celebrate the great national cherry 
blossom season that is famed throughout the world. The 



Nation's Capital has given this event peculiar signifi- 
cance. Every Spring as the masses of these famed petals 
burst into riotous and almost inconceivable splendor, the 
people of Washington and from all other parts of the 
country, revel in God's benediction of flowers, spread so 
generously for our enjoyment and spiritual refreshment. 

In this atmosphere of fragrance and of glowing, vital 
loveliness, who dare question the beneficence of that 
Providence that spreads such heavenly reflection all 
about us. Who would deny the Divinity which holds 
in the hollow of His hand these bright testimonials of 
His love and remembrance? 

You have heard from His Excellency, The Japanese 
Ambassador, the story of the cherry blossom festival in 
Japan. He has told us of the significance of this fete 
and what the blossoms mean to his beauty-loving coun- 



140 



George Washington Bicentennial Addresses 



try. We, in America, have been the beneficiaries of that 
romantic and poetical nature, and we are fast learning 
the real meaning of this feast of flowers from those who 
have adored them for centuries. 

We, too, are learning how to understand and appre- 
ciate the transcendent influence of this floral baptism 
that lifts us above the sordid things of life and exalts 
our souls to God. 

1 [ere, we have vivid and impressive proof of that im- 
mortality of the good and the beautiful which is the 
guiding light of human life. 

Here, in this significant year which marks the Two 
1 [undredth Anniversary of the Birth of George Wash- 
ington we stand amidst a scene which would have de- 
lighted his soul. I believe that if George Washington 
should re- visit in human form this city of his dreams, 
he would pass by every great monument and marble 
structure and come to the quiet shores of this wonderful 
Basin, reflecting all about its borders the blossom-laden 
trees. Here, the deep emotions of the great man would 
yield in communion with the Giver of all good. 

We are in the habit of thinking of George Washing- 
ton in his more heroic and austere roles. With his 
name we hear the clash of war or feel the hush of mo- 
mentous decisions of statecraft. But George Washing- 
ton loved beauty. He himself has attested to this in his 
many references to the cultivation of flowers and shrubs 
and trees upon his beloved estate at Mount Vernon. 

There survives to us his own garden of exquisite taste, 
and floral harmony. We know that George Washington 
spent many hours in that garden, where the calm, peace- 
ful, uplifting beauty, quieted his soul. 

So here in this magnificent capital of the great coun- 
try which he established, we have come to witness a 
scene in which his splendid manhood would have found 
inspiration and delight. 

I know of no more appropriate honor we could offer 
to George Washington than these exquisite flowers that 
are blooming here today. 

It may be that a man's spirit is only that memory of 
him which lives on as long as there are human hearts to 
give it a dwelling place. If that is so then Washing- 
ton's spirit is certainly here. For on this spot are cen- 
tered some of those things which we know he prized 
above all others. 

Ik yond these trees which surround us like an immortal 
caress, are other trees of similar kind, bordering the 



beautiful Potomac which Washington loved throughout 
his lifetime. 

It was his river as this is his city. George Washing- 
ton's own life was one of the most beautiful things that 
has ever been given to mankind. But one of the elements 
that made it so, was Washington's love of beauty and his 
life-long efforts to bring beauty upon the earth about 
him. He would see that every blossom on these branches 
is more than a flower. It is a thought, born of God. It 
is a symbol of peace, as well as a gesture of international 
good will, from one nation to another. 

He wished for the National Capital that it should be 
magnificent, as well as important. But he also wished 
that it should be beautiful, as a habitation for the very 
soul of his people, and these lovely trees of world-wide 
fame are helping us to make it so. 

We think of these trees as blossoming for a short time 
like a loving garland about this quiet water. But they 
are blooming forever in the lives of all who have seen 
them and remember them. They are beautifying human 
lives wherever they are known. 

George Washington would be the first to realize that 
it is human thought, even more than the hand of nature, 
which has spread such loveliness here. He would see 
the literal flowering of one of his fondest dreams — a 
world dedicated to the cultivation of peace and har- 
mony, and delighting in graceful exchanges. 

In these flowers nature has given us her finest lan- 
guage to voice our gladness and our gratitude that 
George Washington once lived to render all life a nobler 
thing and to spread good will throughout the world. 

That is what I mean in saying that nothing could be 
more fittingly dedicated to George Washington's 
memory this year than these ravishing garlands adorning 
his beloved city in its springtime, and signifying one of 
his dearest wishes "that mankind be connected like one 
great family in fraternal ties." 

In the name of the United States George Washington 
Bicentennial Commission, created to lead this country in 
its honors to George Washington in 1932, I wish to ex- 
press something that we all know Washington would 
feel and say on such an occasion — the thanks of his heart 
to the gracious wife of a later President, and to the Rep- 
resentatives of a friendly nation, for the thought that 
has brought to our Capital these enrichments — beautiful 
for so many beautiful reasons. 



George Washington Bicentennial Addresses 



141 



Address Delivered at New Bern, North Carolina, 
April 17, 1932 



First, may I ask your permission to express my pleas- 
ure at the privilege which has been given me to come 
to this beautiful place and meet with so many of the 
patriotic citizens of this community. 

It is a rightful boast of this city that it can say with 
pride, "George Washington passed this way." The peo- 
ple of New Bern of George Washington's time had the 
pleasure of entertaining President George Washington 
during his memorable tour of the South in 1791. As 
descendants of those citizens of that time, it is a fine 
heritage to know that your ancestors had a part in that 
ancient ceremony. 

In his usual and methodical way, George Washington 
speaks of his tour of the South and his visit to North 
Carolina. One entry in his diary will bring a smile to 
us today and it no doubt mingled amusement with em- 
barrassment to George Washington himself. It was this 
very month of April in 1791 that he was on his way to 
New Bern and he writes: 

"Wednesday 20th. Left Allans before breakfast, and 
under a misapprehension went to a Col. Allans, suppos- 
ing it to be a public house; where we were very kindly 
and well entertained without knowing it was at his ex- 
pence, until it was too late to rectify the mistake." 

But knowing how proud any American must have felt 
to have within his home no less a person than George 
Washington, we can easily imagine how glad Col. Allen 
was to have such a distinguished guest and how he would 
try to make George Washington feel at home. 

I know there is not one of us today but would not 
be delighted to have him make a similar mistake in our 
favor so that we might entertain him no matter what 
the expense might be. 

We know, at least, how glad the people of New Bern 
were on that memorable occasion to see Washington, 
for he tells us of the fact in his journal. While he was 
about it he testified once more to the excellent enter- 
tainment he received. 

About ten miles from New Bern he ferried across 
the Neuse River and there he records: "We were met by 
a small party of Horse; the district Judge (Mr. Sit- 
greave) and many of the principal Inhabitants of 
Newbern, who conducted us into town to exceed- 
ing good lodgings." 

On the next evening he writes "Dined with the Citi- 
zens at a public dinner given by them; and went to a 
dancing assembly in the evening." 

That is the spirit and manner in which the 2,000 
people of New Bern of 1791 welcomed the First Presi- 
dent of the United States and I know that is the spirit 
in which the citizens of this New Bern of 1932 will 
honor his memory in commemoration of this two hun- 
dredth anniversary of his birth. 

The purpose of George Washington on that extensive 
tour of the South, was to give the people of the United 



States a sense of being one people, under one friendly 
and helpful government. And he meant them to ac- 
quire that sense of nationality from seeing and meeting 
and talking with him, their friendly and helpful Pres- 
ident. 

It seems to me that in this year 1932 we can honor 
the memory of George Washington in no more appro- 
priate way than to revive this feeling of solid nation- 
ality, and if we cannot meet and talk with him, we can, 
at least, commune with him in spirit and give solemn 
thought to his great life and teachings. 

He is still to us the friendly and helpful President. 
He is still to us the greatest American who ever lived, 
and who charted for us a safe course as a nation. In 
this year 1932 it is particularly appropriate that we ac- 
quire a new sense of our solid nationality and the fact 
that we are one people with one supreme interest at 
heart — the prosperity and safety of our country. We 
can show that spirit in no better way than by reverence 
to the great man who once honored this State and this 
City with his presence and who, in spirit, presides eter- 
nal over our national destiny. 

We cannot welcome George Washington to our cities, 
to public dinners or to dancing assemblies. All that was 
mortal of George Washington sleeps forever on that 
beautiful spot beside the Potomac where he loved noth- 
ing better than to dispense that warm and generous hos- 
pitality which he appreciated so much when tendered 
him here by your forefathers. But his memory will 
never die. His teachings will live on and the example 
of his citizenship will shine on as long as the sun itself. 

If we cannot welcome George Washington into our 
homes, we can still welcome him into our hearts. We 
can forever keep before us the example of his patriot- 
ism; we can forever keep in our minds his teachings; 
we can forever guide our footsteps by his wisdom. 

We not only can do these things, we must do them, 
if our country is to continue to rise safely on those 
foundations which George Washington laid in the blood 
and tears of the Revolution. 

This year the nation and the world is pouring out 
upon Washington's memory all that fiord of honor and 
affection which a new understanding of his life and work 
has inspired within us. It has been my privilege as 
Director of the United States George Washington 
Bicentennial Commission to formulate these great 
national plans which are reflected now in celebration 
activities that have awakened the people of the United 
States and the world. It has been a tremendous task 
but the inspiration of the work itself has carried us 
through to success. 

There are today in this nation some 800,000 commit- 
tees actively at work in preparing programs in honor of 
George Washington. Practically every nation in the 
world is doing something to add to that flood of honor 



142 



George Washington Bicentennial Addresses 



and affection with which the human race contemplates 
his life and his work. But the true honor we pay Wash- 
ington is not to shout loud hurrahs to his name, nor to 
cry out empty words of praise. The real honor that 
George Washington deserves is that we bring back into 
our daily lives something of his self-sacrificing spirit; 
something of his devotion to country; something of his 
willingness to think of others before he thought of him- 
self. 

North Carolina is doing its part. From many towns, 
cities and communities in your beautiful state we have 
the most encouraging reports of celebration activities. 
I congratulate you upon what has been done and in all 
earnestness urge you to continued and greater activities. 
North Carolina, by tradition, by history and by the fine 
patriotic character of its people, must assume front rank 
in the great procession of the states of this republic 
that will honor George Washington in this celebration 
year of 1932. 

We must rise above the selfish passions of the moment 
and realize that unless we think more of the nation and 
less of personal gain, the nation itself will suffer and our 
individual lives will suffer with it. 

I believe the American people are filled with this 



thought. I believe that is the guiding power behind this 
year of celebration which the people of our country 
and of the world have prepared in such detail. I be- 
lieve that many of the ills and anxieties now upon us as 
a nation have happened because we have gone astray 
from the simple and unselfish teachings of George 
Washington. 

I believe that the only remedy for our present situa- 
tion is to return again to the teachings of our immortal 
Washington. I believe that with a sincere devotion to 
his practices and ideals and sincere endeavor to follow 
his guidance we can again return to that normal condi- 
tion of national life which insures us protection and 
prosperity. 

We have patriots today, many of them, who are stead- 
fast in their unselfish patriotism. We are sometimes 
confused by the clash of conflicting interests. We are 
stupefied by alarms and pessimism, but we should ever 
remember that patriotism is not dead. We should re- 
member that unselfish devotion to country is not de- 
stroyed and where we find this devotion and this 
patriotism we should cherish it and encourage it for in 
that lies our future safety. 



AT WASHINGTON'S FIRST HEADQUARTERS 

Address Delivered at Ceremony Marking Washington's First Headquarters, 

Cumberland, Maryland, 
April 21, 1932 



The ceremony of marking this quaint little building 
today is one of the important contributions to the 
Celebration honoring George Washington on the two 
hundredth anniversary of his birth. 

Any memorial to George Washington on this spot 
would be important, for at the original settlement that 
stood here in pioneer times, he really began his great 
career. 

But between the year 1732, when Washington was 
born, and the year 175 3, when he passed this way on his 
first momentous errand of statesmanship, all was prepa- 
ration for what was to follow. 

By that time Washington had acquired the little 
school -room learning that Destiny was to allot him, he 
had made the acquaintance of those great and good 
friends who after all were his best teachers. 

They had drawn out the solid qualities of manhood 
with which Nature had endowed him. The most power- 
ful and influential of those friends — Lord Fairfax — had 
given Washington his first real job, his start in life, as 
a sur\e\ or. 

And the new pursuit had taken Washington into the 
severest tests of adventure and duty amid the wilds of 
a young country. 

At home he learned the ways of the best human so- 
ciety of his time. At his work he learned the ways of 
savage man in his savage wilderness. 



By his 21st year, Washington was ripe for his real 
work in the world. The period of youth and prepara- 
tion was over. His frame was of steel. His character 
was fully formed. Already, at an age when others are 
still scarcely more than mere boys, George Washington 
stood established among all who knew him as a man, 
strong and hardy in body, sound in judgment, absolutely 
honest, and equal to any demand that might be made of 
him. 

Destiny had decided that it was time for George 
Washington to begin his career. 

And here, in what is now the city of Cumberland, he 
began that career. Wakefield is the birthplace of his 
body. This is the birthplace of his work in the world. 

All the great achievements which have made him one 
of the remarkable men of history, had to have their be- 
ginnings. And here where we stand, those beginnings 
occurred. 

There could hardly be a more important spot on the 
face of the earth than just where we are gathered. 

And there could hardly be a more appropriate marker 
for this spot than the little building upon which this 
tablet is set and dedicated now. 

We who look back on that troubled period know that 
the shadow of war followed George Washington on the 
errand that brought him this way in 1753. 

George Washington knew only that he was sent upon 
serious business with a threatening military power. He 



George Washington Bicentennial Addresses 



143 



knew that duty was to take him through 200 miles of 
wilderness, with danger lurking in every mile, and 
winter doubling every danger. 

It was all he needed to know. The Governor of his 
Province had placed a grave responsibility in his hands, 
and he meant to discharge it, whatever the cost to him- 
self. 

Twice he came within a hair's-breadth of losing his 
life on that plunge through the wilderness stretching 
over the mountains from here. Once he was nearly 
drowned when the tiny raft that he and Gist con- 
structed with a single hatchet stuck in the ice and Wash- 
ington was wrenched from his footing and had to fight 
for his life in the icy waters of the Allegheny. 

Not many miles further back, a treacherous Indian 
had fired a musket at him point-blank, but fortunately 
had missed the shining mark. 

We know now that it was little short of a miracle for 
any man to cross that dense and hostile forest, and 
come out alive. No man was ever more in the hands of 
Destiny than George Washington, and no man was so 
little aware of it. 

In the light of subsequent history we know the gravity 
of Washington's business with the French commanding 
officer at Fort Le Bouef, ordered by the Governor of 
Virginia to remove his forces from what was destined to 
become the United States. 

As it happened that officer's answer opened a chain 
of events beginning with a war that spread over much 
of the world, and that ended in the American Revolu- 
tion, the Independence of America, and the establish- 
ment of the United States. 

So, if any spot on earth is many times sacred, it is 
here where we stand today. For here George Washing- 
ton set in motion the forces that brought this about. 
Here began the labors of a man ennobled above all others 
for lifting mankind to a higher life. For this alone it 
were well that we set this spot forever apart as hallowed 
soil. 

On the foundation of Washington's first errand here, 
the building of his fame went forward with a rush. 
Hardly had he returned from merely warning the in- 
vaders away, when he was commissioned an officer and 
ordered to drive them away. 

I need not rehearse the story you know so well. If 
we of the United States George Washington Bicenten- 
nial Commission have done our appointed work, then 
we have made every school-child aware of George 
Washington's leap to renown from this point. The cold 
and distant Washington has been banished, and in his 
place we have stationed the warm and human Washing- 
ton, whose entire life of kindness and goodness is an 
open book. 

Today we think of the chapter that deals with the 
young lieutenant-colonel of 22 who came here in 1754 
at the head of a tiny army; sent to capture the French 
fort where the Monongahela and the Allegheny meet. 

We know how the death of his superior gave Wash- 
ington chief command and responsibility. We know 
the courage with which he faced hopeless odds in his 
brave stand at Fort Necessity. Surrounded by enemies 



fully three times his number, he had to turn back. But 
he did it with honor and with flags flying. 

It was that stand of George Washington that brought 
Braddock this way within a year. This little building 
is to stand here as long as its material shall last to be a 
reminder of that next historic move — which killed the 
luckless Braddock but spread still further Washington's 
sublime personal courage, as the heroic redeemer of 
Colonial honor. 

That fateful day revealed to the people of America 
that the British soldier was not invincible. It further 
revealed that America had a born leader. These convic- 
tions sank into the public mind, and undoubtedly helped 
to create that patriotic spirit, that solid public confi- 
dence, which led to the Declaration of Independence 
and the victorious war that established that independ- 
ence. And it was George Washington who brought this 
about. 

With excellent reason we mark today the starting- 
point of these great events. 

On yet a fourth occasion Washington made this spot 
important by his presence, when he came here to join 
the Forbes expedition which finally made the entire 
western region firmly British — and ultimately Ameri- 
can. 

When Washington came here a last time on a military 
errand, he came as President of the United States, and 
the great career had been nearly rounded to the full 
circle. 

Once again the western end of Pennsylvania, which 
he knew so well from the days when he fought the 
Indians and the French in its tangled wilds, called for 
his firm and masterful grip to set it in order. 

The wilderness then was dotted with farms, but the 
great barrier of the Allegheny Mountains cut off this 
region from the East. The Ohio and the Mississippi 
tempted Western Pennsylvania to turn its traffic in that 
direction, and perhaps set up a separate government in- 
stitution. 

All through his Presidential years, Washington was 
troubled by this possibility. It was this drift toward 
secession that made what is known as the Whisky Insur- 
rection such a danger in his eyes. 

The new United States was openly challenged by a 
region that threatened to tear itself loose, and Washing- 
ton flew to preserve his beloved Union, and keep the 
Great West safe for America. 

For the last time in his life he took the field as head 
of the army. The new Constitution of the United 
States made the President Commander-in-Chief of the 
land and naval forces, and Washington lost no time in 
exercising his Constitutional authority. 

Fortunately the menace was quickly over. An army 
of 15,000 men, with George Washington in command, 
was too much for the rebellious westerners. His troops 
had only to appear on the mountain crests, and the ugly 
prospect of a civil war had vanished. 

But here to this place President Washington came in 
1794, and we have his own words to describe the scene, 
in those direct and simple phrases which only Washing- 
ton could frame. 

He had stopped at Old Town, where, he says, "After 



144 



George Washington Bicentennial Addresses 



an early breakfast we set out for Cumberland . . . Three 
miles from the Town I was met by a party of Horse 
under the command of Major Lewis (my Nephew) and 
by Brigr. Genl. Smith of the Maryland line, who Es- 
corted me to the Camp; where, finding all the Troops 
under Arms I passed along the line of the Army; was 
conducted to a house the residence of Major Lynn of the 
Maryland line (an old Continental Officer) where I was 
well lodged, and civily entertained." 

How thoroughly Washingtonian that is! Though he 
now was President of the United States, he nevertheless 
remembers every old comrade in arms. He remembers 
such matters as the physical comforts he received from 
the host who had the honor to entertain him. Busy as 
he was, and weighted with heavy cares, nothing deserv- 
ing of his thanks escaped him. 

What other thoughts must have possessed this man 
who noted everything, as he came to Cumberland for 
the last time before he died! 

He now was 62 years of age. Precisely forty-one years 
had passed, almost to the very month, since that day in 
175 3 when he left Will's Creek, a mere youth, and 
plunged into the unknown wilderness on the first mis- 
sion that began his sublime career. 

Now, in 1794, the country he had lived and labored 
to establish was a recognized member of the world's 
family of nations. Then it was a thin string of colonies, 
eager for a little more land to the West, and too weak 
to grasp it. 

Upon his first visit here Washington was hardly more 
than a boy, unknown outside a circle of friends who had 
recommended him to his Governor. In 1794 he was a 
great world figure, revered even by his recent enemies. 

Washington spent little time in thinking of himself, 
but these mighty contrasts cannot have escaped his 
notice. 

He may have scorned to think how his personal fame 
had grown in those forty years, but he was entitled to 
draw every satisfaction from the growth of his country. 

We are not presumptuous in thinking that he did so, 
for again he has given us hints in his own language. 

After his last visit to Cumberland Washington had 
moved to the general rendezvous at Bedford. From 
here, after giving final orders for the advance of the 
army over the mountains, he returned to his Presidential 
duties at the national capital in Philadelphia. But true 
to his habit of noticing everything, he records in his diary 
these significant words: 

"The Road from Cumberld. to this place is, in 
places, stoney but in other respects not bad. It passes 
through a valley the whole way; and was opened by 
Troops under my command in the Autumn of 175 8." 

So we sec that the passing of the years, and the great 



fruits they had borne, did come to his mind. He tells 
it himself, in words of quiet but justifiable pride. 

So Cumberland had its deep meanings for George 
Washington. 

And what a deep and everlasting meaning he has given 
to Cumberland! 

On this place he conferred the deathless honor of 
being the crucible in which all the qualities in him were 
to be forged into greatness, in the white-hot trials of 
battle and action. 

And back to this scene Destiny sent him in the fullness 
of those powers, as if proud to show what she had ac- 
complished with such materials. 

Here the Great Power that directs us all, using a chain 
of events that reads like a majestic poem, rounded out 
one of the greatest lives ever lived by a man — from its 
raw beginnings to its glowing summit. 

Such is the honor that belongs to this community — to 
be forever attached, in this Providential way, to the life- 
story of that great man. Here is the opening and the 
closing of the outstanding part of his career. With what 
proud and deep meaning may the people of this neigh- 
borhood say, "George Washington tarried here." 

These are some of the feelings that stir us to the depths 
as we place on this little building the tablet which, 
though in other words, proclaims that fact — today, to- 
morrow and forever — "George Washington once tarried 
here." 

The claims of this simple structure to have been the 
very first of Washington's many headquarters, as we are 
told, may rest on treasured legend and tradition, rather 
than upon those sworn and attested documents so pre- 
cious to the historian. In days to come, some other 
locality, in proud and friendly rivalry, may discover a 
similar building, with similar claims to priority. 

What does it matter, when we have here all that has 
earthly interest and importance? 

What is of undying interest here is that this hallowed 
ground, and this privileged community, once enjoyed 
an association with the living Washington that was 
especially close, so that his memory is here especially 
dear. 

What is important here is not so much this building, 
but our coming here to mark it. 

By this act we prove, with evidence which cannot be 
disputed, that the real and the eternal headquarters of 
George Washington are in the memories of humanity. 
And what we do in marking this building is to set up 
another eternal symbol and covenant that so long as the 
Divine spark of gratitude illumines the souls of men, 
George Washington will ever live in the hearts of his 
people. 



George Washington Bicentennial Addresses 



145 



Unveiling Joseph Hewes Memorial 

Address Delivered at Ceremony of Unveiling Memorial to Joseph Hewes, 

"Father of the Navy," at Edenton, North Carolina, 

April 28, 1932 



I see all about me the pride and pleasure which the 
good people of this historic city have every right to take 
on this occasion. But it is my rare privilege to draw 
from it a pleasure that is probably greater than that felt 
by any one else who is present. 

On the program of the day, I am put down as re- 
sponding to an address of welcome. I have certainly 
had a welcome here, that stirs every fibre of my being. 

But in turn I bring a welcome and a blessing to you — 
a welcome that comes to you from the entire United 
States. 

The welcome I bring you is for the important addi- 
tion you are making here to this tribute our people are 
pouring forth this year. That is why I may claim to 
enjoy a pleasure even greater than your own. 

I feel all the pride that you feel. And to that is added 
the pride of all the millions of good Americans in our 
country. For the unveiling and dedication of this 
monument to Joseph Hewes, takes appropriate place 
among the most important of all the celebrations of the 
year. 

Joseph Hewes played a pivotal part in the life and 
labors of George Washington, whose friend he was. 
The shining patriot who lived here and forever adorns 
the history of your city, was far more than a mere pas- 
sive Signer of the Declaration of Independence. 

We have it on the authority of John Adams that 
Joseph Hewes cast the deciding vote that led to the 
adoption of that immortal charter of our liberties. 

The Continental Congress had already sent George 
Washington to chief command on the field of battle 
where our national destiny was to be decided. In the 
Declaration of Independence it placed in Washington's 
hands full warrant for all he might be called upon to 
do, in the winning of our liberties. 

Without the vote of Joseph Hewes, that warrant 
would have been withheld. But with the deciding 
voice of Hewes, history perfected itself, and George 
Washington was armed with the last great power he 
needed — the power of an aroused, united, and flaming 
public opinion. 

And the adoption of the Declaration of Independence 
was no easy matter. We are told by recorders of that 
great crisis that for months the question of Independ- 
ence had been discussed, and always the majority had 
been against it. 

Clouds and uncertainties surrounded that delibera- 
tive body. Dangers hovered over it. What happened 
we have in the words of John Adams himself. 

"For many days," says Adams, "the Majority [against 
the Declaration] depended on Mr. Hews of North Car- 
olina. While a Member one day was speaking and read- 
ing documents from all the Colonies to prove that the 



Public Opinion, the general Sense of all was in favour 
of the Measure, when he came to North Carolina and 
produced letters and public proceedings which demon- 
strated that the Majority of that Colony were in favour 
of it, Mr. Hews who had hitherto constantly voted 
against it, started suddenly upright, and lifting up both 
his Hands to Heaven as if he had been in a trance, 
cry'd out Tt is done! and I will abide by it.' " 

And then exulting John Adams says, "I would give 
more for a perfect Painting of the terror and horror 
upon the Faces of the Old Majority at that critical 
moment than for the best Piece of Raphaelle." 

It is little wonder that George Washington became 
friendly with a man of such courage. 

There is perhaps little that is new that I could impart 
to you concerning the great patriot who lived here. 
The people of Edenton are in a position to give rather 
than receive information, concerning him. 

My errand here is rather to give you a sense of how 
this occasion fits like a jewel into the picture of an en- 
tire people. The nation is rendering this year a great 
tribute to its greatest man, and to all the lofty-minded 
men and women who either aided him personally, or 
backed his efforts with that loyal public opinion which 
John Adams refers to with such exultation. 

This year an entire nation takes delight in going over 
its long and honorable history and feeling at one with 
its past. It gives us all a new dignity, a new feeling of 
stability, to turn and take note of our increasing age as 
a people, and watch the lengthening years stretch out 
behind us. 

It enables us to feel that we are no longer a "young" 
or "new" nation, but now stand as a fixture among the 
firmest and strongest nations of human history. 

And under all this new pleasure that has come to us, 
I see a deep and wholesome national instinct. It is more 
than a mere curiosity as to our history that is turning 
us back to the past, so that we may say to ourselves 
again, "Yes, these great men belong to us. They are 
Americans. We produced them." 

We are turning back to them because we know they 
were leaders who triumphed in a difficult and dangerous 
time. Now our country, together with the entire 
world, is in another difficult and puzzling period. We 
stand confused and anxious. The cry for leadership 
arises on every hand. We are troubled for our personal 
fortunes, and some of us, even for our national safety. 

So, in the midst of our fears, we have an instinct to 
turn back and see how Washington and his fellow 
patriots mastered their trials and discouragements. We 
feel a need to profit by their example, to study their 
methods, and refresh ourselves from the spirit of self- 
giving that: made them patriots and made them great. 



146 



George Washington Bicentennial Addresses 



For many years we have felt that we lived in a wholly 
new and improved time. We looked upon the America 
of today, with its marvelous inventions and advance- 
ments, as something new in the world. By comparison 
the America of Washington's time seemed primitive and 
old-fashioned. It seemed to belong to a day that was 
past. 

I believe that if we were honest enough to confess it, 
we felt toward Washington himself that, while he was 
undeniably a great man in his time, he too belonged in 
the past. 

But now we have found that even this most ad- 
vanced world of today is subject to the same shocks and 
stresses that have afflicted nations since the world began. 

We have found that not all our wealth could save us 
from uncertainty and fear and distress. We have found 
that even this scientific time is in danger without the 
old human virtues of unselfishness, patriotism, thought 
of country before thought of self. 

And so we are moved by a deep and saving instinct 
to turn back to the great men who practised these vir- 
tues and built so great a nation. We feel a need to purge 
ourselves of the vices of greed and selfishness and forget- 
fulness of country, that have brought us into loss and 
confusion, and be filled again with the sublime incen- 
tives of the fathers. 

In my opinion, nothing else than this profound popu- 
lar instinct can account for the quiet but great and 
strong enthusiasm which our people are throwing into 
this remarkable year-long tribute of respect and rever- 
ence to George Washington and his great associates. It 
is more than a passing jubilee; it is the solemn re-dedi- 
cation of a people to their ancient standards, and to the 
mighty souls of old who set us the immortal example 
of how those standards should be held aloft. 

To many of us, no doubt, this return to our ancient 
history can be hardly more than a refreshing study, an 
effort to grasp from books and pictures a sense of the 
reality of our past. 

But there are in the country certain privileged places 
that are the very birth-places of that history. There 
we get a real feeling of the actuality of those days and 
their great men. For about us are the houses where 
they lived and planned, the very churches where they 
worshipped, the very streets they passed along on their 
way to business. 

I Ins City of Eden ton is such a place. It seems to me 
that here we see America at its very best. 

You have here superbly beautiful natural settings 
and surroundings. You have here traditions of the 
finest culture, running back to America's very begin- 
nings. You have a record of patriotism that takes its 
place beside that of any other community in the original 
colonies. 

An honored dweller in this colonial town played a 
decisive role m upholding George Washington's arm 
.ind in establishing the freedom of all the colonies. And 
into this community President George Washington 
reached for a member of the Supreme Court, so that 
the work of Joseph Hewes in molding our national 
structure was continued by James Iredell, his intimate 
friend and life long admirer. 



By contributing all this, Edenton fixes itself forever 
in American history, and by celebrating today the 
memory of one of her great patriots your city adds, as 
I say, a touching and important feature to the nation's 
great program of tribute this year. 

And in marking the everlasting memory of one of 
these men, you are animated, I know, by something of 
that same wave of national feeling which I have wit- 
nessed everywhere else in the country — this turning 
back to the ancient spirit for that renewal of purpose 
which we crave and need so much today. 

So here, too, the underlying instinct and purpose of 
this memorable Bicentennial year is being fulfilled. 

And so I, who have come here to receive one welcome, 
bring you another welcome — from an America united 
this year as never before, rallied as one behind the 
memory of Washington and of those upon whom he 
relied for help and support. 

Let us remember that while these deeply moving 
occasions remind us of the dignity of our increasing age, 
nevertheless America is always new. It is as new today 
as it was in the days when Washington ordered read to 
his troops the Declaration of Independence, made pos- 
sible by the brave and self-sacrificing vote of your 
famous townsman, Joseph Flewes. 

Our nation is ever new because it has new problems 
to face and to master every day. For that is the law of 
progress. If we are to march on, we must be prepared 
to meet new obstacles at every stage. The truth of the 
matter is that every day every one of us has his own 
Declaration of Independence to sign. Every day this 
nation itself must start a new independence. 

In the day of Washington and Joseph Hewes, the in- 
dependence so passionately desired, so defiantly declared 
and so heroically fought for, was Independence from a 
foreign political tyranny. 

Washington, with men like Joseph Hewes to support 
him, forever settled that great question. 

But today we need Independence from the tyranny 
of distress, from selfishness, and a hundred enemies 
within our own borders, that have reduced us to fear 
and uncertainty. 

It is high time that we turned back and learned how 
the Fathers won their Independence, that we may learn 
how to win ours. 

The man to whose everlasting honor and memory 
this shaft is unveiled today was the type of man who 
could vote a saving measure for his country, though he 
knew that measure might ruin his business. Long before 
the Declaration of Independence was discussed, Joseph 
Hewes voted for non-importation of English goods, 
though his whole fortune depended on his ships and his 
trade. 

Joseph Hewes died at the post of duty. He gave his 
life to his country as truly as if he had lost it on the 
field of battle. Frail of body, he devoted himself to 
brave stands in the council chamber, and there labored 
with a fierceness of energy that finally killed him. He 
thus ended a perfect record of service to his country and 
his fellow countrymen, with the crowning touch of 
being one of the first members of the Continental Con- 
gress to die at his work. 



George Washington Bicentennial Addresses 



147 



In a letter written while the clouds of the Revolution- 
ary war were gathering, Joseph Hewes tells that he has 
bought a good musket and a bayonet, and that he would 
rather fall in action than fade away from his lingering 
malady. 

His wish was fulfilled, though in a different way. He 
died for country, after labors and achievements that 
accomplished far more for his people than he could with 
a musket in the ranks. 

It is to the type of patriot represented by your emi- 
nent townsman that we are turning back this year, in 
this national impulse I speak of — this instinct to recap- 
ture some of the iron will, the fearless determination, 
and all the other sturdy virtues that enabled those men 
to triumph over their dangers and difficulties, so that 
we may become the masters of ours. 

If we would honor Joseph Hewes here, and George 
Washington everywhere, this year, this is the best way 
we can do so — by bringing the spirit of 1776 into the 
problems of 1932. 

Upbuilder of his young country's commerce, faithful 
representative of his countrymen in their provincial 
assemblies, fearless upholder of their rights in the Con- 
tinental Congress, Signer of the Declaration of their 
Independence, first executive head of their navy, wise 
and experienced legislator — Joseph Hewes was the per- 
fect example of those self-giving men who made pos- 
sible George Washington's work for America and for 
humanity. 

Your welcome here reflects truly the finest traditions 
of this beautiful Southland. It is the perpetual tie of 
that fine hospitality that reaches us and binds us with 
the past. In this glorious season of vernal beauty when 
all nature joins in a grand chorus of praise to our All 



Merciful Creator, your welcome blends with that spirit 
of friendliness that makes us one with Him. 

Those who come here, as I do, for the first time, feel 
that we have gained a certain enrichment in our lives. 
There is an impression that will last always, not alone 
of what you do and say today, but of the atmosphere 
which shines like a radiance all about us. 

I have a new understanding of your love for this 
place; your yielding to its charms; your local patriotism. 
And your welcome seems to breathe a sentiment of all 
those who have gone before you — a welcome to your 
lives and to your hearts. 

So long as that sentiment prevails, so long as we pre- 
serve that strong feeling of attachment to our native 
land, so long will our nation last. In honoring an 
American patriot we honor our land. This reverent act 
performed here today seems to me proof that it is our 
national impulse this year. It speaks out in this noble 
tribute of respect. It is speaking wherever the memory 
of George Washington, or any of his co-workers is like- 
wise honored during this two hundredth year since 
Washington's birth. 

I therefore stand here moved as never before, because 
I believe the feeling here and everywhere else exhibited 
in America this year, is a proof that our country is safe, 
because by such very acts as this, it is refreshing itself 
from the men and the principles that brought it into 
being and gave it life. 

I believe in the principles laid down by George 
Washington. 

I believe in the wisdom of his compatriots. 

I believe in the Americans of today. 

I believe in — America. 



Before the Tomb of George Washington 



Address Delivered at American Peace Society Ceremony, 
Before Tomb of George Washington at Mount Vernon, 

May 2, 1932 



This is a place of dreams; a place of reverie; a place 
of solemn memories. Standing beneath the glory of 
these majestic trees, before the tomb of him who lies 
within this ancient vault, we come as humble pilgrims, 
as children, seeking comfort, inspiration and courage 
from the great life which ended here. 

About us is the quiet, brooding spirit of George 
Washington. It is the calm spirit, the beautiful spirit, 
the courageous spirit of the man who gave so much to 
us. Here we feel in our most sensitive natures the soul 
of America — the America that George Washington 
brought into being and which he did all that was 
humanly possible to preserve after his time by leaving us 
his precepts and his advice. 

I believe that if that long-silent voice could issue from 
the shadows of this shrine to us, his countrymen, he 
would bid us have courage, have faith and be strong. 
I believe that if we attuned ourselves to that infinite 



spiritual message that we would go from this place with 
new loyalty and new confidence in our future. 

These are dark days for America, but no darker than 
the days which he experienced and our situation is not 
as desperate as was his. We must take heart of his cour- 
age, faith of his steadfastness and live with his immortal 
example as a light to our faltering feet. 

We are apt to think in these gloomy days that our 
troubles are mountainous. We are afraid and uncer- 
tain. These are qualities which George Washington 
knew not. For at every point in his life he demon- 
strated exactly those qualities of mind and heart which 
we of today should strive to acquire. 

The great man who lies within this silent tomb left 
us more than riches, more than material heritage, more 
even than the nation which he created, for he left us 
those guiding principles to answer every national ques- 
tion and to form every national policy within his field 



148 



George Washington Bicentennial Addresses 



of vision. And we are now only beginning to discover 
how far his vision extended into the future. 

His rich and fruitful years brought him a harvest of 
wisdom which he, in his greatness has left to us. Alert 
to every important political force and movement of his 
own time, he traced with unerring instinct the course 
these forces were to follow in later years and what would 
be their effect and consequences. 

His was not only a great life rounded with the wis- 
dom and the character of a perfect career, but his also 
was a mind so strongly developed that he looked far into 
the future and left for us those standards of policy and 
of life that today, if we acknowledged and followed 
them, would surely lead us on out of the valley of dis- 
couragement and doubt to the shining heights of suc- 
cess and prosperity. 

We who have been organizing the great world-wide 
ceremonies that mark the Two Hundredth Anniver- 
sary of George Washington's Birth, have been examin- 
ing his life, his deeds and especially his opinions with a 
new interest, and the result has been to discover in him 
the most powerful intellect that America has yet pro- 
duced. But intellect without unselfishness is barren; 
wisdom without charity is empty. 

George Washington left us a heritage greater than 
wealth, greater than station, greater than all the van- 
ities of the world. He left us all of the knowledge and 
wisdom which he had acquired and which could be ap- 
plied to the problems of a future America. 

These priceless possessions belong to us. They came 
from the heart and the mind of the man who lived in 
this beautiful spot and whose bodily remains rest so 
close to us. Here we come into intimate communion 
with his life and also with the soul which passed be- 
yond. Here we must feel our dependence upon his wis- 
dom to guide us in our social and political lives as we 
feel dependent upon the God of Mercy to lead us in our 
moral lives. 

There is not a problem confronting us today, there is 
not a danger threatening us, that was not in some man- 
ner embodied in the vision of this greatest of our peo- 
ple. In so far as our country has remained true to its 
ideals and safely progressing toward its appointed des- 
tiny, it has accomplished this by leaning upon the teach- 
ings left to us by this man. 

What if George Washington could not foresee the 
progress in transportation, communication and science 
that has given this country a different aspect from that 
which he knew? What if George Washington did not 
hear the scream of a locomotive, or see airplanes flying 
over his beloved estate? These are not fundamental in- 
fluences upon the human heart. They do not in them- 
selves affect the souls of men and women. 

The human instincts which George Washington knew 
so well have remained unchanged amid all this super- 
ficial miracle of development, and it is to the hearts of 
men oi his day and for all future days that George 
Washington made his appeal. 

He knew that men's hearts would never change. Men 
are oi restless minds and for this reason George Wash- 
ington deemed it fit that he should work through the 



hearts of men to give them a sound, kindly conception 
of their duties to God, their country and to themselves. 

As nearly as it was humanly possible George Wash- 
ington and his compatriots gave us an unchanging form 
of Government and we must acknowledge the tran- 
scendent wisdom which created that form of Govern- 
ment when we remember that in principle it is exactly 
the same today as it was when promulgated by the Con- 
stitutional Convention over which George Washington 
presided. 

It is because these fundamentals do remain unchanged, 
and please God, ever will remain unchanged, that we 
continue to be a nation with unlimited ages of progress 
before us. But if our future as a nation is to remain 
secure, we need always to rely on the affectionate and 
fatherly advice left to us by George Washington and 
the other great men of his time. 

If this Celebration in honor of the Two Hundredth 
Anniversary of the Birth of George Washington has 
accomplished nothing else than to direct our minds to 
a more serious consideration of his rich store of political 
wisdom, it would have been justified. For in that wis- 
dom lies safety. For in that wisdom lies every national 
attribute that makes for stability and the happiness of 
our people. 

As a youthful Colonel on his first diplomatic and 
military errands against hostile forces on American soil, 
George Washington had impressed upon his mind the 
need of bringing the scattered colonies together. He 
saw their need of a new sense of nationalism if they 
were to live in peace for the future. 

As Commander-in-Chief of the Revolutionary 
Armies he began his twin labors as military leader and as 
statesman. While saving the colonies themselves, he 
began that colossal work of welding them into one na- 
tion and one people which is today our proud America. 

As counselor, advisor and conciliator, he kept a watch- 
ful eye upon the progress of the framing of the Con- 
stitution upon which he pinned his hopes and desires. 

As President, he began the work of creating out of 
these principles and policies a fabric of government 
which has outlasted time itself. 

We cannot read the record of George Washington's 
life without realizing that it was a life of continuous 
struggle. At no time, save the few brief years of his 
retirement here upon this lovely estate, was George 
Washington free from care or the burdens of responsi- 
bility. These cares and responsibilities were not for 
himself, but always for his country and his country- 
men. Always for others. And in his great heart he 
thought of us today. Sacrifice, suffering, danger — 
these were with him during his days and nights. 

With devout and yearning hearts we stand here in 
reverence beside his tomb to catch the fleeting breath of 
his presence. His message comes to us through that mys- 
terious transmission of spirit that is breathed in the hush 
of this moment and this place. The infinite peace of 
God is his. Here his love and his care sustain us in the 
sure knowledge that he is with us and is pointing the 
way. He is ever pointing the way. The Commander 
and the Comrade rides ahead. 



George Washington Bicentennial Addresses 



149 



If Washington were alive today, would he bow his 
head in discouragement before the problems which we 
face? If that inanimate clay which lies in this sacred 
place should breathe again would George Washington 
say to us that all is lost? Would he who brought the 
nation into being fear for its safety after all the years 
of its glorious history? 

I say no! 

George Washington, with that steady, inflexible pur- 
pose, that judgment and knowledge which he possessed, 
would calm the turbulent waters of our present unrest 
and bid us go on to a greater destiny. 

That is the spirit of George Washington. That is the 
soul which we acknowledge here in this quiet spot. No 



greater tribute could we pay to him who lies within this 
tomb, than to re-dedicate ourselves to him and to his 
purposes. 

No greater thing could we do for ourselves than to 
stand here at this solemn hour and say we will go for- 
ward with George Washington, and under God's guid- 
ance we will achieve, we will succeed, we will preserve 
that which he gave us. 

The benediction of our Creator is here. The peace 
of God is upon us. We should go forth armed with new 
courage, new wisdom and new determination. Thus 
armed we will preserve our country and will keep faith 
with George Washington. 



Was The First 
President of the United States 

Extension of Remarks Made in the House of Representatives 

May 11, 1932 

Reprinted from the Congressional Record of May 11, 19} 2 



I doubt if the Members of Congress, or the people of 
America generally, realize the tremendous service that 
has been rendered by the United States George Wash- 
ington Bicentennial Commission in correcting popular 
historical fallacies and setting forth for the future, the 
facts in relation to the history of George Washington 
and his time. 

This work of eliminating the false from the true and 
in setting up unassailable facts of history has been, in a 
sense, a by-product of the Commission's activities, but 
its importance is becoming more apparent every day. 

To those of us who have been laboring in the almost 
endless research and publication necessary to bring forth 
an authentic history of George Washington and his time, 
it has been astonishing to realize the persistence of error. 
Almost from the day we started our research service, we 
were confronted constantly with criticisms, denials and 
assertions that indicated the general fog, not only in the 
popular mind, but in the minds of many so-called his- 
torians, in relation to this period of our history. We 
were continually meeting these critics and building up 
a structure of historical facts that could be relied upon 
and which would stand for all time as the official record. 

It is amazing to note the stubbornness with which a 
certain number of people contend that Washington's 
birthday should be observed on the eleventh of February 
instead of February 22. I have already placed in the 
Congressional Record a complete statement covering 
that question and proving beyond any question of doubt 
that February 22 is the true birthday of George Wash- 
ington. 

Another persistent error is the often repeated asser- 
tion that George Washington did not receive a salary as 
President. By searching the records we have found that 
George Washington did receive a salary. 

Recently another statement has had wide circulation 



which declares that one John Hanson was the First Presi- 
dent of the United States. We have repeatedly denied 
this and pointed to historical references to sustain our 
position. It has remained for the State Department of 
the United States Government to place its final stamp 
of authority upon the fact that John Hanson was not 
the First President of the United States, but that George 
Washington himself was the First President of the 
United States. 

In order to preserve this statement and to correlate it 
with other important facts which are of official record, 
I wish to quote a statement issued by the State Depart- 
ment of the United States, May 9, 1932, which says: 

"Probably because of the Bicentennial Celebration an 
unusual amount of interest has been aroused in this coun- 
try as to who was the first President of the United States. 
The following is a sample of the reply sent by the De- 
partment to the various inquirers: 

"Sir: The receipt is acknowledged of your letter of 
April 23, 1932, in which you enquire 'who is considered 
the first President of the United States?' 

"George Washington was the first President of the 
United States of America. The office of President of 
the United States of America was created by express 
words of the Constitution, which says (Article II, Sec- 
tion I) 'The executive Power shall be vested in a Presi- 
dent of the United States of America.' 

"George Washington took the oath of office on April 
30, 1789, and having been reelected served until March 
3, 1797, as it was then considered that the term of office 
of a President expired at midnight of March 3 although 
it is now the settled practice that the term expires on 
March 4, at noon. 

"Prior to the Articles of Confederation, which went 
into force on March 1, 1781, upon the completion of 
their ratification by the thirteen States, the Continental 



150 



George Washington Bicentennial Addresses 



Congress chose from time to time presiding officers or 
'presidents.' Of these there were seven chosen prior to 
March 1, 1781. Samuel Huntington, of Connecticut, 
being then in office. 

"Samuel Huntington continued to preside over the 
session of the Continental Congress then holding until 
Jul} 10, 1781. He had asked to be relieved of the duties 
of that office on the ground of ill health and Thomas 
McKean was elected to succeed him. 

"By the Articles of Confederation (Article V) the 
delegates were to meet in Congress on the first Monday 
of November in every year and (Article IX) 'the United 
States in Congress assembled shall have authority . . . 
to appoint one of their number to preside, provided 
that no person be allowed to serve in the office of presi- 
dent more than one year in any term of three years.' 

"On November 5, 1781, the first Monday in Novem- 
ber of that year, 'Congress proceeded to the election of a 
President; and the ballots being taken, the honorable 
John Hanson was elected' (Journals of the Continental 
Congress, XXI, 1100) . Thus under the Articles of the 
Confederation, John Hanson was appointed to preside 
and held the 'office of president' of 'the United States in 
Congress assembled.' John Hanson had six successors 
elected at various dates from 1782 to 1788. 

"The names of the various presidents of the Congress 
prior to 1789 will be found on page 31 of the 'Bio- 
graphical Directory of the American Congress' (Gov- 



ernment Printing Office, 1928) which is available in 
many public libraries. 

"While John Hanson (and sometimes Thomas Mc- 
Kean) has in various writings been spoken of as the 'first 
president' because of the position which he held under 
the Articles of Confederation, his office was that of 
President of the United States in Congress Assembled, 
and was not the office of President of the United States 
of America. 

"Not only actually and really but also in the most 
strict legal sense as well, George Washington was the 
first President of the United States of America." 

There is nothing new in the foregoing statement so 
far as historical research is concerned. The United 
States George Washington Bicentennial Commission had 
ascertained these facts many months ago, but it is re- 
assuring to note the State Department's voluntary state- 
ment and to feel that this should, and undoubtedly will, 
put an effective and permanent quietus upon a silly and 
unjustifiable historical mistake. 

Posterity will owe to the United States George Wash- 
ington Bicentennial Commission a deep debt of grati- 
tude for its studious, earnest and persistent efforts to 
clarify authentic history. I am convinced that this gen- 
eral subject is of such paramount importance that the 
Congress of the United States should in some way con- 
tinue such activities, not only for the Americans of 
today, but for the generations of Americans yet to come. 



Address Delivered at Arlington National Cemetery, 

Broadcast by the National Broadcasting Company, 

May 30, 1932 



In meeting here today upon this beautiful and solemn 
occasion, we are responding to a sentiment that reaches 
deep into the hearts of all humanity. 

We are here, again, to express our tribute of respect 
and gratitude to our hero dead. But these exalted emo- 
tions are not restricted to those who are buried here. 
They encompass the wide range of all our history and 
all our nation's defenders. 

We come not to pay a debt, for the debt we owe and 
acknowledge here is beyond any human ability to pay. 
Nor arc we here to eulogize the heroes who have gone 
before. They are beyond eulogy. 

We come here to re-consecrate ourselves to the pres- 
ei Y.uion of what they achieved. We are here to pledge 
in loving remembrance, the true hearts of living Ameri- 
cans, to our countrymen, who gave their lives that our 
nation might survive. 

I hose heroes who have gone before are neither high 
nor low, rich nor poor. In the democracy of death they 
are made one, and the love we bear them ennobles us and 
raises before us the radiant symbols of their loyalty and 
their patriotism. 

Many who lie in this vast sacred place were known 
to us. The record of their lives and their deeds shine 



forth to brighten the pages of our history. But in other 
fields, in other acres dedicated to God, heroes lie whose 
very names do not remain to us. 

Those defenders of our land went forth to suffering 
and to death animated by a single imperishable thought. 
Whether they were soldiers of a recent war or soldiers 
of almost forgotten conflicts, we hold them all alike 
in loving memory and honor. 

In this year devoted to the Celebration of the Two 
Hundredth Anniversary of the Birth of George Wash- 
ington, it is fitting that we include in these Memorial 
exercises today a thought and a prayer for the forgotten 
heroes who achieved our independence, and started our 
Nation upon its course. 

Few records remain to us of the thousands of brave 
men who followed Washington with a devotion match- 
less in the history of the world. During that long and 
terrible winter at Valley Forge alone, many hundreds 
of George Washington's soldiers died from wounds, 
disease, and — starvation. 

And of all those who sleep upon that historic field 
in the companionship of immortality, but one grave 
alone is marked, one name alone stands for all. 

It does not in any way detract from our remembrance 



George Washington Bicentennial Addresses 



151 



of later soldiers that we pause to think of the nameless, 
forgotten men who were, nevertheless, Americans, and 
who died for our flag with the same unselfish patriotism 
as the heroes who lie about us here. 

Our eyes fix themselves upon those whose rank and 
deeds made them especially known, and it is significant 
that not one of our war heroes is better known than 
the Unknown Soldier, who stands for all the serried 
ranks of markers that lie about him here, and in the 
fields of France, like mortal tears turned to immortal 
stone. 

He stands for those who died in other wars, whose 
very names are lost behind the misty curtain of the past. 

For these unknown there are no flowers today. No 
bugle calls echo o'er their lonely graves. No mother's 



grief centers about their resting places. No proud 
descendants lay flowers upon the earth above them in 
token of the love we bear them. Their sentinels are the 
everlasting vigil of the stars. Their requiem is the 
whispering wind that testifies for all eternity the 
remembrance of Almighty God. 

Let this memorial of ours today reach out to those 
soldiers whose identity is lost, whose graves the rains 
have washed away, those blessed patriots who sprang 
to battle at the living voice of Washington, and who 
are one with him in the comradeship of immortal glory. 

In the memories of this day, in the solemn beauty of 
this shrine, let us render thanks to our Heavenly Father 
for giving this country such men — men of today and 
of yesterday, men of the long, long ago — the noblest 
manhood of our own America. 



From the Home of Francis Scott Key 

Address Broadcast From the Home of Francis Scott Key, Washington, D. C., 

by the National Broadcasting Company, 

Flag Day, 

June 14, 1932 



Flag Day this year is of particular significance be- 
cause we are celebrating the Two Hundredth Anniver- 
sary of the Birth of that great American who brought 
our flag into being. 

Upon this occasion, therefore, it is appropriate that 
I speak from the home of Francis Scott Key, whose in- 
spired genius garlanded the "Star Spangled Banner" 
with sentiments of imperishable glory. 

As I stand in this revered old mansion in Georgetown, 
Washington, D. C., now the property of the Federal 
Government, and which sheltered the author of our 
National Anthem, I feel the spell of his transcendent 
patriotism upon me. I hear re-echoing through the time- 
stained walls of this historic building, the voice long 
since gone that first put into articulate form the solemn 
feeling of his gratitude that the flag was still there. 

Before Francis Scott Key wrote his immortal lines, 
patriotic Americans were powerless to utter the deep 
emotions that filled them at every sight of the flag and 
with every thought of the colors that stand for its red- 
blooded courage, the white, purity of its motives, and 
the blue of the heaven that has ever been our guide. 

In 1812 our country was again in peril because of 
questions left unsettled by the Revolution, and largely 
because our young nation had been too busy in establish- 
ing itself to prepare adequate defenses. The result was 
a war with Great Britain that ran for two years against 
us. 

The City of Washington was burned with a loss of 
the Capitol, the White House and many other public 
buildings. The President of the United States had been 
driven from the city. Our shipping had disappeared 
from the seas. Our humiliation was complete. The 
fate of the new nation trembled in the balance. It was 



a question whether the independence of the United 
States of America would survive. 

The whole issue turned on the outcome of one last 
battle, in the Autumn of 1814. The hope of the nation 
lay in the City of Baltimore, and the hope of Baltimore 
lay in the one fort that defended it, with ancient guns 
and an untrained garrison. 

On that fateful Sunday morning in September, 1814, 
the alarm was sounded through the streets of Baltimore. 
Cannon boomed from the public square, proclaiming 
that the enemy ships had entered the Patapsco River and 
summoning the militia to guard the city. 

Thus began the historic attack on Fort McHenry, in 
which the stout patriots had little to fire at their oppon- 
ents except nails and scrap iron. We know the issue of 
that battle now, but while it raged the fighting was des- 
perate, ever at fever pitch, and the victory ever in 
doubt. 

At dusk a great storm cut short the fighting, but at 
dawn it broke out anew, and fifteen British ships hurled 
bombs, rockets and solid shot into the ramparts. 

All that day and through the ensuing night the con- 
flict continued and every moment of it was watched by 
Francis Scott Key. He had gone from this home in 
which I am speaking, to Baltimore and boarded an 
enemy ship under a flag of truce to arrange for the ex- 
change of a friend who had been taken prisoner. And 
while the battle raged, he was kept on board ship, him- 
self a virtual prisoner. 

From the midst of the attacking fleet he watched the 
bombardment directed against his fellow Americans. 
Every shot that left an enemy gun was a blow at his 
heart. At midnight he witnessed the sending of a de- 
tachment from an enemy ship to attack the fort from 



152 



George Washington Bicentennial Addresses 



the rear. Everything dear to him and to his country- 
men hung on that movement and its effect on the battle. 
And over the battle itself hung the black pall, horror 
and suspense of night. 

For Francis Scott Key it was a night of anguish. What 
would the morning disclose? Would the fort still hold? 
Would the grand old emblem of red, and white and blue, 
still float defiantly from the mast of the fort in token 
of the survival of our country? All night long the poet 
paced the deck of the ship where he watched, waiting 
for what the morning would bring. 

Then how his heart must have beat in that dramatic 
moment when the first blush of dawn tinged the eastern 
sky. With straining eyes he peered through the smoke 
and fog which momentarily lifted and saw 

There was the flag! The fort still held! The coun- 
try was safe! In that night of anguish and suspense, in 
the very midst of shrieking shells and bursting bombs, 
and in the moment of victory, was conceived our na- 
tional anthem, "The Star Spangled Banner." 

"O say can you see by the dawn's early light" came 
the question from his heart. 

• Yes, the flag was still there! Yes, American courage 
had not faltered! Yes, the oppressor had failed again 
in a battle to lower that flag forever! Yes, the Star 
Spangled Banner still waved o'er the land of the free 
and the home of the brave. 

And in reverence to the Giver of all good, Francis 
Scott Key knelt upon the deck of the ship and returned 
thanks to Almighty God that the flag was still there. 

If ever a song was born of Divine inspiration, it was 
this song of songs. If ever a man responded to a su- 
preme emotion, it was Francis Scott Key when he set 
down the words that today are the national anthem of 
our country and destined for immortality with the flag 
itself. 

The building in which I am speaking was the home 
of that poet. In this beautiful old city of Georgetown, 
much older than the National Capital, but now a part 
of it, Francis Scott Key lived, here on the banks of the 
lovely Potomac. 

All about this house there have been the mutations of 
progress. But I still see through these windows the 
Potomac much as it was in his day. On the further side 
are the verdure clad hills of Virginia, and beyond the 
sweeping city of our heroic dead, Arlington, while 
further still are the great radio towers of the govern- 
ment. 

Before me rises that magnificent structure which now 
spans the Potomac River, named in honor of the poet, 
the I rancis Scott Key Bridge. And almost washing the 
foundations of this house are the placid waters of the 
ancient canal which was the important method of 
transportation to Cumberland and the Northwest in the 
early days of the Capital. 

I ar of] toward the sea-wall of the city, there are air- 
planes, electric cars and a railway train rushing over a 
distant bridge. On the Potomac itself are steamers and 
other craft of many kinds, so that here in this seques- 
tered spot, I see the old linked with the new. 

Before me is unrolled the panorama of our life as a 
nation, and all about I see the flag of your country and 



mine. Never in all these years of development has there 
been anything upon our soil as wonderful in its birth, 
as magnificent in its life as the Star Spangled Banner 
itself, waving in the glory of our country's progress. 

Americans everywhere thrill to the sight of its ma- 
jestic folds and take comfort in the caressing shadow of 
its brilliant beauty. 

Throughout the world it flies today, triumphant in 
its undimmed honor, nor ever lowered to an alien foe. 

Within these ancient walls now stained with the 
weariness of the years, this ancient masonry about me, 
covered with the moss of time, the solemn thoughts that 
enfold me here are memories — memories of the long ago, 
memories of our flag and all that it stands for, in all the 
history of our beloved land. 

It was on June 14, 1777, when the Continental Con- 
gress passed the resolution which originated that flag. 
And since that day there has been no permanent change 
in it, save in the canton which has increased from thir- 
teen colonies to forty-eight states. 

Today the same flag which shelters you and me would 
be recognized by every patriot who has shed his blood 
for that flag from Brandywine to the present moment. 

Today that flag flies from many thousands of staffs, 
in our own and in foreign lands. It is the bright symbol 
of human freedom born under its folds and preserved 
by the millions of Americans whose devotion to it has 
conquered every enemy and brought victory upon every 
field. 

I am impressed by the solemnity of this hour. I 
would that through this miracle of science I could bring 
to my listeners everywhere, the feeling that inspires me 
as I stand in this ancient shrine, hallowed by the 
memories and personal associations of Francis Scott Key. 

I would that we could all re-dedicate ourselves in de- 
votion and in loyalty to that flag which means so much, 
not alone to us, but to all the liberty-loving people of 
the earth. 

I would that we could match its purity with the 
purity of our own lives. I would that we could match 
its courage with the courage of our people. I would 
that we could match its meaning with the beauty of the 
American ideal. 

So long as that flag flies, so long will liberty be ours. 
So long as we look upon its glory, so long will we remem- 
ber the blood, the tears, the courage and the manhood 
that brought it into being and preserved it to us. 

Through that long and troubled night it flew from 
Fort McHenry, and in the dawn of that day when 
Francis Scott Key looked over the water it was still fly- 
ing, tattered and torn by the shot and turmoil of battle, 
but still victorious, still our own emblem, still the living 
symbol of our beloved land. 

And as that flag has weathered every storm and sur- 
vived every peril, so will it continue to lead us on in the 
pathway of George Washington. 

As it has never been lowered in defeat, it will not 
trail in the dust of our own neglect. 

The Ruler of all men guided those minds and hearts 
that set it in the sky. The God of Nations willed that 
it should blazcn forth upon the background of heaven 
itself. And we, the living Americans of today, must 



George Washington Bicentennial Addresses 



153 



feel that upon us is the trust laid down by those who 
looked upon this banner and died happy in the knowl- 
edge that it still waved o'er the land of the free and the 
home of the brave. 

In the solemn stillness of this old room I seem to hear 
the echo of that voice speaking again to the Americans 
of today and again asking us, his living countrymen, if 
the flag is still there. 

Far up above the distant hills, stand the ramparts of 
Fort Myer and daily its guns thunder forth to the world 
that the flag is still there. 

At the white marble tomb of the Unknown Soldier, 
amid the thousands of graves of patriot Americans, the 
whispering winds bear testimony that the flag is still 
there. 



Down the vista of this majestic city there towers the 
great monument to Washington giving the answer that 
the flag is still there. 

And beyond from the great noble dome of the Capitol 
itself comes the signal to all Americans that the flag is 
still there. 

Yes, Francis Scott Key, you may sleep in peace. 

We leave the shadows of this shrine, we go forth from 
the quiet beauty of these memories into the world of 
affairs, but we leave with you in the spirit which still 
lingers in this old home, the answer to your question 
that God rules and the flag of our beloved America is 
still there. 



Washington the Every Day Man 

Address Delivered Before the Kiwanis Club and Other Civic Groups, at Wilkes-Barre, Pa. 

June 30, 1932 



If George Washington were alive today I have no 
doubt he would be a proud member of such a splendid 
group as is assembled here. For George Washington not 
only qualified for the high standards of citizenship 
which you maintain, but he was the kind of man who 
would be interested in the advancement of all move- 
ments for good citizenship. 

It may surprise you to know that George Washing- 
ton, even in the simple times in which he lived, was a 
member of several important organizations devoted to 
the encouragement of knowledge, of culture and better 
understanding among men. 

It is of George Washington, the man, that I would 
speak to you today. When I say man, I mean our kind 
of man — the citizen, the business man, the friend and 
associate of other business men. For George Washing- 
ton was always a seeker after knowledge and a seeker 
after the mature opinions of other men, upon all kinds 
of subjects. 

As an engineer he did not possess highly technical 
knowledge, but he was always anxious to learn and was 
an intelligent listener, and, what is more, he was an in- 
telligent questioner. As a farmer he was perhaps the 
best authority on general farming problems of his day. 
But even so, he conducted a busy correspondence with 
other farmers here and abroad and was ever alert to 
learn from their experience. 

As a business man, interested in several lines of in- 
dustry, such as agriculture, shipping, banking and real 
estate, he was happy to meet with other men devoted 
to these lines of industry, which moved him to discuss 
mutual problems in a congenial atmosphere of confi- 
dence and esteem. 

It is of this man of business, of the common affairs of 
life, rather than the heroic Washington in his highly 
dramatic moments, that I would speak to you today. 
It is difficult for us to imagine from mere reading of 
history a man of Washington's transcendent person- 



ality, sitting with other men, discussing commonplace 
affairs. Yet we have many instances, most of them 
cited by Washington in his own writings, where he spent 
evenings and other times snatched from his busy life, to 
visit with friends and neighbors and to talk of things 
in which they were all interested. Not only that, but 
Washington did not intrude his opinions unless they 
were asked for, and he was so great that he did not hesi- 
tate to acknowledge wisdom in other people, and more 
than that, to ask advice. 

So that we are justified in imagining George Wash- 
ington here among us, foregathered for good fellowship, 
for a better understanding and for the benefits which 
arise from such splendid organizations as are represented 
here. 

George Washington was a man of so many varied in- 
terests, so many qualities of manhood, that he was 
always at home in any group of people. Quiet, digni- 
fied, serene, he yet possessed all the human qualities 
which are summed up in the word "amiable." He was 
dignified without austerity, quiet without smug self- 
complacency and wise without egotism. He was in the 
best sense of the word a good fellow, although he 
possessed a natural reserve which seldom bent to hilarity 
or demonstration. 

It is comforting to think of Washington in the com- 
mon denominator of a citizen. As much as we may 
stand in awe of his superlative military exploits, as much 
as we may applaud those supreme qualities of statesman- 
ship that made him an outstanding historical figure for 
all time, we may yet picture George Washington, sitting 
among us, a fine figure of a man and neighbor, a busi- 
ness man, a substantial citizen, interested in the things 
in which we are interested, promoting the things which 
we are promoting, and not too great to be attracted to 
things of comparatively small concern. 

There is one Washington who was in command at the 
battle of York town, but the same Washington who 



154 



George Washington Bicentennial Addresses 



basked in the applause of the world was not too great or 
too dignified to spend a night trying to save the life of 
one of his favorite dogs. 

We are now in the midst of the Celebration of the 
Two Hundredth Anniversary of the birth of this man. 
Throughout the entire world, honors are being paid to 
his memory. The United States George Washington 
Bicentennial Commission was established by Congress to 
organize and inspire these honors to George Washing- 
ton in every town, village and hamlet, in every church, 
school, fraternal and business organization throughout 
the nation. 

In the work of this Commission, of which I have the 
honor to be the Director, we have had a group of com- 
petent historians, delving into every phase of his re- 
markable life. No other American has had such a keen 
study made on his every act. 

The strong light of investigation has been turned 
upon every scrap of his voluminous correspondence. We 
have gone wherever possible to the original sources and 
it has been one of the chief objects of our Commission 
to establish a truthful record of that life, free from un- 
substantiated tradition, free from prejudice and per- 
sistent errors, so that the American people in years to 
come will have an authentic account of its greatest 
citizen. 

While it is true that a major part of this record is de- 
voted to superlative achievements connected with the 
winning of our Independence and the founding of our 
nation, yet I have been struck by the great number of 
references to George Washington's home life, to his 
neighborhood life, to his interest in the humbler affairs 
of those about him. If George Washington had not 
been the great leader of the Revolution, if his hand had 
not guided the framing of the Constitution, if he had 
not been the First President of the United States, he 
would still have been an outstanding citizen. 

It was doubtless pleasant for him to receive the 
merited applause of his fellow countrymen, but it was 
equally pleasant for him to shake the hand of his neigh- 
bor and wish him well. George Washington, the man, 
comprehends all of his qualities and all of his character 
and all of his achievements. But in the vast range of 
his illustrious career, that which would please him most 
for us to remember, would be that he was George Wash- 
ington the farmer of Mount Vernon. That was his 
pride, his recreation, his place of peace. 

There, in his home, surrounded by his family and by 
his many friends of nearby Virginia, he spent his best, 
but all too brief hours. There we would have gone to 
meet George Washington upon terms of association rep- 
resented by the citizens of this community, and I be- 
lie ve firmly that George Washington would have taken 
pride in such an exhibition of confidence and esteem 
among his own kind. 

You, who live in this historic valley look back upon 
a history that is filled with tragedy and with glorious 
achievement. 

I [ere, in this part of Pennsylvania and upon your 
northern border, were fought some of the bitterest 
Indian wars in colonial and early national history. 

Following a long controversy over the possession of 



the lands in this region, one of the most notable inci- 
dents of the Revolutionary period occurred. On July 
3, 1778, the Indians under Brant and the Tory Rangers 
under Major John Butler, who had descended upon the 
valley the first of the month, being certain that Penn- 
sylvania would offer no protection, defeated a motley 
militia of 400 Connecticut men under Zebulon Butler, 
near Kingston, in which three-fourths of the defenders 
were killed or captured and subsequently massacred. 
The British forces swept through the valley, leaving 
such a scene of devastation and of murder that this 
so-called Wyoming Massacre, seems today the supreme 
horror of the Revolution. 

It was in a way the turning point of the Indian-Tory 
frontier raids, for the next year George Washington sent 
the famous expedition under Sullivan, that mobilized on 
the Susquehanna, just above the northern boundary of 
Pennsylvania, and totally devastated the Iroquois coun- 
try. This did not entirely end Indian raiding, especially 
in the Mohawk Valley, but the Iroquois were never able 
to regain their power. 

This is merely an incident in the long list of tragic 
events that held the stage in this historic region. But 
we know that George Washington, ever alert for danger 
and ever mindful of the safety of frontier America, did 
not hesitate when the time came to strike vigorously 
and effectively to end the series of horrors enacted here. 

Timothy Pickering, the commissioner to effect recon- 
ciliation between the warring sections in the valley, had 
been Adjutant General and Quartermaster during the 
Revolution, and later was to be Washington's Post- 
master General, Secretary of War and Secretary of State. 

So that Wilkes-Barre may proudly take its place in 
the glorious history of a tragic epoch. 

In these events we see Washington, both as a Com- 
mander and as a far-seeing statesman, using force to 
bring peace, using wisdom to establish prosperity. 

It is appropriate that in this community and in this 
place, citizens should pause to give thought to the men 
who not only brought security to your forebears here, 
but whose influence for peace, for liberty and oppor- 
tunity, extends throughout the nation and the world. 

I am happy for the opportunity of joining with you 
here upon this occasion. It is an opportunity to take 
personal part in one of the many local events that carry 
out the spirit and purpose of the great celebration in 
honor of the Two Hundredth Anniversary of the Birth 
of George Washington. 

Today the world rings with tributes to George Wash- 
ington. Today he is acclaimed as the leader in that great 
school of thought which has overthrown tyranny and 
instituted human liberty throughout the earth. 

The real monument to George Washington is not that 
superb shaft which rises in the midst of the beautiful 
park in the national capital. Today the monument to 
George Washington is not represented by statues, by 
busts, by paintings, by thousands of books and other 
material memorials. The monument to Washington 
that will stand for all time is the monument in the hearts 
and minds of his people. Its physical expression is our 
own United States. American sentiment of admiration 
and of gratitude is the very soul of America itself. But 



George Washington Bicentennial Addresses 



155 



beyond our national boundaries, into the far corners of 
the world, the effects of his work have brought freedom 
and a new conception of human relationship among 
men. 

Today in sixty-seven countries of the world we find 
enthusiastic participants in this great celebration. Do 
these millions of people in foreign countries pay tribute 
to Washington as a general? Do they honor him as our 
President? Do they find in him qualities of exclusive 
Americanism in which they are not interested? 

No, this world-wide tribute to the memory of George 
Washington goes far deeper than that. He is honored 
because he has brought liberty to the world. Because 
he understood the common man and because his great 
heart responded to the yearnings of the down-trodden 
and the oppressed. 

Never in the history of civilization have so many 
nations united to honor the hero of a foreign land. And 
that feeling of reverence and respect is due to those 
qualities in George Washington's life and character 
which we are discussing here. The qualities of the man 
himself. 

The United States has responded to this great senti- 
ment in a way that is in many respects marvelous. In 
a time of uncertainty and of doubt and amid the clouds 
which are about us, we may well turn to the calm, mas- 
terful, confident leadership of George Washington. 

He knew the distress of his country, both in war and 
in peace. He knew what suffering meant to those about 
him. He faced problems as great as those which we 
face today, but never for a moment did he doubt that 
under God our nation would survive. If we today could 
turn to the immortal lessons which George Washington 
has left us, if we could be guided by those precepts 
which have lasted through all our history as a nation, if 
we could, with the same courage and confidence, press 
forward with faith in God and a righteous cause, our 
troubles would vanish and doubts would be dispelled. 

George Washington lived a life that was filled with 
difficulties. Seldom had he a moment that was not 
heavy with anxiety, not for himself, but for his beloved 
country. Yes, George Washington knew not only the 
troubles of foreign tyranny, not only the poverty and 
misery of his own people, but he knew the hearts of men. 
He felt the sufferings of others and had he been of less 
inflexible fibre his own great heart would have burst 



with anguish. But he knew the responsibility that lay 
upon him. He knew the faith that was placed in him 
and he knew that his own courage, his own dependence 
upon Divine guidance, would be reflected in the courage 
and faith of those about him. 

We catch glimpses of the human George Washington 
all through his career. To those who think of him only 
as an austere Commander, let me refer to that hour of 
anguish during the Battle of Long Island, when George 
Washington veiled with his cloak the tears that streamed 
from his eyes at sight of his soldiers being ruthlessly 
bayoneted by the British Red Coats. Let me refer to 
those heartbreaking scenes at Valley Forge when the 
dignified and austere Commander agonized for his 
troops, and undoubtedly sought the help of the God of 
us all. And it must be remembered that George Wash- 
ington never neglected an opportunity of acknowledg- 
ing his dependence upon Almighty God. 

His was a heart full of love for humanity, but when 
stern duty compelled, he went forward knowing that 
only by such a course could he justify the cause of 
American freedom. 

I believe that George Washington was our greatest 
American. 

I believe that without his guidance and his sure knowl- 
edge of men our freedom could not have been achieved. 

I believe that without his religious faith and depend- 
ence upon the God of all mercy and power he could not 
have led us through those terrible years of suffering and 
of sacrifice. 

I believe that the spirit of George Washington is with 
us today, silently pleading that we forsake all selfishness, 
all insincerity, all political and moral dishonesty. 

I believe that if we as a people would study the teach- 
ings of George Washington and try to understand the 
philosophy of his life that we would be enabled to follow 
that spiritual leadership out of the maze of trouble into 
which we as Americans find ourselves. 

For George Washington, the man, the friend, the citi- 
zen, left us an immortal legacy of advice which is a sure 
and safe guide in our national life. 

Lift up your eyes, fellow Americans. Look upon the 
glory of your country. Have faith, have courage and 
be strong. That is the spiritual message that comes 
from George Washington — the man, who sits with us in 
unseen council here todav. 



American Farm Bureau Federation 



Delivered on the 

American Farm Bureau Federation Nation-Wide Farmers' Bicentennial Program 

National Broadcasting Company 

July 4, 1932 

My fellow Americans, and especially those Americans Farm Bureau Federation, to join with you today in sol- 

who form the great body of agricultural producers! emn reconsecration to the welfare of our beloved land. 

I want to express my deep appreciation for the oppor- In spirit I am sitting among you in the thousands of 

tunity given me, through the courtesy of the American meeting places in which the farmers of America and 



156 



George Washington Bicentennial Addresses 



their precious families are gathered at this hour. In 
spirit I bring you my humble message of greeting and 
good cheer, and with us is that great spirit, the spirit of 
the man whom Americans in loving remembrance will 
always refer to as the Father of Our Country. And 
that great spirit of our greatest man belongs especially 
to you. For he was a farmer — the best farmer of his 
time. It was as a farmer that he found the few years of 
peace and tranquillity in a life otherwise crowded with 
grave national concerns. 

I like to give rein to my imagination and visualize 
George Washington as the farmer of Mount Vernon 
beside the lovely Potomac. There, amid the calm and 
quiet surroundings of his homestead, he exemplified the 
finest qualities of the American farmer. He knew every 
field, every tree, every animal. 

He was not content to follow the agricultural tradi- 
tions of his time. Always he sought improvement. Al- 
ways he experimented with crops and soils. Always he 
sought to raise the standards of his stock. Always he 
conducted correspondence with farm authorities at home 
and abroad. And always was his enthusiasm aroused at 
the sight of good growing crops, neat fences, well-cared- 
for trees and shrubs and spreading meadows. 

When the sun in the glamorous beauty of a Virginia 
morning rose over the broad waters of the Potomac, 
his day began. With the first flashing glory of dawn he 
was astir, and with him came the awakening of all about 
him. His was the planning mind and the directing 
hand. Nothing was so small as to escape his keen eye. 
While demanding industry of those about him, he was 
not a hard task master. To those who grew old or other- 
wise incapacitated in his service, he was an indulgent 
master and provider. Not only did he care for his own 
family and other dependents, but he never turned a de- 
serving man or woman from his door. His charities 
were unobtrusive but generous. His private life ex- 
emplified the religious principles that influenced his 
great career. 

When the shadows lengthened and the quiet hour of 
relaxation came, George Washington sat with his family 
and friends, and watched the play of fading light upon 
the quiet river. What must it have been to be numbered 
among that intimate company! What an experience to 
feel his presence and hear his voice! 

George Washington was not all drama and heroics. 
He was the ideal host, the generous companion, the 
friendly and sympathetic neighbor. 

And, after all, is there anything greater than the 
friendship and sympathy of a neighbor? Those who 
dwell in cities have lost almost entirely that finest ele- 
ment of human relationship. But it still survives, and 
thank God, must ever survive, in the rural neighbor- 
hoods and communities of our great nation. 

You who are gathered together today represent that 
neighborhood spirit, that kindness and sympathetic con- 
sideration which comes from dwelling close to nature 
and in the employment of common interests, the serv- 
ing of common ends and the enjoyment of common 
labor. 

This feeling that I have for rural life is genuine, deep 
and abiding. You neighboring farmers have a possession 



far more precious than riches, position or power. It is 
the expanding of life, the development of elemental 
human traits in men and women. It makes for sincere 
and lasting friendships, and those who are privileged to 
enjoy neighborhood relationships get something from 
life which must be prized above all other human gifts. 

George Washington was the ideal neighbor. I pre- 
fer to think of him in that character, although, of course,, 
his transcendent personality, his great deeds of leader- 
ship in war and in peace, his service to his country which 
led him far from home, are the things perhaps best re- 
membered about him. 

When the United States George Washington Bicen- 
tennial Commission was organized, and I was honored 
by being made its Director, we had a corps of historians 
who turned the keen light of research upon every act 
and every phase of character of this great man. 

We have endeavored with the best authoritative as- 
sistance, to rescue the life of George Washington from 
tradition, from myth, from error and from persistent 
falsehood. We want to preserve for the Americans yet 
to come a truthful account of the life, the character and 
the services of George Washington. 

In all this mass of material, that which has appealed to 
me most has been the simpler things, the humbler 
things in connection with George Washington's per- 
sonal and private life. 

While I stand in awe of George Washington as the 
military hero, while I bow in humble tribute to his co- 
lossal acts of statesmanship, I yet feel closer to the man, 
when, in reverie, I sit upon the great porch at Mount 
Vernon of a quiet afternoon and think of him there as 
the farmer, the husbandman, the neighbor. 

How he would delight to be among the farmers of 
his beloved country today. How his great soul would 
expand with pleasure to feel the warmth of your love 
and veneration. And what courage, what strength and 
what confidence his presence would bring to you in these 
hours that are clouded with anxieties and confused with 
difficulties. 

George Washington has left us immortal legacies. He 
has pointed the way for our national security and pros- 
perity. Upon the foundations which he laid our gov- 
ernment has expanded until it is one of the greatest 
powers of the earth. Yet over and above all, is the 
human George Washington, the neighbor and the man. 

The same sun which rises in its glory above the home 
of George Washington rises upon you and me. The 
same winds which sang their paeans of peace over the 
flowers, the shrubs and the trees of George Washington's 
home, caress us today. The same meadows which spread 
their fragrant beauty upon the lands of George Wash- 
ington, are the meadows which gladden your eyes about 
your own homes. The growing things of the earth still 
grow as they did in George Washington's time. 

The fields still yield their abundance as did his fields 
at Mount Vernon. The shadows of the passing clouds 
moved in cooling procession upon his farm as they do 
upon yours. God in His infinite mercy has willed that 
nature will ever be as it was in the beginning. 

Changes come to our cities. Changes affect our gov- 
ernment. Changes have wrought miracles in industrial 



George Washington Bicentennial Addresses 



157 



and commercial development. But still the corn grows, 
still the wheat ripens and still the trees spread their rest- 
ful shadows about us as they did when George Washing- 
ton looked out upon the beauty of the world from the 
porch at Mount Vernon. 

But the earth renews its abundance and it has not 
changed. Neither have the hearts of men changed. 
There is still in the world the same love, the same nobil- 
ity, the same devotion, and — thank Almighty God — 
the same loyalty which drew to George Washington the 
love and devotion of his own countrymen. 

And who would say that, after all, merciful heaven 
has not preserved to us the best in life! The sunshine, 
the gentle rain, the unchanging affection and the loyalty 
of the human heart, are these not greater than imperial 
cities? Are they not more important to human happi- 
ness than all the miracles of industrial advancement? 

Neighborliness is essentially a product of the open air. 
It is fostered by those who have room to live and love 
and labor. It preserves to humanity the sweetest and 
most ennobling qualities of the minds and hearts of our 
people. 

The farmer of Mount Vernon felt this influence more 
strongly than any other that affected his life. From 
the turmoil of battle, from the perplexities of the coun- 
cil chamber, he returned to the soil. He looked up into 
the heaven above him and felt that among the trees and 
flowers and meadows of his beloved Mount Vernon, he 
would be nearer to God. 

Here he found peace and here upon the banks of the 
lovely Potomac, lulled to sleep by the flower-scented 
breezes, he lies in everlasting rest, in the bosom of the 
earth which in life he loved so well. He sleeps, but his 



spirit lives on. His spirit is with us today. It brings us 
the inspiration of hope, of strength, of courage. 

In death as in life, he is still the leader. He is still 
finding the way. Still calling upon us, his fellow Ameri- 
cans to go forward and, as the flag of our country casts 
its glorious benediction over the peaceful loveliness of 
Mount Vernon, so within its protecting folds you and 
I, my fellow countrymen, carry on under the living 
symbol of that which George Washington left us. 

Look up, my fellow Americans, at the glory which 
shines about you. Look beyond the ground mists of 
doubt and the fog of uncertainty, into the clean radi- 
ance of our own national life, and behold the immortal 
grandeur of our country, our government, our people. 
Is it not comforting to realize that, although some func- 
tional weaknesses in our government need attention, the 
structure itself is sound? 

Look up, my fellow Americans, at the flag of our 
country that waves above you. Its glory is undimmed. 
Its beauty is untarnished. Its symbolism of a united 
America, is still, as always, strong, courageous, unafraid. 
Look up at the eternal stars set upon the background of 
Heaven itself and heed not the passing storm. 

America, as always, will stand because it is based upon 
the immutable foundation of human rights, human free- 
dom, and equal opportunity. The God of Nations who 
set that symbol in the sky, will not desert it. The Ruler 
of all who gave strength and purpose and inflexible de- 
termination to George Washington and led him through 
the agony of war and the perplexities of nation build- 
ing, is still watchful, still merciful, still the protecting 
Father. And in perfect faith we commend ourselves 
and our country to Him from whose hands the cen- 
turies fall like grains of sand. 



Anniversary of the Birth 



Admiral Comte de Grasse 

Address of Hon. Sol Bloom, 

Introducing Mr. Jules Henry, Charge d' Affairs ad interim, of France, 

in a Program Celebrating 

the 

Two Hundred and Tenth Anniversary of the Birth of Admiral Comte de Grasse, 

Broadcast by the National Broadcasting Company 

from Washington, D. C. 

September 13, 1932 



Since February 22, 1932, the United States George 
Washington Bicentennial Commission has marked for 
special honor various anniversaries of those patriots who 
helped George Washington to win the War of the Revo- 
lution. We have now come to a date of special sig- 
nificance, the two hundred and tenth anniversary of the 
birth of the man whose timely action made possible the 
final blow which brought victory to our arms. 



It is well known among students of history that many 
great men of foreign birth came to America to join 
George Washington and his patriot army in a glorious 
but discouraged cause. 

Without detracting in the least from the honors due 
to those other patriots of foreign birth, we may well 
pause today to give a thought to the man whose un- 
selfish and patriotic impulses, whose prompt and vigor- 



158 



George Washington Bicentennial Addresses 



ous cooperation, brought victory to the allied armies 
upon the American continent and forever sealed the 
liberties of the American people. 

Comte de Grasse, a nobleman of France, brought his 
men and ships to our coast at the extreme of our neces- 
sity, and it is well to remember that this great French 
Commander, not only placed his fighting forces at 
Washington's service, but his country at the same time 
sent a large sum of much needed money as a free gift 
to the American cause. 

We must also remember that the Revolutionary War 
had dragged six years of its course, during which time 



the decisive victory to American arms which was neces- 
sary to final success. 

What must have been the exaltation in the heart of 
George Washington during these dark hours and after 
all those long years of war and almost fruitless maneu- 
vering, when there was placed in his hands a letter writ- 
ten by the French Foreign Minister to the French pleni- 
potentiary in America, which said: 

... "I may say to you M., and you may confide to 
M. the General Washington exclusively, that M. de 
Grasse has express orders, after having provided for the 
safety of our islands, to detach or take the greater part 




Admiral Comte de Grasse 



Washington's patriot army was almost continuously 
awaiting the uncertanties of British movements. That 
army lacked practically everything that an army 
needed, except courage. 

Rochambeau with his French troops had landed on 
American shores and was cooperating in an attempt at 
organizing more energetic operations, but George Wash- 
ing ion realized the hopelessness of an effort to defeat the 
pick of British troops upon American soil unless he 
si ruck a great decisive blow. 

Therefore, in the Spring of 1781, Washington and 
Rochambeau were cooperating in planning a movement 
against New York which was held by the British. What 
would have been the outcome of a determined attack 
such as i hey seemed to contemplate we will never know, 
bul it was quite evident that George Washington did 
not have great faith that such an action would provide 



of the fleet to the continent of North America and to 
lend himself to all operations judged practicable for as 
long as the season will permit him to remain in those 
parts. If the Spanish are not in need of reinforcements 
from our troops, all of them will join you. It will be 
well that General Washington prepare to make the 
greatest possible use of this help and that he take meas- 
ures in advance to assure their subsistence." 

The promise of prompt and adequate naval aid con- 
centrating in Chesapeake Bay, in a letter from Comte 
de Grasse received August 14, turned the entire plan of 
action. 

The proposed attack upon New York was abandoned 
and the American troops journeyed to Virginia where 
Lafayette had practically bottled Cornwallis and his 
Army on the peninsula of Yorktown. 

We know that story now and how the British in New 



George Washington Bicentennial Addresses 



159 



York was misled into expecting an attack while the 
allied troops hurried to Virginia. We know of the 
timely arrival of De Grasse and his mighty naval force 
and how that arrival prevented the rescue of Corn- 
wallis or his escape from Yorktown. 

We know of the gratitude felt and expressed by 
George Washington and his fellow Americans at this 
magnificent stroke which practically ended the Ameri- 
can conflict with the surrender of Cornwallis. 

Today as part of the Celebration of the Two Hun- 
dredth Anniversary of the Birth of George Washington 
we pay tribute to the memory of Comte de Grasse. The 
suggestion that we do this came from Mrs. George Dur- 
bin Chenoweth, Regent, Comte de Grasse Chapter, 
National Society, Daughters of the American Revolu- 
tion, at Yorktown, Virginia. It is a celebration, jointly, 
by the French and the American governments and we 
are honored today by the presence here of the official 
representative of the French government, Mr. Jules 
Henry, Charge d'Affaires ad interim of France, in the 
absence from our shores of His Excellency, M. Paul 
Claudel, the French Ambassador. 

Before making this introduction, however, I cannot 
refrain from referring to a recent testimonial of the 
people of France which is most touching in its signifi- 
cance and which fits so perfectly into the tribute which 
we are paying to the memory of Comte de Grasse today. 

On July 4 last, Baron de Fontenay, President of the 
Municipal Council of Paris, presented to the Mount 
Vernon Ladies' Association of the Union, Mount Ver- 
non, Virginia, a painting representing "La Ville de 
Paris," the flagship of Comte de Grasse, which played 
such a heroic part in the seige of Yorktown. It is inter- 
esting to know that this flagship was thus named because 
it was presented to Louis XVI by the Parisian people. 
It was said to be the most beautiful ship of the time and 
served as flagship of Admiral de Grasse until its mag- 
nificent and dramatic end, when ablaze from stem to 
stern, it sank beneath the waves in the great battle with 
the English in 1782. 

That painting is another and fitting reminder of the 
historic friendship between the people and governments 
of France and the United States. It recalls a glorious 
chapter of our long history and vividly indicates the 
essential character of the help which France gave to us 
in our time of need. 



I cannot leave this subject without referring to the 
attitude of George Washington toward Admiral de 
Grasse after the seige of Yorktown, as indicated by his 
final expression of thanks to the Admiral. 

No one knew or felt more keenly than George Wash- 
ington the value of the services performed by Admiral 
de Grasse. 

Presumably many of his compatriots, as well as we 
of today, considered the arrival of De Grasse at York- 
town a happy coincidence, yet Washington knew that 
this circumstance was directed by that Providence 
which had guided him and protected his countrymen 
through all the long years of that terrible war. 

De Grasse, it is true, was working under general 
orders from his government, but had he not been sin- 
cerely devoted to the American cause he could easily 
and conveniently have delayed his action or terminated 
his service without achieving the glorious results which 
came with the surrender at Yorktown. 

I do not believe that we Americans have ever ex- 
pressed proper appreciation for the service rendered by 
De Grasse, and the thought comes to me that I do not 
remember of having seen or heard of a monument to 
Comte de Grasse upon American soil. 

If that is true, it is a regrettable omission and a neg- 
lect that should be promptly and adequately rectified. 

In this capital city of the nation where many beau- 
tiful monuments stand as memorials to other great 
foreigners who aided George Washington and his patriot 
army, there should be a suitable memorial erected to one 
of the greatest of these men — Admiral Comte de Grasse. 

Just recognition of his service has been too long de- 
layed to this French hero whose presence at Yorktown, 
whose personal interest and strong support, made the 
victory possible which virtually ended the war of the 
Revolution. 

And now, as Director of the United States George 
Washington Bicentennial Commission it is my privilege 
and pleasure to present the Representative of the French 
government and to express through him, to his country- 
men, the lasting gratitude of the United States of 
America for this supreme act which crowned our Revo- 
lutionary arms with success, and brought freedom to 
our beloved land. 




George Washington Laying the Cornerstone of the Federal Capitol at Washington, D. C, with M/ 
sonic Ceremonies on September 18, 1793. By De Land. 




Masonk Cerj mony, September 17, 1932, Re-enacting the Original Ceremony in which George Washington 

Laid mm Cornerstone of the United States Capitol, with Masonic Honors, September 18, 1793. The 

Modern ( er] mony was Conducted Under the Auspices of the Grand Lodge, A. F. and A. M., District of 

( "i umbia, with the Original Trowel and Gavel Used by George Washington. 



160 



George Washington Bicentennial Addresses 



161 



•enactment of the laying 
Cornerstone of the Capitol 

Address, September 17, 1932 

AT 

Ceremony of Re-enactment 

of Laying of the Cornerstone of the National Capitol 

Which Took Place 

One Hundred and Thirty-nine Years Ago. 



THE 



History is repeating itself today on this spot made 
immortal by its exalted associations. We are re-enact- 
ing a ceremony that in reality marked the beginning of 
our life as a nation. We are standing at the center of 
the United States of America. Here, are represented 
the glory and the authority of our National Govern- 
ment. 

One hundred and thirty-nine years ago George Wash- 
ington stood upon this spot. There was not before his 
eyes the majestic dome within whose shadows we stand. 
There was not the inspiring vista ot granite and marble 
which greets our eyes today. But in his vision there was 
that dream which is realized now. 

While George Washington was essentially an idealist, 
he was, nevertheless, a man of most practical thought 
and habits. To him the nation which was to grow with 
the continued liberties of his people, was manifestly a 
structure of laws, of social development and culture. 
But he also visualized a nation of progress, of material 
growth and a government exemplified by the machinery 
of administration. It was his keen intelligence which 
projected far into the future the ideals of this Republic. 
While he stressed always the necessity of Constitutional 
growth, he yet knew the value of beauty. Therefore, 
we must feel at this hour that the dreams of George 
Washington, not only for the political and social de- 
velopment of his nation have come true, but that his 
ideals of the beauty of this National Capital are being 
splendidly carried out. We may be sure that as George 
Washington looked further ahead than most of his com- 
patriots to the physical and political growth of the 
Nation, he also looked forward to these memorial struc- 
tures which crystallize and symbolize the soul of the 
United States. 

George Washington laid the first cornerstone of this 
magnificent Capitol. How appropriate it was that his 
should have been the hand that spread the mortar upon 



that occasion. It identifies him with the actual con- 
struction of the great building which displays its archi- 
tectural grandeur before us. 

There is being re-enacted here a scene in which 
George Washington played so noble a part. But more 
than that, there is being enacted here, and throughout 
our nation, a re-dedication in the hearts and minds of 
the American people to those principles of government 
which are as surely the foundation of our greatness as 
this granite symbol deposited here today. We are build- 
ing upon that broader foundation of liberty and of 
character, the cornerstone of which was George Wash- 
ington himself. 

It is most gratifying to the members of the United 
States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 
that this great ceremony should be held in this year in 
which we are celebrating the Two Hundredth Anni- 
versary of the Birth of George Washington. It is an 
impressive tribute to our First President that we should 
so observe this anniversary. For, strong and enduring 
as is this beautiful building, magnificent as is this great 
nation of ours, neither the building, nor the nation, can 
outlive the glory of George Washington himself. 

Let us lift our thoughts to Him who watches over our 
Destinies and to whom we owe all the blessings that have 
come to us as a nation in all the crowded years of the 
past. To Almighty God we give thanks for that merci- 
ful Providence which guided and protected our infant 
republic and which today still points the way of safety 
and of truth. 

Even these great columns may crumble into dust, but 
the name of Washington will live in the world as long 
as the hearts of men respond to the finest elements in 
human character. Nations may rise and fall. In the 
eternal tides of human affairs civilizations may come 
and go, but as long as liberty shall endure, the name of 
George Washington will blaze upon the scroll of history 
in the majesty of everlasting fame. 




Masonic Procession at the Laying of the Cornerstone of the National Capitol (1793) 





Mw,N -" '' " "■'" IN Washington, D. C, on September 17, 1932, to Commemorate the 139th Anniversary 
mi Laying of the Cornerstone of the Federal Capitol on September 18, 1793. 



102 



George Washington Bicentennial Addresses 



163 



153rd Anniversary of the 
of Casimir Pulaski 



Address of Hon. Sol Bloom 
Introducing Mr. Wladyslaw Sokolowski, Charge d'affaires ad interim, of Poland, 

in a Program Celebrating 

the 

Commemoration of the 153rd Anniversary of the Death of Casimir Pulaski 

Broadcast by the National Broadcasting Company from Washington, D. C, October 11, 1932. 



We may search the pages of history in vain for a more 
heroic, adventurous and patriotic spirit than that of 
Casimir Pulaski, whose memory we honor today. This 
great Polish hero, glowing with enthusiasm for liberty, 
came from his own distressed land to fight upon our 
shores for those ideals of freedom that, for the time 
being, were crushed in his beloved Poland. 

Many brave and colorful foreign soldiers were en- 
listed under the banner of George Washington. Also, 
many of these were inspired with a passion for the ideals 
for which the colonists fought. Some of these men of 
foreign birth contributed important services to our 
cause and helped to mold out of the untrained, undis- 
ciplined, but determined men of George Washington's 
army, a fighting force which carried on a struggle that 
was the admiration of the world. 

Against the very pick of Great Britain's veteran 
troops and veteran German mercenaries, these men of 
America were fitted to contend on grounds of equality, 
and it was due in large measure to the experienced mili- 
tary experts from other European countries that George 
Washington was enabled to marshal his forces with 
effectiveness. 

Brigadier General Casimir Pulaski was a dashing and 
romantic soldier, who had already achieved a reputa- 
tion for patriotism, heroism and strategy that made him 
an outstanding figure in Europe. After having seen his 
father and his brothers treacherously made victims of 
that conspiracy of Russia, Austria and Prussia to crush 
and dismember Poland, Pulaski fought upon his native 
soil, until, having exhausted the last remnant of his 
strength, he was forced to flee, as Poland lay helpless at 
the feet of the three conspiring sovereigns. 

It was not surprising that the noble Pulaski should be 
fired with new enthusiasm for freedom in a nation that 
symbolized something of Poland's heroic struggle. And 
so he came to us and immediately his devotion to the 
cause of the colonies, his reckless heroism, his superb 
horsemanship and his magnetic personality, appealed to 
the imagination of our own America. Time does not 
permit a review of the important services which he per- 
formed under Washington's leadership. That is all a 
matter of history. 

He was not a soldier of fortune. His love of liberty 
alone kindled his devotion. He saw in the struggle for 
American independence an opportunity to pursue that 
bright vision which had so animated him in his career 
as a Polish patriot. And he transferred to Washington's 



service, those remarkable qualities of military genius 
which everywhere aroused admiration and confidence. 

Pulaski joined the Revolutionary army as a volunteer 
in the Summer of 1777. From that time on he pro- 
gressively demonstrated his value and became one of the 
outstanding Commanders of our forces. His glorious 
martyrdom in the defense of Savannah brought to a 
dramatic close a career which was matchless in its sin- 
cerity and zeal in the cause of human liberty. 

Trusted by George Washington, admired by him, and 
inspiring a devotion that only the comradeship of war 
can bring about, Pulaski went to his death, dauntless and 
unafraid. Under direction of Congress, he was sent to 
South Carolina, and joined Moultrie's force in the de- 
fense of Charleston when the British appeared before it. 
The Governor and the Council of Charleston had 
already agreed upon terms of capitulation, but General 
Pulaski went to the Council Chamber to protest against 
this measure, declaring that as a Continental officer he 
would defend the City for the United States. 

Accordingly, the defense was continued and on the 
approach of Lincoln's army the British retreated and 
retired to Savannah. Pulaski was active in the pursuit. 
In the ill-fated assault on that City, October 9, 1779, 
Pulaski was wounded in the thigh by a grape shot when 
trying to arrest the retreat of French soldiers. Two 
days later, October 11, 1779, after more than two years 
of service under our flag, Pulaski died on board the ship 
"Wasp" where he had been taken after being wounded. 
His body was buried at sea, with simple but impressive 
ceremony, and his death was lamented universally by 
the patriots of the Revolution. 

Today, upon the 15 3rd anniversary of Pulaski's mar- 
tyrdom, we stand with bowed heads in remembrance of 
that magnificent sacrifice. We reaffirm to Poland and 
the Polish people our everlasting gratitude for the serv- 
ice which Pulaski rendered to our country. 

We have upon the program here today in commemo- 
ration of the death of Casimir Pulaski, the distinguished 
representative of Poland, Mr. Wladyslaw Sokolowski, 
Charge d'Affaires ad interim of Poland during the 
absence from our shores of His Excellency, Mr. Tytus 
Filipowicz, Ambassador of Poland. Mr. Sokolowski 
will address you on behalf of his own country and 
his own people. It is to him, and through him, that 
I express again the remembrance which the people of 
the United States will always cherish of his great coun- 
tryman who came to us in our time of need and who so 
valiantly and heroically served in our own patriot army. 



164 



George Washington Bicentennial Addresses 




Brigadier General Casimir Pulaski 

From an engraving by Oleszczynski 




ASIMIR PULASKI was born in the Province 
of Podolia in the extreme southwest of Poland 
on March 4, 1747. This section was exposed 
to continuous incursions of roving maraud- 
ers, and his father maintained a large band of armed re- 
tainers to protect the Pulaski estate. Young Casimir 
early gained a knowledge of partisan warfare and laid 
the foundation for the superb horsemanship which 
later made him a cavalry leader of renown in Europe 
and America. 

Before he was 21, Casimir Pulaski had his taste of 
regular warfare, serving for six months in the success- 
ful defense of Mitau. He continued to fight against 
Poland's oppressors, becoming known for his courage 
and valor. His enemies were victorious, however, and 
Pulaski was forced to leave the country, making his way 
to Paris. There he learned of the American Revolution 
and Ins natural love of liberty led him to apply to Ben- 
jamin I rank I in for assistance in obtaining a commission 
in the Continental Army. Franklin wrote the letter 
requested, which Pulaski presented to George Washing- 
ton in August, 1777. 



Pulaski fought at Brandywine as a volunteer without 
commission. His valorous conduct in that battle 
brought recognition from Congress with a commission 
as Brigadier General in command of all the cavalry of 
the American Army. After valiant service in the 
North, which won the praise of his comrades as well as 
of General Washington, Pulaski was transferred to the 
South and ordered to join General Moultrie at Charles- 
ton. His arrival at that city was welcomed, and he took 
part in demonstrations against the enemy under Gen- 
eral Prevost during the retreat to Savannah. The 
Americans under Lincoln and the French under 
D'Estaing laid siege to Savannah and an assault was 
planned. 

A deserter is said to have carried the American plans, 
in which Pulaski's cavalry had a prominent part, to the 
British, who prepared for the attack. The assault was not 
succeeding and in desperation Pulaski led his horse to the 
attack to stem the tide, but a shot brought him to the 
ground wounded. Taken aboard a boat in the harbor, 
he was given every care, but the best was inadequate; 
gangrene set in, and the gallant Pole died on October 
11, 1779. He is believed to have been buried at sea. 



The Mother 

OF 

George Washington 



Radio Address 

by 

Mrs. John Dickinson Sherman 



WASHINGTON, D. C. 
MOTHERS' DAY, MAY 11, 1930 



ALSO GIVEN ON MOTHERS' DAY, 1932 

AT THE WASHINGTON CATHEDRAL 

AND BROADCAST NATIONALLY 



166 



The Mother of George Washington 




Mary Ball Washington, Mother of George Washington, Died August 25, 1789. She was Buried Near her 
Home, Fredericksburg, Virginia, at a Site She Herself had Chosen. The First Monument Over her Grave 
was Begun in 183 3 at Private Expense, but Remained Unfinished (see Illustration on P. 102), and Crum- 
bled. Efforts for a Public Appropriation for a New Monument Failed, and in 1889 the Women of 

I : l Dl RI< KSBURG FORMED THE MaRY WASHINGTON MONUMENT ASSOCIATION, WHICH DEVELOPED INTO THE Na- 

riONAL Mary Washington Memorial Association, Chartered on February 22, 1890. Women Vice-Presi- 
dents \V'i re Appointed for the States to Take Charge of the Movement; the Land was Acquired; Pa- 
TRiOTic Societies Took an Interest; a Hereditary Life Membership was Instituted; and the Required 
I i \i» for mi Monument and Care was Raised. The Cornerstone was Laid on October 21, 1893, and 
mi Su i < n i i Dedicated in the Presence of President Cleveland May 10, 1894. The Monument is 
I ii m I i i i 1 Ik, 1 1 and Comprises a Monolith of Forty Feet, Standing on Bases and Plinth Ten Feet High. 
1 '" Lowi b Basi is I i i vi n Feet Square. The Whole Shaft of Fifty Feet is of Barre Granite and the 
I im si Workmanship. On the Front of the Plinth are the Simple Words: "MARY THE MOTHER OF 
WAS] EINGT< >N," am» on the Reverse Side: "ERECTED BY HER COUNTRY-WOMEN." These Inscrip- 

i IONS \i'i BEA1 flFULLY Cut. 



The Mother of George Washington 



By Mrs. John Dickinson Sherman 



"Mary the Mother of Washington" — These five words, 
which form the simple inscription on the monument erected to 
the memory of Mary Ball Washington, are fraught with deep 
meaning and great significance. They suggest characteristics 
which the mother of so great a man must necessarily possess; 
characteristics which by her stoic patience and self-sacrificing 
devotion were instilled in the heart and mind of her first born, 
thus laying the foundation for his own future greatness. 

Like other mothers of great men, Mary Ball Washington sought 
divine guidance through prayer and through her Bible and other 
deeply religious writings. Her associations from early childhood 
were of a deeply religious nature, for the early settlers staunchly 
adhered to church doctrine and to the established custom of fam- 
ily prayers. 

Mary Ball was imbued with reverence and religious fervor. 
This supplemented by adequate training in domestic routine and 
her sense of responsibility for the duties of home life, admirably 
fitted for the role of motherhood. 

She represented a fine type of the well-bred colonial Virginia 
lady with a background of good English ancestry. That she was 
beautiful and popular in her home community is shown by tradi- 
tional reference to her as the "Rose of Epping Forest" and the 
"Belle of Northern Neck." That she was self-contained and con- 
tent to await the coming of a fitting mate is apparent, for she 
had reached the age of 24 when she made her choice, and became 
the second wife of Capt. Augustine Washington. 

It was in 1730 that she came as a bride to the Washington 
home at Bridges Creek, later known as Wakefield, which had been 
without a mistress since the death of Jane Butler, Captain Wash- 
ington's first wife and mother of his three children. 

Soon after taking possession of her new home the young bride, 
in making a tour of inspection of the premises, found among 
the books a much-used volume of Sir Matthew Hale's "Contem- 
plations, Moral and Divine." On turning the pages she read on 
the flyleaf the name of her predecessor, "Jane Washington." This 
little reminder of her husband's first wife she accepted with rare 
good sense, for which she was always noted, and beneath "Jane 
Washington" she added her own name, "and Mary Washington." 

Then she set herself to the task of aiding her husband in the 
religious training of her young stepsons not yet in their teens, 
carrying on from their mother's own book the teaching her prede- 
cessor had laid down. 

As her own children came along they too, were, thoroughly 
instructed in the principles of the Bible and the Contempla- 
tions. 

The greatest joy and pride of Mary Washington's life came on 
February 22, 1732, when her first born was placed in her arms. 
She chose for her child the name of George in loving regard for 
her guardian, George Eskridge, an eminent lawyer of Virginia. 

A few months later the christening of young George took 
place in the presence of many friends and relatives, with a full 
quota of godparents. Mementos of this beautiful and impressive 



baptismal service may still be seen in the handsome bowl used 
as a font and the christening robe which are now in the National 
Museum at Washington. 

Of Washington's youth and early relations with his mother 
we have little but traditions; stories that have their origin more 
in the known later traits of both mother and son than in any 
contemporary accounts. But among them are many that are 
so characteristic that they might well have happened. Thus we 
are told that Mary Ball Washington wanted this first son of hers 
to become a minister, but in her wisdom she always sought 
what was best for him. Also, that from the time little George 
could toddle his father trained him to sit a horse, to ride, to 
climb, to jump, to shoot, and to do many athletic stunts, which 
his adoring young mother must have watched with trepidation 
though filled with pride at his aptness in learning. The eager 
delight of the child when his father gave him a little sword 
brought protests from the mother lest her son crave a soldier's 
career instead of her choice for him. But she gave way to Cap- 
tain Washington, who encouraged the soldier tendency, teaching 
him courage, truthfulness, and always to gage his actions by 
honor. 

Other children came to share her mother care, and always she 
was especially conscious and prayerful when the guidance and 
instruction of her children rested upon her, which it did entirely 
following the untimely death of her husband in 1743. 

It is a tradition that it was her lifelong habit to rise at dawn 
and spend the first hour of the day in silent thought and prayer 
to prepare herself for the family worship and for the day's events; 
and that though her eldest son, George, was only 11 when his 
father died, upon him she placed the old patriarchial duty of say- 
ing at table and prayers at night and morning. From this early 
age his mother expected him to assume and carry such responsi- 
bility as the circumstances of life brought to him. Under her 
pious guidance he could not have evaded any service that she 
deemed his duty. 

Mary Washington personally supervised the management of 
the large estates in addition to the household duties and the train- 
ing of her children, and so strong was the influence of her train- 
ing that all of her children had respect for her decisions. This 
is exemplified by the account which has been handed down that 
when Washington was 14 or 15 there was a plan for him to go 
to sea, whether in a merchantman or as a midshipman can not 
be said. His mother objected, especially after she had received 
a letter from her brother in England condemning the plan, and 
it was abandoned without protest from her obedient son. 

Though making no comment of sympathy at the time, his 
mother knew his sorrow and struggle and shortly afterwards pre- 
sented him with a new penknife from England which he had long 
craved, saying, "Always obey your superiors." 

This disappointment about going to sea, added to the fact that 
his father's death had taken away the chance of the English 
school education that had been given his half brothers, sobered 



167 



168 



The Mother of George Washington 



the boy into a realization that he must forego his own career and 
caused him to listen to and absorb his mother's cultural teach- 
ings and led him to consider seriously the set of "Rules of Con- 
duct" a combination of suggestions for proper behavior brought 
over from England. 

Here is one of the rules: 

"Associate yourself with men of good quality if you 
esteem your own reputation; for 'tis better to be alone than in 
bad company." 

With the great responsibility of training and caring for her 
young family and conserving their inheritances to furnish a proper 
and sufficient income, Mary Washington became more and more 
reserved and dignified, to the point of inspiring awe among 
strangers and ofttimes in her own family. Her children always 
addressed her as "Honored Madame" in accordance with the ex- 
treme formality of the period. 

But with all her austerity she was a wise and loving mother 
who set her face against every diversion in life to devote herself 
entirely to her children. Her entire interest was centered in and 
revolved around the care and development of the best that was 
in them. 

George Washington Parke Custis, although too young to have 
remembered very much of her or to have formed his own opinion 
of her high character, lived in the home of General Washington 
from infancy and was fully acquainted with her life. Of her he 
has written: 

"Though apparently endowed with equability of tempera- 
ment, Mary Washington's nature glowed with a suppressed 
fervor which transmitted itself to her son and in him became 
power for endurance, passion for command, ambition to do and 
to dare in the Colonial wars, spontaneous assumption of lead- 
ership, and the natural and easy command of men. This sup- 
pressed fire, force or energy or whatever it may be termed, 
was felt by everybody who contacted either George Washing- 
ton or his stately mother." 

Tradition has given stories of George Washington's boyish 
pranks and escapades; mostly just boyish carelessness, sometimes 
only a bit of disobedience to some rule. In these matters Mary 
Washington stifled her first loving impulse to overlook the matter, 
requiring the boy to tell his own story. In each case we find 
her superior wisdom forgiving the act because of the courageous, 
truthful attitude of her son. She put him and kept him so on 
his honor that it was not in his code as boy or man to deceive 
or falsify. 

The steady rise of her first born from one position of respon- 
sibility to another of leadership was accepted by the "Spartan" 
mother as a matter of course, as a part of his duty. She is never 



recorded as praising him. She took his superb valor under fire, 
his unfailing patriotism, all in his day's work. Her fear for his 
safety was put aside in the challenge she gave herself — "The 
mothers of brave men must themselves be brave." 

After the Braddock expedition, during which Washington's 
escape was scarcely less than a miracle, Mary Washington was 
strenuous in her objections to her son returning to the frontier 
in command of the Virginia forces placed on guard there. But 
he wrote her: "Honor'd Madam: If it is in my power to avoid 
going to the Ohio again, I shall, but if the Command is press'd 
upon me by the genl. voice of the Country, and offer'd upon 
such terms as can't be objected against, it wou'd reflect eternal 
dishonor upon me to refuse it; and that, I am sure must, or 
ought, to give you greater cause of uneasiness than my going in 
an honourable Com'd.; for upon no other terms I will accept of 
it if I do at all." 

General Washington's selection to the Presidency, the first 
Executive of the young Republic, brought no added elation to 
his mother. It was his duty. She saw nothing else for him to 
do. When he came to tell her of it, all his future honors were 
shadowed by her realization that this was her last meeting with 
the child of her heart. Her mother love sought to enfold him 
in all her love, protection, and security that her prayers and 
blessings could invoke. 

Among his most cherished family treasures is said to have 
been his mother's portrait painted in her bridal days, as well as 
the worn copy of her Contemplations, companion of her quiet 
hours. This book he kept for his own use until he, too, had 
no longer need for material things. 

Growing into manhood in such an atmosphere, it is not sur- 
prising that George Washington was known in his day as the 
"Defender of the mothers" and the "Protector of the daughters." 
He has left a heritage of chivalrous conduct in his relations with 
the women of his immediate family and the circle radiating from 
his own fireside that has inspired the homage of all ages of every 
generation since his time. 

Never before has there been a more distinct and convincing 
illustration of the effect of home life on the character of a child 
and youth than that which surrounded George Washington as 
he grew into early manhood. The soul of the home became a 
conscious factor in his everyday life and developed the strength 
of character, courage, and upright living that made him a shin- 
ing example of righteous manhood, not alone to the people of 
that day but to those of all generations. 

Mary Ball Washington typifies the highest example of Ameri- 
can motherhood and is a most illustrious prototype of colonial 
home maker. Like Martha of old, she attended well to the ways 
of her household. 



George Washington as a Judge 

BY 

Hon. R. Walton Moore 



(Former President of Virginia Bar Association and former Mem- 
ber of House of Representatives from the 
Mount Vernon District.) 



Reprinted from the 
Congressional Record of March 4, 1932 




By Hon. R. Walton Moore 



Washington was through with school in the ordinary sense 
of the term when, about 1 5 years old, he took up his residence 
with his brother at Mount Vernon. In a letter to his mother 
attributed to Lord Fairfax, the writer was correct in saying 
"his education might have been bettered" but correct in predict- 
ing, on the basis of his estimate of the youth's unusual qualities, 
that he "would go to school all his life and profit thereby." In 
that way certainly no one of the time had more opportunity or 
was a more intelligent and receptive student. Much has been 
written of how he was thus trained at almost every step for 
the great tasks which awaited him, for example, by his service 
as a young surveyor in a wild and thinly settled region, as a 
young soldier in the frontier wilderness, as a member of the 
colonial house of burgesses, and a Member of the Continental 
Congress. 

But the fact seems not to have been at all stressed that for 
years he was one of the judges of a court possessing extensive 
jurisdiction and inevitably profited by the contacts and informa- 
tion incident to that service. While it is mainly the present 
purpose to say something about that one element of the edu- 
cation which the Fairfax letter predicted for him, 



further 



influential people of the Colony. Added to all this, it is clear 
that not later than the spring of 1768 and thence on until the 
outbreak of the Revolution, he was a justice of the peace, and 
as such not only charged with disposing of minor cases, but, 
along with other justices, was engaged in conducting the busi- 
ness of the county court of his county. As one may see from 
the court minutes, they were invariably, when holding court, 
styled "gentlemen justices." Due to the loss of colonial records 
showing the appointment of justices and the absence here of in- 
formation understood to be available in England, where there are 
copies of those records, it is not possible at this moment to deter- 
mine the precise date when Washington's judicial career started. 
But there remain two of the Fairfax County court order books 
covering the period from 1770 to 1775 which, if there were no 
other reason, are worth examining as an example of the beautiful 
and still perfectly clear writing of the old-time clerks who wrote 
up the minutes of the court proceedings. 

From these two books it appears that Washington served in the 
court from 1770 to 1774. It is otherwise shown, however, that 
his service began prior to 1770. In his accounts are evidences 
that he began to serve as early as June 1765. Turning to the 



word or so may be permitted with respect to his protracted legis- first volume of his Diaries, which give bare facts with little or 
lative career as a burgess during the period from 1759 to 1775 
and as a Delegate to the first and second session of the Conti- 
nental Congress. In the House of Burgesses his associates were 
the ablest and most accomplished Virginia contemporaries, and 
in Congress the most eminent men of the thirteen Colonies. Of 
course, not as a speechmaker, but by his industry and wisdom, he 
won the admiration and confidence of his colleagues. Convinc- 
ing proof of this is that in 1774 the house selected him as one 
of the seven Delegates to the first Congress. He was placed in 
distinguished company. The others were Benjamin Harrison, 
Richard Henry Lee, Richard Bland, Peyton Randolph, Edmund 
Pendleton, and Patrick Henry, the last three remarkable law- 
yers. As to how he was regarded in Congress, there is the 
testimony of Henry, who was destined to be offered by President 
Washington the post of Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. 
Henry, answering an inquiry, said: "If you speak of eloquence, 
Mr. Rutledge, of South Carolina, is by far the greatest 
orator, but if you speak of solid information and sound judg- 
ment, Colonel Washington is unquestionably the greatest man 
on that floor." 

A recent writer says that when Washington returned to Mount 
Vernon in 175 8, after British rule had been pretty firmly estab- 
lished in the West, he led "the quiet life of a country gentleman." 
But the life of a man could not have been very quiet who, 
besides his legislative duties, closely looked after his own large 
estate and the large estates of his wife and stepson, was busy 
with the affairs of the church as an energetic member of the 
vestry of his parish at a time when it had serious official re- 
sponsibilities, who traveled much in and out of Virginia, and was 
exceptionally active in political and social relations with the 



no comment, there is this entry under date of April 18, 1768: 
"Went to court and returned in the evening." Then follow at 
intervals more than 20 such entries. Now and then they show 
that the session of the court ran several days. For instance, on 
June 20, 1769, having been at court the day before, the entry 
is: "Went up to court again and returned in the evening, with 
Colonel Mason, Mr. Scott, and Mr. Bryan Fairfax," all of whom 
were justices. Mason, as we all know, was the author of the 
Virginia constitution of 1776, which included the Bill of Rights 
and was the first instrument ever written and promulgated which 
set up a complete system of government. Though not a prac- 
ticing lawyer, he was deeply versed in the history and philosophy 
of the law. He was Washington's near neighbor and friend and 
one of his most trusted advisors. For instance, the day and 
evening before the famous Fairfax Resolves were adopted by 
the citizens of Fairfax in 1774, he and Washington in conference 
at Mount Vernon agreed on the elaborate statement of the 
grievances and rights of the colonists which was embodied in 
the Resolves, and the next day went from Mount Vernon to the 
meeting at the county seat in Alexandria, at which Washington 
presided. The last entry in the Diaries relative to the court is 
June 17, 1774, subsequent to which date Washington was doubt- 
less too much engrossed by affairs affecting the entire country 
to have much time for local matters. 

Along with Mason the 1774 meeting had the benefit of the 
presence of Robert Hanson Harrison, a learned lawyer, who was 
a leader of the bar of Fairfax County while Washington was a 
member of the court. In many a case he had seen Harrison's 
character and ability tested, and he singled him out as one of 
a group of great lawyers, among them Marshall and Hamilton, 



170 



George Washington as a Judge 



171 



on whom at various stages of his career he was accustomed to 
rely when the most dependable counsel was needed. Harrison 
was not only at his side when the Resolves flung defiance at the 
Crown but at his side as a member of his staff during the 
Revolution, and when he became President he commissioned him 
as one of the original appointees to the Supreme Court. Turning 
again to the Diaries, there is found this interesting entry dated 
February 6, 1790: "The resignation of Mr. Harrison as an asso- 
ciate judge [he declined the appointment a few days after being 
commissioned, preferring to be chancellor of the State of Mary- 
land], making the nomination of some other character to supply 
his place necessary, I determined after contemplating every char- 
acter which presented itself to my view, to name Mr. Iredell, of 
North Carolina; ... I had recourse to every means of informa- 
tion in my power, and found them all concurring in his favor." 

The evidence is abundant that no one has had more respect 
than Washington for the legal profession and that no President 
has been more solicitous about the importance of the judiciary 
and the maintenance of its integrity and strength. This is vari- 
ously indicated. To illustrate, it is indicated by the appointments 
he made when he took up his duties as President and it is indi- 
cated in his letter to Edmund Randolph when he invited him to 
become Attorney General. "Impressed," he wrote Randolph, 
"that the due administration of justice is the firmest pillar of 
good government, I have considered the first arrangement of the 
judicial department as essential to the happiness of our country 
and the stability of its political system. Hence the selection of 
the fittest characters to expound the laws and dispense justice, 
has been an invariable object of my anxious concern." It can be 
believed that such a high conception was in no small measure 
derived from his own participation in the work of expounding the 
laws and dispensing justice and that this was a factor in the 
education which it was predicted he would acquire. 

In Washington's time, and long before and after, the county 
court was the most important tribunal in Virginia. While he 
was serving, with the exception of comparatively trifling cases, 
it had unlimited jurisdiction of civil cases, law and chancery, 
of probate matters, and of a large class of criminal cases. It 
had wide administrative powers touching the fiscal affairs of the 
county, the construction of public buildings, the laying out and 
construction of highways, building bridges, providing and oper- 
ating ferries, the care of orphan children, the licensing of inn- 
keepers and the fixing of their charges. Relative to the last 
matter, the order books show that periodically the rates to be 
charged for liquor, the surprisingly many kinds then in use being 
enumerated, and for lodging and food were determined by the 
court. Very commonly the final item in the list is, "For a 
night's lodging, with clean sheets, 6d., otherwise nothing." 
The trifling nature from our point of view of some of the 
business of the court can not prevent us from seeing that very 
much of it was of a kind to require able and discerning men on 
the bench and lawyers who were representative of the learning 
and skill of the profession. 

Justices for a county were appointed by the governor, not 
fewer than eight and often more, there being no restriction as to 
the number. They remained in office indefinitely, and the 
court recommended appointments to fill vacancies. Without the 



presence of four no court could be held. The clerk was an 
appointee of the court and in effect so was the sheriff, though 
he held his commission from the governor. The justices were 
not lawyers but nearly always the most prominent and reliable 
citizens of their county. They received no compensation what- 
ever. They were thought sufficiently compensated by the honor 
of holding an office regarded as of outstanding importance and 
dignity, with the opportunity of contributing to the common 
good by attending to the settlement of small controversies out 
of court, and in court by taking part in the performance of 
duties which affected the property and liberty of persons and 
the general welfare of the public. When the Virginia Consti- 
tutional Convention of 1829-30 had under discussion the county 
court, then composed and having much the same jurisdiction as 
in Washington's day, Chief Justice Marshall, a member of the 
convention, said: "It was the truth that no State in the Union 
had hitherto more internal quiet than Virginia. There is no 
part of America where less discord, less ill feeling between man 
and man is to be found than in this Commonwealth, and he 
firmly believed that that State of things was mainly to be ascribed 
to the practical operation of our county courts. The magistrates 
who composed these courts consisted in general of the best men 
in their respective counties. It was mainly due to their influence 
that so much harmony existed in the State. His emphatic opin- 
ion was that these courts must be preserved." Supporting Mar- 
shall's view, another member, Philip P. Barbour, who was ap- 
pointed to the Supreme Court by President Jackson, said he had 
practiced in those courts for a quarter of a century and he could 
say with the utmost truth that his confidence in them had grown 
with his growth and strengthened with his strength. At the 
same time Benjamin Watkins Leigh said he had heard of but two 
instances of corruption in the county courts in 200 years. As 
to alleged incompetency and ignorance he had seen county courts 
which were among the ablest tribunals before which he had 
practiced. Speaking of the type of men who served in these 
courts, it will be remembered that both Jefferson and Madison 
were justices; that Monroe, after two terms in the Presidency, 
accepted an appointment and served as a justice in his county, 
and that in 1784 the victor of the Revolution was named as a 
justice for Fairfax County. 

That the county court had a central place in the estimation 
of the public is easy to understand. The population was sparse 
and the people mainly engaged in agriculture. There were no 
cities and few villages large enough to be called towns. It was 
at the county seat when the court was in session that the in- 
habitants gathered. From several historians, including Fiske, 
we have this picture: The court day was a holiday for all the 
country side, particularly in the fall and spring. From all direc- 
tions came in the people on horseback, in wagons, and on foot. 
On the courthouse green assembled people of all classes — the 
hunter from the backwoods, the owner of a few acres, and the 
great landowner. Old debts were settled and new ones made; 
there were auctions, transfers of property, and if election times 
were near stump speaking, when questions pertaining more or 
less to some real or fancied encroachment on popular liberty of 
the Crown were apt to be debated. All else aside, as one of the 
historians has remarked, the county court was one of the main 



172 



George Washington as a Judge 



agencies of spreading political education. In every way it was 
one of the agencies which furthered the education of Washing- 
ton according to the prediction which had been made. 

Perhaps before he had any idea of being identified with the 
court, Washington must have frequently witnessed such a scene 
as that just outlined. Such was probably the scene when in his 
eighteenth year he appeared in the court of Culpeper County to 
qualify as the surveyor of that county, and such may have been 
the scene when five years afterwards, on March 19, 1754, he 
appeared early one morning in the Fairfax court and presented 
his commission from the governor as lieutenant colonel (he was 
preparing to set out on the campaign to the West, the year before 
starting on the fatal expedition with Braddock) and took the 
prescribed oaths. The courts were not leisurely. In spite of the 
fact that the justices sometimes had to travel a considerable dis- 
tance over wretched roads to the county seat, the Fairfax court 
never convened later than 9 o'clock. Our ancestors seem to 
have been very industrious in discharging official duties and to 
have attached high value to the oaths under which they acted. 
On the occasion just mentioned Washington "took the usual 
oaths to his majesty's person and government, and took and 
subscribed the abjuration oath and test," and in Culpeper took 
also the oath as surveyor. The oath which was subscribed was a 
disclaimer of belief in the theological doctrine of transubstantia- 
tion. 

Though a layman, Washington as a member of the court 
necessarily progressed in his knowledge of the law and of the 
importance of those who were trained in that profession. That 
he consulted statutes and law books bearing upon such matters 
as he was obliged to deal with is reasonably evident from the 
number of such works listed in the inventory of his estate. It 
will be plain to anyone who reads the statutes prescribing the 
jurisdiction and procedure of the courts that he could not have 
escaped becoming fairly familiar with the rules of pleadings and 
practice, with the distinction between law suits and chancery 
suits and the methods of conducting both, with attachment and 
injunction, with the organization and functioning of grand juries 
and trial juries, with the means of executing judgments and de- 
crees, with the duties of clerks, sheriffs and other officials. He 
necessarily became saturated with a good deal of the knowledge 
and acquired to some extent the habits of mind now assumed 
to be confined to those who have been equipped for judicial work 
by long study and then by some experience at the bar. 1 Several 
years ago in an address lauding the Virginia county court sys- 
tem, the late Holmes Conrad, who was Solicitor General under 
President Cleveland, not with Washington or any other particular 
man in view, visualized what occurred when a planter of high 
character and strong sense, but unlearned in the law, became 
identified with the court, and in reading what he says we may 



1 His will, prepared a short time before his death, consisting of more than 
20 large pages, wholly in his own handwriting, now preserved in the Record 
office at Fairfax and disposing of the largest estate of that time, tends to show 
his reliance upon the knowledge of law which he had acquired. Toward the 
end he modestly says it would be evident "that no professional character his 
been consulted or has had any agency in the draft." 

7 The old spelling is retained. 

3 In another way he exerted the same sort of influence. As shown by the 
Diaries he was often chosen and acted as an arbitrator. 



think of its application to Washington. The difficulties which 
the new judge encountered at the outset are described. He had 
difficulty in detecting the real questions involved and in follow- 
ing the testimony and argument, and he distrusted the conclu- 
sion which he reached. But "after the novelty wears away, he 
is able to fix his mind upon the business in hand; he detects 
and is able to follow the clue which leads him through conflict- 
ing testimony. He sees dimly at first, but steadily in the light 
of conscience he discerns the right and wrong of the case; and 
now he begins to apprehend and appreciate the arguments of ad- 
vocates. He feels gaining on him a sense of responsibility and 
the importance of the work. There is slowly but gradually de- 
veloping the faculties of his mind, of the powers of which he 
was before unconscious. He is undergoing a process of educa- 
tion, the effects of which became apparent to himself as also to 
his friends and neighbors. He is no longer led away by first im- 
pressions or whatsoever of the mere surface of matters. He 
learns to hold his judgment in abeyance until his mind is in- 
formed and his conscience satisfied. He goes down from his 
place on the bench and receives the confidence and manifest re- 
spect of the people of his locality." 

Whenever it was that Washington qualified as a justice he of 
course took the same oaths as when he qualified as a lieutenant 
colonel. In addition, he took a lengthy oath as "justice of the 
peace" and another as "Justice of the County Court of Fairfax 
in Chancery." In the former he pledged himself, among other 
things, to "do equal right to the poor and to the rich after your 
cunning, wit, and power, and according to law; and you shall 
not be of counsel of any quarrel hanging before you, and the 
issues, fines, and americaments, 2 that shall happen to be made, 
and all forfeitures which shall fall before you, you shall cause to 
be entered, without any concealment or imbeziling." In the 
latter oath he was pledged to "do equal right to all manner of 
people, great and small, high and low, rich and poor, according 
to equity and good conscience and the laws and usages of his 
colony and Dominion of Virginia, without favour, affection or 
partiality." The praise that can be given these "gentlemen 
justices" is that they lived up to their oaths. 

There is no way of knowing the extent of Washington's activi- 
ties as an individual justice having exclusive jurisdiction of a 
class of very minor cases. But as he resided in the most populous 
section of his county and enjoyed everybody's respect and confi- 
dence, it is safe to conjecture it must have been considerable and 
that he always exerted his influence to quiet controversy and 
promote the tranquil condition for which Marshall thought the 
county court and those composing it were largely responsible. 3 

Far less is known than could be desired of the proceedings of 
the Fairfax court during Washington's service. The court papers 
have long since disappeared and about the only source of infor- 
mation are the two order books already mentioned. Looking at 
the one of them, which runs from April, 1770, to January, 1772, 
containing 3 30 pages, it appears that Washington attended over 
half of the monthly terms, which was more regular than the 
attendance of a majority of his colleagues, Mason not excepted. 
In the period to which the book pertains, hundreds of civil cases 
were brought and in great variety — actions of debt, trespass, 
trespass on the case, trover and conversion, detinue, replevin, and 



George Washington as a Judge 



173 



ejectment. There was constant resort to attachment. There 
were suits in chancery, and injuctions were issued to restrain the 
collection of judgments and prevent irremediable injury. The 
names of the plaintiffs and defendants are always given and often 
the names of the lawyers, not only Mr. Harrison heretofore 
spoken of but others still unforgotten, among them William 
Grayson, who was to be one of the first United States Senators 
from Virginia; Benjamin Sebastian, ancestor of one of the first 
Senators from Arkansas; and George Johnston, who was on 
Washington's staff in the Revolution. He was the son of that 
George Johnston, like Mason a neighbor and friend of Wash- 
ington, and one of the leaders of the Virginia bar, who as a mem- 
ber of the House of Burgesses in 1765, according to Jefferson, 
who listened to the debate, delivered a powerful legal argument 
in support of Henry's resolutions condemning the Stamp Tax. 
The resolutions were carried by a very narrow majority. If 
Washington was present he undoubtedly gave the resolutions his 
firm support. The cases were tried by juries unless the defend- 
ant failed to appear or waived a trial in that manner, and ver- 
dicts and judgments were made payable in tobacco or currency 
and sometimes partly in each. 

Now and then the jurors disagreed after lengthy deliberation, 
and in one instance a juror was withdrawn and the case con- 
tinued for "reasons exciting as well the said justices as the said 
parties"; but the reasons for the excitement are not set out. 
There were now and then exceptions to the refusal of the court 
to set aside verdicts, and in a certain case not otherwise notable 
the bill of exceptions was signed by Washington and sealed with 
his seal. Delinquent debtors were ordered to be imprisoned and 
were released after 20 days' confinement upon proof of insol- 
vency. Lawyers were admitted to practice, wills were admitted 
to probate, letters of administration granted, guardians appointed, 
and the accounts of fiduciaries passed on. Poor children were 
directed to be bound out as apprentices and taught trades. There 
was much done in supervising and enforcing the collection of 
taxes and making expenditures for local purposes. Relative 
to ferries there is this entry: "Ordered, that George Mason and 
George Washington, Gent., be summoned to appear at the next 
court to give security according to law for keeping the ferries at 
their respective landings." Both lived on the shore of the Poto- 
mac, and ferries were operated across the river to Maryland. The 
court was required to see to the construction, when needed, and 



to the upkeep of the courthouse and jail and warehouses for the 
storage of tobacco turned in for taxes. In obedience to the 
statute it had the duty of providing a "pillory, whipping post, 
and stocks." Notwithstanding, the criminal jurisdiction of the 
court embraced all offenses except those punishable by death, 
loss of limb, or outlawry, the order book refers to very few 
serious offenses. But the court was called on to deal with a 
great deal of the same comparatively unimportant kind of crim- 
inal business which now crowds the dockets of the United States 
district courts. The order books at the time back of Wash- 
ington show that many people were charged with not attending 
their parish churches "within two months last past," with being 
"idle vagrants," and with "tending of seconds," which meant 
gathering a second growth of tobacco from the same stalks. 
The order book now referred to is full of presentments of women 
for having "base born children," and people for violating the 
liquor laws and getting drunk, for violating the Sabbath, for 
failing to list themselves or their property for taxation, of road 
overseers and other officials for neglecting their duties. There 
seems to have been a good deal of profanity. A man would be 
presented for "prophanely swearing by his God one time," or 
more than one time might be specified, and there was an individ- 
ual presented for "prophanely swearing by his God five times" 
within three days." Enough has been said to suggest that here 
was the one nisi prius court operating in a nearly limitless field 
conducted by picked men who, albeit laymen, necessarily as the 
years went on, came to know very much of the law applicable 
to governmental and personal affairs, and the manner of its ad- 
ministration. 

Fairfax County was a part of the princely domain called the 
Northern Neck of Virginia, of which Lord Fairfax was pro- 
prietor, embracing what are now more than 20 Virginia and 
West Virginia counties. He was one of the justices of the county, 
a special commission empowered "the Right Honorable the Lord 
Fairfax to act as a Justice of the Peace in all the counties of the 
Northern Neck;" and on his appearance he was noted at the head' 
of the list as the presiding justice. On the occasion when he and 
Washington happened to be on the bench together it may be 
imagined that he was glad to see with his own eyes how constantly 
there was being verified his prediction quoted at the outset that 
Washington "would go to school all his life and profit thereby.'" 




CONSIDER IT AN INDISPENSABLE DUTY 
TO CLOSE THIS LAST SOLEMN ACT OF MY OFFICIAL 
LIFE, BY COMMENDING THE INTERESTS OF OUR 

dearest country to the protection of 
Almighty God, and those who have the 

SUPERINTENDENCE OF THEM TO HIS HOLY KEEP- 
ING. — George Washington. 



174 



The Character 

OF 

Washington 



A SPEECH BY 

DANIEL WEBSTER 



at a public dinner on the 22nd of february, 1832, in honor of 
the one hundredth anniversary of the birth of 

George Washington 



United States 
George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 1932 



The Character of Washington 



A Speech by Daniel Webster 



On the 22d of February, 1832, being the centennial 
of the birth of George Washington, a number of 
gentlemen, members of Congress and others, from dif- 
ferent parts of the Union, united in commemorating the 
occasion by a public dinner in the city of Washington. 

At the request of the Committee on Arrangements, 
Mr. Webster, then a Senator from Massachusetts, oc- 
cupied the chair. After the cloth was removed, he 
addressed the company in the following manner: 

I rise, Gentlemen, to propose to you the name of that great 
man, in commemoration of whose birth, and in honor of whose 
character and services, we are here assembled. 

I am sure that I express a sentiment common to every one 
present, when I say that there is something more than ordinarily 
solemn and affecting in this occasion. 

We are met to testify our regard for him whose name is in- 
timately blended with whatever belongs most essentially to the 
prosperity, the liberty, the free institutions, and the renown of 
our country. That name was of power to rally a nation, in the 
hour of thick-thronging public disasters and calamities; that name 
shone, amid the storm of war, a beacon light to cheer and guide 
the country's friends; it flamed, too, like a meteor, to repel her 
foes. That name, in the days of peace, was a loadstone, attract- 
ing to itself a whole people's confidence, a whole people's love, 
and the whole world's respect. That name, descending with all 
time, spreading over the whole earth, and uttered in all the lan- 
guages belonging to the tribes and races of men, will for ever 
be pronounced with affectionate gratitude by every one in whose 
breast there shall arise an aspiration for human rights and human 
liberty. 

We perform this grateful duty, Gentlemen, at the expiration 
of a hundred years from his birth, near the place, so cherished 
and beloved by him, where his dust now reposes, and in the 
capital which bears his own immortal name. 

All experience evinces that human sentiments are strongly in- 
fluenced by associations. The recurrence of anniversaries, or of 
longer periods of time, naturally freshens the recollection, and 
deepens the impression, of events with which they are historically 
connected. Renowned places, also, have a power to awaken 
feeling, which all acknowledge. No American can pass by the 
fields of Bunker Hill, Monmouth, and Camden, as if they were 
ordinary spots on the earth's surface. Whoever visits them feels 
the sentiment of love of country kindling anew, as if the spirit 
that belonged to the transactions which have rendered these 
places distinguished still hovered round, with power to move and 
excite all who in future time may approach them. 

But neither of these sources of emotion equals the power with 
which great moral examples affect the mind. When sublime 
virtues cease to be abstractions, when they become embodied in 
human character, and exemplified in human conduct, we should 
be false to our own nature, if we did not indulge in the spon- 
taneous effusions of our gratitude and our admiration. A true 
lover of the virtue of patriotism delights to contemplate its 



purest models; and that love of country may be well suspected 
which affects to soar so high into the regions of sentiment as 
to be lost and absorbed in the abstract feeling, and becomes too 
elevated or too refined to glow with fervor in the commendation 
or the love of individual benefactors. All this is unnatural. It 
is as if one should be so enthusiastic a lover of poetry, as to care 
nothing for Homer or Milton; so passionately attached to elo- 
quence as to be indifferent to Tully and Chatham; or such a 
devotee to the arts, in such an ecstasy with the elements of 
beauty, proportion, and expression, as to regard the masterpieces 
of Raphael and Michael Angelo with coldness or contempt. We 
may be assured, Gentlemen, that he who really loves the thing 
itself, loves its finest exhibitions. A true friend of his country 
loves her friends and benefactors, and thinks it no degradation 
to commend and commemorate them. The voluntary outpouring 
of the public feeling, made today, from the North to the South, 
and from the East to the West, proves this sentiment to be both 
just and natural. In the cities and in the villages, in the public 
temples and in the family circles, among all ages and sexes, glad- 
dened voices today bespeak grateful hearts and a freshened recol- 
lection of the virtues of the Father of his Country. And it will 
be so, in all time to come, so long as public virtue is itself an 
object of regard. The ingenuous youth of America will hold 
up to themselves the bright model of Washington's example, and 
study to be what they behold; they will contemplate his charac- 
ter till all its virtues spread out and display themselves to their 
delightful vision; as the earliest astronomers, the shepherds on the 
plains of Babylon, gazed at the stars till they saw them form 
into clusters and constellations, overpowering at length the eyes 
of the beholders with the united blaze of a thousand lights. 

Gentlemen, we are at the point of a century from the birth of 
Washington; and what a century it has been! During its course, 
the human mind has seemed to proceed with a sort of geometric 
velocity, accomplishing, for human intelligence and human free- 
dom, more than had been done in fives or tens of centuries pre- 
ceeding. Washington stands at the commencement of a new era, 
as well as at the head of the New World. A century from the 
birth of Washington has changed the world. The country of 
Washington has been the theatre on which a great part of that 
change has been wrought; and Washington himself a principal 
agent by which it has been accomplished. His age and his 
country are equally full of wonders; and of both he is the chief. 

If the poetical prediction, uttered a few years before his birth, 
be true; if indeed it be designed by Providence that the grandest 
exhibition of human character and human affairs shall be made 
on this theatre of the Western world; if it be true that, 

"The four first acts already past, 
A fifth shall close the drama of the day; 
Time's noblest offspring is the last"; 

how could this imposing, swelling, final scene be appropriately 
opened, how could its intense interest be adequately sustained, 
but by the introduction of just such a character as our Wash- 
ington? 



176 



A Speech by Daniel Webster 



177 



Washington had attained his manhood when that spark of 
liberty was struck out in his own country, which has since 
kindled into a flame, and shot its beams over the earth. In 
the flow of a century from his birth, the world has changed in 
science, in arts, in the extent of commerce, in the improvement 
of navigation, and in all that relates to the civilization of man. 
But it is the spirit of human freedom, the new elevation of in- 
dividual man, in his moral, social, and political character, leading 
the whole long train of other improvements, which has most 
remarkably distinguished the era. Society, in this century, has 
not made its progress, like Chinese skill, by a greater acuteness 
of ingenuity in trifles; it has not merely lashed itself to an in- 
creased speed round the old circles of thought and action; but 
it has assumed a new character; it has raised itself from beneath 
governments to a participation in governments; it has mixed 
moral and political objects with the daily pursuits of individual 
men; and, with a freedom and strength before altogether un- 
known, it has applied to these objects the whole power of the 
human understanding. It has been the era, in short, when the 
social principle has triumphed over the feudal principle; when 
society has maintained its rights against military power, and 
established, on foundations never hereafter to be shaken, its 
competency to govern itself. 

It was the extraordinary fortune of Washington, that, having 
been intrusted, in revolutionary times, with the supreme military 
command, and having fulfilled that trust with equal renown for 
wisdom and for valor, he should be placed at the head of the first 
government in which an attempt was to be made on a large scale 
to rear the fabric of social order on the basis of a written con- 
stitution and of a pure representative principle. A government 
was to be established, without a throne, without an aristocracy, 
without castes, orders, or privileges; and this government, in- 
stead of being a democracy, existing and acting within the walls 
of a single city, was to be extended over a vast country, of dif- 
ferent climates, interest, and habits, and of various communions 
of our common Christian faith. The experiment certainly was 
entirely new. A popular government of this extent, it was evi- 
dent, could be framed only by carrying into full effect the prin- 
ciple of representation or of delegated power; and the world was 
to s;e whether society could, by the st"ength of this principle, 
maintain its own peace and good government, carry forward its 
own great interests, and conduct itself to political renown and 
glory. By the benignity of Providence, this experiment, so full 
of interest to us and to our posterity for ever, so full of interest, 
indeed, to the world in its present generation and in all its gen- 
erations to come, was suffered to commence under the guidance 
of Washington. Destined for this high career, he was fitted for 
it by wisdom, by virtue, by patriotism, by discretion, by what- 
ever can inspire confidence in man toward man. In entering on 
the untried scenes, early disappointment and the premature ex- 
tinction of all hope of success would have been certain, had it 
not been that there did exist throughout the country, in a most 
extraordinary degree, an unwavering trust in him who stood at 
the helm. 

I remarked, Gentlemen, that the whole world was and is in- 
terested in the result of this experiment. And is it not so? Do 
we deceive ourselves, or is it true that at this moment the career 
which this government is running is among the most attractive 
objects to the civilized world? Do we deceive ourselves, or is it 



true that at this moment that love of liberty and that under- 
standing of its true principles which are flying over the whole 
earth, as on the wings of all the winds, are really and truly of 
American origin? 

At the period of the birth of Washington, there existed in 
Europe no political liberty in large communities, except in the 
provinces of Holland, and except that England herself had set 
a great example, so far as it went, by her glorious Revolution 
of 16S8. Everywhere else, despotic power was predominant, and 
the feudal or military principle held the mass of mankind in 
hopeless bondage. One half of Europe was crushed beneath the 
Bourbon sceptre, and no conception of political liberty, no hope 
even of religious toleration, existed among that nation which was 
America's first ally. The king was the state, the king was the 
country, the king was all. There was one king, with power not 
derived from his people, and too high to be questioned; and the 
rest were all subjects, with no political right but obedience. All 
above was intangible power, all below quiet subjection. A recent 
occurrence in the French Chambers shows us how public opinion 
on these subjects is changed. A minister had spoken of the 
"king's subjects." "There are no subjects," exclaimed hundreds 
of voices at once, "in a country where the people make the 
king!" 

Gentlemen, the spirit of human liberty and of free government, 
nurtured and grown into strength and beauty in America, has 
stretched its course into the midst of the nations. Like an ema- 
nation from Heaven, it has gone forth, and it will not return 
void. It must change, it is fast changing, the face of the earth. 
Our great, our high duty is to show, in our own example, that 
this spirit is a spirit of health as well as a spirit of power; that 
its benignity is as great as its strength; that its efficiency to 
secure individual rights, social relations, and moral order is 
equal to the irresistible force with which it prostrates principali- 
ties and powers. The world, at this moment, is regarding us 
with a willing, but something of a fearful admiration. Its deep 
and awful anxiety is to learn whether free states may be stable, 
as well as free; whether popular power may be trusted, as well 
as feared; in short, whether wise, regular, and virtuous self- 
government is a vision for the contemplation of theorists, or a 
truth established, illustrated, and brought into practice in the 
country of Washington. 

Gentlemen, for the earth which we inhabit, and the whole 
circle of the sun, for all the unborn races of mankind, we seem 
to hold in our hands, for their weal or woe, the fate of this 
experiment. If we fail, who shall venture the repetition? If 
our example shall prove to be one, not of encouragement, but 
of terror, not fit to be imitated but fit only to be shunned, 
where else shall the world look for free models? If this great 
Western Sun be struck out of the firmament, at what other 
fountain shall the lamp of liberty hereafter be lighted? What 
other orb shall emit a ray to glimmer, even, on the darkness of 
the world? 

There is no danger of our overrating or overstating the impor- 
tant part which we are now acting in human affairs. It should 
not flatter our personal self-respect, but it should reanimate our 
patriotic virtues, and inspire us with a deeper and more solemn 
sense, both of our privileges and of our duties. We cannot wish 
better for our country, nor for the world, than that the same 
spirit which influences Washington may influence all who sue- 



178 



The Character of Washington 



ceed him; and that the same blessing from above, which at- 
tended his efforts, may also attend theirs. 

The principles of Washington's administration are not left 
doubtful. They are to be found in the Constitution itself, in 
the great measures recommended and approved by him, in his 
speeches to Congress, and in that most interesting paper, his 
Farewell Address to the People of the United States. The suc- 
cess of the government under his administration is the highest 
proof of the soundness of these principles. And, after an ex- 
perience of thirty-five years, what is there which an enemy could 
condemn? What is there which either his friends, or the friends 
of the country, could wish to have been otherwise? I speak, 
of course, of great measures and leading principles. 

In the first place, all his measures were right in their intent. 
He stated the whole basis of his own great character, when he 
told the country, in the homely phrase of the proverb, that 
honesty is the best policy. One of the most striking things ever 
said of him, is that "he changed mankind's ideas of political 
greatness." To commanding talents, and to success, the com- 
mon elements of such greatness, he added a disregard of self, a 
spotlessness of motive, a steady submission to every public and 
private duty, which threw far into the shade the whole crowd 
of vulgar great. The object of his regard was the whole coun- 
try. No part of it was enough to fill his enlarged patriotism. 
His love of glory, so far as that may be supposed to have in- 
fluenced him at all, spurned every thing short of general appro- 
bation. It would have been nothing to him, that his partisans 
or his favorites outnumbered, or outvoted, or outmanaged, or 
outclamored, those of other leaders. He had no favorites; he 
rejected all partisanship; and acting honestly for the universal 
good, he deserved, what he has so richly enjoyed, the universal 
love. 

His principle it was to act right, and to trust the people for 
support; his principle it was not to follow the lead of sinister 
and selfish ends, nor to rely on the little arts of party delusion 
to obtain public sanction for such a course. Born for his coun- 
try and for the world, he did not give up to party what was 
meant for mankind. The consequence is, that this fame is as 
durable as his principles, as lasting as truth and virtue themselves. 
While the hundreds whom party excitement, and temporary cir- 
cumstances, and casual combinations, have raised into transient 
notoriety, sink again, like thin bubbles, bursting and dissolving 
into the great ocean, Washington's fame is like the rock which 
bounds that ocean, and at whose feet its billows are destined to 
break harmlessly for ever. 

The maxims upon which Washington conducted our foreign 
relations were few and simple. The first was an entire and in- 
disputable impartiality towards foreign states. He adhered to 
this rule of public conduct, against very strong inducements to 
depart from it, and when the popularity of the moment seemed 
to favor such a departure. In the next place, he maintained true 
dignity and unsullied honor in all communications with foreign 
states. It was among the high duties devolved upon him, to in- 
troduce our new government into the circle of civilized states 
and powerful nations. Not arrogant or assuming, with no un- 
becoming or supercilious bearing, he yet exacted for it from all 
others entire and punctilious respect. He demanded, and he ob- 
tained at once, a standing of perfect equality for his country in 
the society of nations; nor was there a prince or potentate of his 



day, whose personal character carried with it, into the inter- 
course of other states, a greater degree of respect and veneration. 

He regarded other nations only as they stood in political rela- 
tions to us. With their internal affairs, their political parties 
and dissensions, he scrupulously abstained from all interference; 
and, on the other hand, he repelled with spirit all such interfer- 
ence by others with us or our concerns. His sternest rebuke, 
the most indignant measure of his whole administration, was 
aimed against such an attempted interference. He felt it as an 
attempt to wound the national honor, and resented it accordingly. 

The reiterated admonitions in his Farewell Address show his 
deep fears that foreign influence would insinuate itself into our 
counsels through the channels of domestic dissension, and obtain 
a sympathy with our own temporary parties. Against all such 
dangers, he most earnestly entreats the country to guard itself. 
He appeals to its patriotism, to its self-respect, to its own honor, 
to every consideration connected with its welfare and happiness, 
to resist, at the very beginning, all tendencies towards such con- 
nection of foreign interests with our own affairs. With a tone 
of earnestness nowhere else found, even in his last affectionate 
farewell advice to his countrymen, he says, "Against the insidious 
wiles of foreign influence (I conjure you to believe me, fellow- 
citizens,) the jealousy of a free people ought to be constantly 
awake; since history and experience prove, that foreign influence 
is one of the most baneful foes of republican government. 

Lastly, on the subject of foreign relations, Washington never 
forgot that we had interests peculiar to ourselves. The primary 
political concerns of Europe, he saw, did not affect us. We had 
nothing to do with her balance of power, her family compacts, 
or her successions to thrones. We were placed in a condition 
favorable to neutrality during European wars, and to the enjoy- 
ment of all the great advantages of that relation. "Why then," 
he asks us, "why forego the advantages of so peculiar a situation? 
Why quit our own to stand upon foreign ground? Why be 
interweaving our destiny with that of any part of Europe, en- 
tangle our peace and prosperity in the toils of European ambition, 
rivalship, interest, humor, or caprice?" 

Indeed, Gentlemen, Washington's Farewell Address is full of 
truths important at all times, and particularly deserving con- 
sideration at the present. With a sagacity which brought the 
future before him, and made it like the present, he saw and 
pointed out the dangers that even at this moment most im- 
minently threatened us. I hardly know how a greater service 
of that kind could now be done to the community, than by a 
renewed and wide diffusion of that admirable paper, and an 
earnest invitation to every man in the country to reperuse and 
consider it. Its political maxims are invaluable; its exhortations 
to love of country and to brotherly affection among citizens, 
touching; and the solemnity with which it urges the observance 
of moral duties, and impresses the power of religious obligation, 
gives to it the highest character of truly disinterested, sincere, 
parental advice. 

The domestic policy of Washington found its pole-star in the 
avowed objects of the Constitution itself. He sought so to 
administer that Constitution, as to form a more perfect union, 
establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the 
common defence, promote the general welfare, and secure the 
blessings of liberty. Those were objects interesting, in the high- 



A Speech by Daniel Webster 



179 



est degree, to the whole country, and his policy embraced the 
whole country. 

Among his earliest and most important duties was the organi- 
zation of the government itself, the choice of his confidential 
advisers, and the various appointments to office. This duty, so 
important and delicate, when a whole government was to be or- 
ganized, and all its offices for the first time filled, was yet not 
difficult to him; for he had no sinister ends to accomplish, no 
clamorous partisans to gratify, no pledges to redeem, no object 
to be regarded but simply the public good. It was a plain, 
straightforward matter, a mere honest choice of good men for 
the public service. 

His own singleness of purpose, his disinterested patriotism, 
were evinced by the selection of his first cabinet, and by the 
manner in which he filled the seats of justice, and other places 
of high trust. He sought for men fit for offices; not for offices 
which might suit men. Above personal considerations, above 
local considerations, above party considerations, he felt that he 
could not discharge the sacred trust which the country had 
placed in his hands, by a diligent inquiry after real merit, and a 
conscientious preference of virtue and talent. The whole coun- 
try was the field of his selection. He explored that whole field, 
looking only for whatever it contained most worthy and dis- 
tinguished. He was, indeed, most successful and he deserved 
success for the purity of his motives, the liberality of his senti- 
ments, and his enlarged and manly policy. 

Washington's administration established the national credit, 
made provision for the public debt, and for that patriotic army 
whose interests and welfare were always so dear to him; and, by 
laws wisely framed, and of admirable effect, raised the commerce 
and navigation of the country, almost at once, from depression 
and ruin to a state of prosperity. Nor were his eyes open to 
these interests alone. He viewed with equal concern its agricul- 
ture and manufactures, and, so far as they came within the reg- 
ular exercise of the powers of this government, they experienced 
regard and favor. 

It should not be omitted, even in this slight reference to the 
general measures and general principles of the first President, that 
he saw and felt the full value and importance of the judicial 
department of the government. An upright and able adminis- 
tration of the laws he held to be alike indispensable to private 
happiness and public liberty. The temple of justice, in his 
opinion, was a sacred place, and he would profane and pollute 
it who should call any to minister in it, not spotless in charac- 
ter, not incorruptible in integrity, not competent by talent and 
learning, not a fit object of unhesitating trust. 

Among other admonitions, Washington has left us, in his last 
communication to his country, an exhortation against the excesses 
of party spirit. A fire not to be quenched, he yet conjures us 
not to fan and feed the flame. Undoubtedly, Gentlemen, it is 
the greatest danger of our system and of our time. Undoubtedly, 
if that system should be overthrown, it will be the work of 
excessive party spirit, acting on the government, which is dan- 
gerous enough, or acting in the government, which is a thousand 
times more dangerous; for government then becomes nothing 
but organized party, and, in the strange vicissitudes of human 
affairs, it may come at last, perhaps, to exhibit the singular para- 
dox of government itself being in opposition to its own powers, 
at war with the very elements of its own existence. Such cases 



are hopeless. As men may be protected against murder, but 
cannot be guarded against suicide, so government may be shielded 
from the assaults of external foes, but nothing can save it when 
it chooses to lay violent hands on itself. 

Finally, Gentlemen, there was in the breast of Washington one 
sentiment so deeply felt, so constantly uppermost, that no proper 
occasion escaped without its utterance. From the letter which 
he signed in behalf of the Convention when the Constitution 
was sent out to the people, to the moment when he put his hand 
to that last paper in which he addressed his countrymen, the 
Union, — the Union was the great object of his thoughts. In 
that first letter he tells them that, to him and his brethren of 
the Convention, union appears to be the greatest interest of every 
true American; and in that last paper he conjures them to 
regard that unity of government which constitutes them one 
people as the very palladium of their prosperity and safety, and 
the security of liberty itself. He regarded the union of these 
States less as one of our blessings, than as the great treasure-house 
which contained them all. Here, in his judgment, was the great 
magazine of all our means of prosperity; here, as he thought, 
and as every true American still thinks, are deposited all our 
animating prospects, all our solid hopes for future greatness. He 
has taught us to maintain this union, not by seeking to enlarge 
the powers of the government, on the one hand, nor by surrender- 
ing them, on the other; but by an administration of them at once 
firm and moderate, pursuing objects truly national, and carried 
on in a spirit of justice and equity. 

The extreme solicitude for the preservation of the Union, at 
all times manifested by him, shows not only the opinion he enter- 
tained of its importance, but his clear perception of those causes 
which were likely to spring up to endanger it, and which, if 
once they should overthrow the present system, would leave little 
hope of any future beneficial reunion. Of all the presumptions 
indulged by presumptuous man, that is one of the rashest which 
looks for repeated and favorable opportunities for the deliberate 
establishment of a united government ovei distinct and widely 
extended communities. Such a thing has happened once in 
human affairs, and but once; the event stands out as a prominent 
exception to all ordinary history; and unless we suppose ourselves 
running into an age of miracles, we may not expect its repetition. 

Washington, therefore, could regard, and did regard, nothing 
as of paramount political interest, but the integrity of the Union 
itself. With a united government, well administered, he saw 
that we had nothing to fear; and without it, nothing to hope. 
The sentiment is just, and its momentous truth should solemnly 
impress the whole country. If we might regard our country as 
personated in the spirit of Washington, if we might consider 
him as representing her, in her past renown, her present pros- 
perity, and her future career, and as in that character demanding 
of us all to account for our conduct, as political men or as pri- 
vate citizens, how should he answer him who has ventured to 
talk of disunion and dismemberment? Or how should he answer 
him who dwells perpetually on local interests, and fans every 
kindling flame of local prejudice? How should he answer him 
who would array State against State, interest against interest, 
and party against party, careless of the continuance of that 
unity of government which constitutes us one people} 

The political prosperity which this country has attained, and 
which it now enjoys, has been acquired mainly through the in- 



180 



The Character of Washington 



strumentality of the present government. While this agent con- 
tinues, the capacity of attaining to still higher degrees of pros- 
perity exists also. We have, while this lasts, a political life 
capable of beneficial exertion, with power to resist or overcome 
misfortunes, to sustain us against the ordinary accidents of 
human affairs, and to promote, by active efforts, every public in- 
terest. But dismemberment strikes at the very being which pre- 
serves these faculties. It would lay its rude and ruthless hand on 
this great agent itself. It would sweep away, not only what we 
possess, but all power of regaining lost, or acquiring new pos- 
sessions. It would leave the country, not only bereft of its pros- 
perity and happiness, but without limbs, or organs, or faculties, 
by which to exert itself hereafter in the pursuit of that pros- 
perity and happiness. 

Other misfortunes may be borne, or their effects overcome. 
If disastrous war should sweep our commerce from the ocean, 
another generation may renew it; if it exhaust our treasury, 
future industry may replenish it; if it desolate and lay waste our 
fields, still, under a new cultivation, they will grow green again, 
and ripen to future harvests. It were but a trifle even if the 
walls of yonder Capitol were to crumble, if its lofty pillars 
should fall, and its gorgeous decorations be all covered by the 
dust of the valley. All these might be rebuilt. But who shall 
reconstruct the fabric of demolished government? Who shall 
rear again the well-proportioned columns of constitutional lib- 
erty? Who shall frame together the skilful architecture which 
unites national sovereignty with State rights, individual security, 
and public prosperity? No, if these columns fall, they will be 
raised not again. Like the Coliseum and the Parthenon, they will 
be destined to a mournful, a melancholy immortality. Bitterer 



tears, however, will flow over them, than were ever shed over 
the monuments of Roman or Grecian art; for they will be the 
remnants of a more glorious edifice than Greece or Rome ever 
saw, the edifice of constitutional American liberty. 

But let us hope for better things. Let us trust in that gracious 
Being xvho has hitherto held our country as in the hollow of his 
hand. Let us trust to the virtue and the intelligence of the peo- 
ple, and to the efficacy of religious obligation. Let us trust to 
the influence of Washington's example. Let us hope that that 
fear of Heaven which expels all other fear, and that regard to 
duty which transcends all other regard, may influence public men 
and private citizens, and lead our country still onward in her 
happy career. Full of these gratifying anticipations and hopes, 
let us look forward to the end of that century which is now com- 
menced. A hundred years hence, other disciples of Washington 
will celebrate his birth, with no less of sincere admiration than 
we now commemorate it. When they shall meet, as we now 
meet, to do themselves and him that honor, so surely as they 
shall see the blue summits of his native mountains rise in the 
horizon, so surely as they shall behold the river on whose banks 
he lived, and on whose banks he rests, still flowing on toward the 
sea, so surely may they see, as we now see, the flag of the Union 
floating on the top of the Capitol; and then, as now, may the 
sun in his course visit no land more free, more happy, more lovely, 
than this our own country! 

Gentlemen, I propose — 

The Memory of 

GEORGE WASHINGTON 




E CAST OUR EYES OVER HIS LIFE, NOT TO BE 



DAZZLED BY THE METEORIC LUSTRE OF PARTICULAR PASSAGES, 
BUT TO BEHOLD ITS WHOLE PATHWAY RADIANT EVERY- 
WHERE, WITH THE TRUE GLORY OF A JUST, CONSCIENTIOUS, 

consummate man! — Robert C. Winthrop. 



Colonial Gardens 



The Landscape Architecture 

of 

George Washington's Time 



Prepared by 
American Society of Landscape Architects 



Preface 



THE United States Commission for the Celebration of the Two Hun- 
dredth Anniversary of the Birth of George Washington authorized 
the preparation of this publication on Colonial Gardens and issued 
it as one of its activities in connection with the George Washington 
Bicentennial Celebration. 

In the compilation of the manuscript, the Commission was 
aided by the American Society of Landscape Architects, and particu- 
larly by certain of its members who have contributed without remu- 
neration those portions bearing upon the particular field in which they 
are recognized authorities. The chapters on "Mount Vernon and Other 
Colonial Places of the South" and "Gardens of Old Salem and the New 
England Colonies" are from the pen of Arthur A. Shurcliff, Fellow 
and Past President of the American Society of Landscape Architects, 
and landscape architect associated with the architects in charge of the 
restoration of Williamsburg. The chapter on "Homes and Gardens of 
Old New York" has been contributed by Richard Schermerhorn, Jr., 
Fellow of the American Society of Landscape Architects, and that on 
"Gardens and Places of Colonial Philadelphia," by Robert Wheelwright, 
Member of the American Society of Landscape Architects and Pro- 
fessor of Landscape Architecture at the University of Pennsylvania. 
The final chapter, on "The Colonial Garden Today," has been written 
by Fletcher Steele, Fellow of the American Society of Landscape Archi- 
tects and author of Design in the Little Garden. 

Without the generous help of these contributing authors and the 
valuable assistance of a Committee of members of the Society, com- 
prising the above with Robert Washburn Beal, Charles F. Gillette, 
Eugene D. Montillon, and Bradford Williams, under the chairmanship 
of Albert D. Taylor, this publication could not have achieved its pres- 
ent degree of authenticity. 

The task of editing and arranging this material was performed 
by Bradford Williams, Member of the American Society of Landscape 
Architects, who has brought to his work an experience gained as Con- 
tributing Editor to Landscape Architecture and The American Maga- 
zine of Art. 

Sol Bloom, 

Director, 

United States George Washington 
Bicentennial Commission 



182 



Colonial Gardens 




MOUNT VERNON 

The Home and Garden of George Washington 



CHAPTER I 



Introduction 



Of the many ways of honoring a national figure on the two 
hundredth anniversary of his birth, none could be greater than to 
make him live again among us and to find him young in spirit. 
George Washington could be honored in this way, for in the role 
of farmer, statesman, soldier, or engineer, his memory is as fresh 
today as his thoughts were clear and his action direct a century 
and a half ago. 

One aspect of the life of George Washington in which he could 
be re-created with particular appropriateness is that of the country 
gentleman. From his own diaries and letters we know the minutest 
details of his life as a planter or farmer as well as gardener. We 
see him clearly in his home life at Mount Vernon; and in fact, 
Mount Vernon today is the embodiment for us of George Wash- 
ington's existence, for in the undying charm of this mansion and 
its grounds he lives with as much reality and with greater per- 
sistency than during the few years of private enjoyment that his 
life of sacrifice to the public good ever permitted him. 

This part of George Washington's life belongs to every citizen. 
We revere him as a patriot for his generous sacrifice of private life 



and interests to an untried cause; as a soldier, for his ability to lead 
others in defense of this cause; as a statesman, for his understand- 
ing in the guidance of a frail vessel through perilous waters. But 
we feel most closely united to him in his life as a citizen when he 
shared the same happiness and sorrows of home life that we, two 
hundred years later, experience today. 

Among the never-failing joys of George Washington's private 
life were his gardens. The management of broad acres at Mount 
Vernon was both business and pleasure for him, but the arrange- 
ment and care of the flower and vegetable gardens and of the 
grounds in the immediate vicinity of the mansion gave him par- 
ticular satisfaction. In writing of him as a gardener, we touch on 
that side of his activities that is most closely akin to the experience 
of the average citizen today. In him we see an interest and a 
knowledge of the practical science of horticulture that enabled him 
to collect and grow in his gardens a wide variety of both native 
and rare plants; but we find that he also had a love for the beauti- 
ful that enabled him to appreciate the orderly arrangement of his 
grounds and buildings and made him an outstanding patron of the 



183 



184 



Colonial Gardens 



art of landscape architecture or, as it was called at that time, land- 
scape gardening. 

One reason, then, for selecting the Colonial Garden as the object 
of this study is to reveal George Washington, the Planter, as one 
of the gardeners of his time. The picture of the Colonial Garden 
that is presented in these pages portrays the garden background of 
the period as the Virginia Planter saw it in his journeys through 
the Colonies. Just as he was known in the home of every great 
soldier and statesman of the time, so was he known in the gardens 
of his compatriots, as well as abroad. In this we see today another 
instance of his universality; for the love of growing things is uni- 
versal throughout the breadth of the land and across the seas. 

But a second reason is the example that he set for the citizen of 
today in the development of his own home at Mount Vernon. 



From the early year of his life when he inherited the family home 
from his brother Lawrence, he maintained the hope that he might 
develop his house and grounds according to his dignified tastes. 
During his journeys to the sessions of the House of Burgesses at 
Williamsburg, or to the Congresses at Philadelphia, or to duties in 
the more remote colonies of New York and New England, he ab- 
sorbed impressions from the many handsome places he visited, and 
when finally he was able to reconstruct the mansion and lay out 
the grounds in accordance with the prevailing style, he created an 
establishment that was both suited to the necessary uses of the 
time and yet possessed all the elements of outdoor enjoyment that 
are found in the best of the Colonial homes and gardens. 

The Editor. 



Colonial Gardens 



185 



CHAPTER II 

The Colonial Garden: Its History and Meanin; 



Much has been said and written of the gardens of the Colonial 
period, and yet students of garden art have great difficulty in de- 
fining the term "Colonial Garden." In other periods of garden 
history, we can easily identify the typical development of the time 
through characteristics common to a number of examples in the 
period. The term "Moorish Garden in Spain" or "Italian Renais- 
sance Garden" conveys some idea of a particular garden style that 
has grown up and become recognizable through repeated use of 
certain principles and characteristics of design. 

The gardens of the American colonies were developed under 
widely divergent conditions of climate and without a common back- 
ground of social or national characteristics. They developed indi- 
vidually in their own locality. A fusion of types came only as the 
inherited characteristics of the earliest settlers were modified by 
long residence in a new country and as means of travel and com- 
munication were improved. They were a definite outgrowth of 
the time and the people, and as such they had their place. With 
the passing of these conditions, the Colonial Garden passed. 



The garden development of the Colonial period can exist for us 
only in spirit, for today there can be no such thing as a true 
Colonial Garden. To be sure there are the physical remains of old 
gardens, and in their glory of old trees and ancient box we can 
people them with the products of our imagination so that they 
become alive again in their atmosphere of an inherited past. But 
the people are changed and the environment is different; even the 
countryside has undergone an alteration under the influence of the 
march of time. 

The Colonial Garden of George Washington's time was not what 
we know today as a garden. In most instances there was a defi- 
nitely segregated enclosed place where plants could be grown free 
from the inroads of cattle, but in few cases except in later days 
were these enclosed areas given over purely to out-of-door enjoy- 
ment and the cultivation of flowers. In the smaller places seeds 
were planted in any suitable corner; garden activities, both useful 
and ornamental, were carried on wherever was most convenient, 
and it was hard to distinguish the "garden" from any other part 




MOUNT VERNON FROM THE WEST 
View Across the Vegetable Garden 



186 



Colonial Gardens 



of the dooryard. On the larger places, where men and means 
were more available, more ordered effects were attempted; here trees 
and great hedges were considered part of the garden, and even the 
mansion and its outbuildings were treated as part of the garden 
scheme. This meaning of the Colonial Garden must be clear in 
order to understand the importance of the garden in the thought 
of the times. 

The Colonial Garden of Washington's time played a far more 
important part in home life than does our garden today. People 
spent more time at home, partly because conditions were not favor- 
able for travel, and partly because there was little reason for travel. 
The Colonial home and garden was the center of family life and, as 
such, it was the place of exchange for social courtesies and of 
shelter for the traveler. The home was the place of business where 
all the outdoor activities of the establishment were centered. Out- 
side of the towns it was in the home that you could be certain of 
finding all people who were not engaged in public occupations or 
who were not temporarily absent on their business. In the case of 
the smallest properties, the house, being hot or crowded or incon- 
venient, must frequently have been unsuited to the entertainment 
of visitors, and it was natural that some part of the immediate out- 
of-doors should become a center of the family living during a large 
part of the year. 

The fashions in gardening were more clearly revealed in the house 
grounds of the well-to-do, for people of "consequence" kept in 
close touch with England and the Continent, — perhaps more closely 
in intellectual communion than we today, notwithstanding our im- 
proved modes of communication and travel. Building and garden- 
ing in 17th-century England and France started with grand scale, 
lcng symmetrical vistas and avenues, labyrinths, parterres, and rich 
decoration. 

Similar ideas, but necessarily not so elaborate, appealed to the 
owners of great estates in the South and as far north as Philadelphia. 
Houses and outbuildings were laid out symmetrically with long 
axial avenues and vistas. At times the scale, where topography 
permitted, was quite as magnificent as in Europe. Cultured 
travelers from abroad found much to admire in our more splendid 
Colonial estates, though in detail they could not vie with the 
palaces of kings. 

During "Washington's lifetime, due at the end in no small meas- 
ure to the impetus that his leadership of a revolution for the rights 
of man inspired, the style changed, for fashion "leapt the fence and 
saw that all nature was a garden." The park style of landscape 
architecture came into being with great open meadows, fine trees, 
distant vistas, and wandering walks and drives. This mode of treat- 
ing natural scenery was, and has remained, sympathetic to the 
American people. It was adopted North and South, though mostly 
in the North, and most successfully along the Hudson River. 

Mount Vernon is the typical example of the large Colonial estate 
in the late days of the Colonies, and there Washington combined 
the prevailing landscape styles. In his early travels he had found 
at Philadelphia and elsewhere examples of the 17th-century formal 
fashion, and if he had made over his grounds at that time it is con- 
ceivable that he might have developed a plan of straight avenues 
and formal parterres of statuary, flowers, and greenery. But he had 
reached his fifty-second year and had brought the War to a suc- 
cessful conclusion before he began those changes on the grounds 
that resulted in the form we know today; by then he had seen the 



newer style of landscape gardening and had decided to adapt it to 
his own use. 

It was Washington's pride to be thought the first farmer in 
America. In 1773 he had spent fourteen years of his married life 
at Mount Vernon and, save for repairs that had been made in antici- 
pation of his marriage, the mansion was exactly the same as when 
he, at the age of fifteen, had taken up his home there with his 
brother Lawrence. These years of domestic and social life had re- 
vealed the limitations of the establishment, and in the autumn of 
1773 the carpenters began to carry out his plans for enlarging the 
building. The changes were not soon completed, however, for it 
was not until 1778 while Washington was in the third year of his 
military campaigning that the mansion was raised and its propor- 
tions extended to their now familiar shape, the curved and colon- 
naded covered ways were built, and the portico on the river side was 
added. One Sunday morning in September, 1781, when pressing 
ahead of the army which was making a forced march south to join 
Lafayette at Williamsburg, he stopped at Mount Vernon for the 
first time in six years, and was rewarded by the first view of his 
completed mansion."' 

On Christmas Eve, 1783, General and Mrs. Washington returned 
to Mount Vernon from Annapolis where he had laid down his 
commission on the disbandment of the Continental Army. During 
the following months — a winter of exceptional ice and snow for 
the region of the Potomac— Washington laid out his scheme of 
improvements for the gardens and farms. His diaries of 1785-6 
are a running guide to his activities in the adornment of the 
grounds. As a horticulturist prior to the Revolution, his tastes had 
been predominantly utilitarian, but as early as 1768 he was begin- 
ning to think of beautifying his grounds, for in that year he ex- 
pressed a wish to have about his mansion house every possible speci- 
men of native tree or shrub that was noted for beauty of form, leaf, 
or flower. His observation of beautiful Colonial homes and gardens 
in various sections of the country during the War, together with 
the contact of cultured people, both Americans and Europeans, had 
broadened his love of plants to include a feeling for their use and 
appearance as part of a broad landscape treatment. 

On January 19, 1785, he began to lay out his new plan for the 
West lawn and "serpentine road" with shade trees of many varieties. 
He then rarely rode through his woods or pastures without remark- 
ing some crab, holly, magnolia, or pine that would serve his pur- 
pose. In one entry in April he noted that 

the flower of the Sassafras was fully out and looked well. An intermixture 
of this and Red bud I conceive would look very pretty — the latter crowned 
with the former or vice versa. 

In this same spring he recorded the planting of limes and lindens 
sent by his good friend Governor Clinton of New York; lilacs, 
mock oranges, aspen, mulberries, black gums, berried thorns, locusts, 
sassafras, magnolia, crabs, service berries, catalpas, papaws, honey 
locusts, a live oak from Norfolk, yews, aspens, swamp berries, hem- 
locks, twelve horse chestnut sent by "Light Horse Harry" Lee, 
twelve cuttings of tree box, buckeye nuts brought by him the pre- 
ceding year from the mouth of Cheat River, eight nuts from a tree 
called "the Kentucke Coffee tree," a row of shell bark hickory nuts 
from New York, some filberts from "sister Lewis." His brother 
John sent him four barrels of holly seeds which he sowed in various 



:: ' Mount Vernon: Washington's Home and the Nation's Shrine. By Paul 
Wilstach. Indianapolis, Bobbs-Merrill Co., 1916. 



Colonial Gardens 



187 



parts of the place. But the spring was an exceptionally dry one and 
he was forced to be absent from home for some days. :: ' He then 
records that 

Most of my transplanted trees have a sickly look. The small Pines in the 
Wildernesses are entirely dead. The larger ones in the Walks, for the 
most part, appear to be alive (as yet), almost the whole of the Holly are 
dead. Many of the Ivy, wch. before looked healthy and well seem to be 
declining; few of the Crab trees had put forth leaves. Not a single ash 
tree has unfolded its buds; whether owing to the trees' decline, or any 
other cause, I know not. . . . The lime trees, which had some appear- 
ance of Budding when I went away, are now withering, and the Horse 
Chesnut and Tree box from Colo. Harry Lee's discover little signs of 
shooting. The Hemlock is almost dead, and bereft of their leaves; and so 
are the live Oak. In short, half the Trees in the Shrubberies, and many 
in the Walks, are dead and declining. 

But Washington was not discouraged, for, as he wrote one of his 
managers on another occasion, 

I shall begrudge no reasonable expense that will contribute to the im- 
provement and neatness of my farms, for nothing pleases me better than 
to see them in good order, and everything trim, handsome, and thriving 
about them; nor nothing hurts me more than to find them otherwise. 



* George Washington: Country Gentle 
apolis, Bobbs-Merrill Co., 1915, 1925. 



By Paul Leland H: 



Of all parts of the Mount Vernon estate, the great covered terrace 
on the river front received more general usage than any other part 
of the house or grounds. It was the gathering place for the mem- 
bers of the household. It was there that Washington received and 
entertained great companies of visitors, for his exalted position at- 
tracted a constant stream of people who came to pay their respects. 
No less than thirty windsor chairs were provided to seat them. 
When inclement weather forbade his usual outdoor exercise in the 
fields, it was here that Washington paced for an hour before retiring. 

Quite apart from the great homes and gardens were the smaller 
farms and the town houses of the Colonies. In the country, par- 
ticularly in the North, we have visions of the farm house, situated 
in the midst of a trimmed grass area and approached through a 
grove of maples, locusts, or elms. On one side lies the orchard; 
the long grass beneath the apples invites us to wade knee deep 
through it. Gigantic lilacs here and there, and perhaps some speci- 
mens of ancient box, have come down from earlier Colonial times. 
On another side a path leads to a garden, box-walled and redolent 
of the perfume of the box and the sweet-scented old-fashioned 
flowers. 

The town garden was more sophisticated, as befitted the pleasure 
grounds of those in the seats of culture, and here we find a greater 




MOUNT VERNON FROM THE EAST 
View Over the Flower Garden 



188 



Colonial Gardens 



variety of plants. A Boston newspaper of March 30, 1760, gives 
the following list of seeds for sale: :: ' 



us 

Lavender 

Palma Christi 

Cerinthe or Honeywort, loved of 

bees 
Tricolor 
Indian Pink 
Scarlet Cacalia 
Yellow Sultans 
Lemon African Marigold 
Sensitive Plants 
White Lupine 
Love Lies Bleeding 
Patagonian Cucumber 
Lobelia 
Catchfly 
Wing-peas 
Convolvulus 
Strawberry Spinage 
Branching Larkspur 
White Chrysanthemum 
Nigaella Romano 
Rose Campion 
Snap Dragon 
Nolana prostrata 
Summer Savory 
Hyssop 

Red Hawkweed 
Red and White Lavater 



Scarlet Lupine 

Large blue Lupine 

Snuff flower 

Caterpillars 

Cape Marigold 

Rose Lupine 

Sweet Peas 

Venus' Navelwort 

Yellow Chrysanthemum 

Cyanus minor 

Tall Holyhock 

French Marigold 

Carnation Poppy 

Globe Amaranthus 

Yellow Lupine 

Indian Branching Coxcombs 

Iceplants 

Thyme 

Sweet Marjoram 

Tree Mallows 

Everlasting 

Greek Valerian 

Tree Primrose 

Canterbury Bells 

Purple Stock 

Sweet Scabiouse 

Columbine 

Pleasant-eyed Pink 



5 Different Sorts of mixed 

Tulip Roots 
Ranunculus 
Gladiolus 
Starry Scabiouse 
Curled Mallows 
Painted Lady topknot peas 
Colchicum 
Persian Iris 
Star Bethlehem 



Dwarf Mountain Pink 

Sweet Rocket 

Horn Poppy 

French Honeysuckle 

Bloody Wallflower 

Sweet William 

Honesty (to be sold in small par- 
cels that every one may have a 
little) 

Persicaria 

Polyanthos 

In the gardens of the more pretentious houses could be found 

plants imported directly from the Old World. A page from an old 

letter written by Mr. Thomas Hancock, well-to-do Boston merchant 

and uncle of the better-known John Hancock, gives us a pretty 

picture of these contacts. :: " 

My Trees and Seeds for Capt. Bennett Came Safe to Hand and I like 
them very well. I Return you my hearty Thanks for the Plumb Tree 
and Tulip Roots you were pleased to make me a Present off, which are 
very Acceptable to me. I have Sent my friend Mr. Wilks a mmo. to 
procure for me 2 or 3 Doz. Yew Trees, Some Hollys and Jessamine Vines, 
and if you have Any Particular Curious Things not of a high Price, will 
Beautifye a flower Garden Send a Sample with the Price or a Catalogue 
of 'em, I do not intend to spare Any Cost or Pains in making my Gar- 
dens Beautifull or Profitable. 

P. S. The Tulip Roots you were Pleased to make a present off to me are 
all Dead as well. 

New York, Philadelphia, and the Far South were no less active 
during the Colonial period in their development of garden and 
home. Let us see in greater detail what were the characteristics 
of these developments and how they differed one from another. 

Bradford Williams. 



* Old-time Gardens. 
1901, p. 33. 



By Alice Morse Earle. New York, The Macmillan Co. 



:: " From Bulletin of the Society for the Preservation of New England Antiquities, 
July, 1926. 



Colonial Gardens 



189 




Refere nce. 



Courtesy of the Library of Congr 
Plan 



1. mt^A* J&uje. . 
mm. 00u&4 Jtou*** 

O.O.o St*/^ 
•f>.f.J>. J&C*/*a^ct<, 

T.T. bff-vu Jyi-uL^^/ 

Key to the Plan 




The Plan in Perspective, showing Mansion and Gardens from the Southeast 
THE PLAN OF MOUNT VERNON 



190 



Colonial Gardens 



chapter III 

Mount Vernon and Other Colonial Places of the South 



George Washington and his Virginia neighbors were not 
commuters or trippers. There were no railroads or fast boats. 
Horses were the speediest motive power for travel, but they could 
not make more than seven to nine miles an hour either under saddle 
or harnessed to the carts, chariots, or coaches. A Sunday afternoon 
trip on the rough, dusty, or muddy roads of those days did not 
tempt men to be joy-riders. Travel was the hardest kind of work 
and it was costly of money and time. The man who was sturdy 
enough to endure the hardships of travel was either looked up to 
for his strength, or looked down upon for his folly. He was at 
best a squanderer of time unless he went on urgent business, and 
he was a spendthrift unless he roamed like a tramp. Primitive 
transportation conditions kept men at home. The grandee, as well 
as the artisan who worked at carpentering, shoemaking, black- 
smithing, or harness-making, was tied down to life in one place, 
and that place was home. This confinement was not considered 
a hardship, because no other kind of life was possible except to 
the traveler, whose lot was slow and hard. 

In the villages and towns a man could find a carpenter or a 
smith to work for him, and his servants could walk to him. 
Provisions could be bought at shops. Good books could be bor- 
rowed or bought here and there up and down the street. Friends 
met on the street corners, at the inn, or at church. To the man 
who lived in the country, however, isolation was inevitable. The 
need to be a Jack-of-all-trades was universal. The well-to-do man 
could escape from being a carpenter, blacksmith, or cobbler to 
his own needs only by creating a community of such helpers in 
his own dooryard. He must either dip candles and smoke bacon 
or he must keep men at hand to do that work for him. He could 
not depend, as we do today, upon the store or upon the mail- 
order. He could not buy clothes ready made, or machinery, or 
wheat ready threshed, or flour, shoes, cloth, butter, meat. All 
must be produced at home. 

These conditions of life were common in England as well as in 
our country in Washington's day. His forbears, when they did 
not live in villages, were well acquainted with the all-round life 
of the farm. They had the ability and the knowledge needed to 
turn their hands to self-sustained labor. In his boyhood Wash- 
ington lived on a farm. In his ripe manhood he chose a farmer's 
life at Mount Vernon with full realization of all the labor and 
cooperation which that life entailed. Farms of great size were 
called "plantations" in Virginia and the South. 

Enough has been said to indicate that Washington's home at 
Mount Vernon could not have resembled the modern gentleman's 
place. Our modern gentleman's place reflects the life of a man 
who has the world at his beck and call through the railroad, motor 
road, telegraph, telephone, postal system, and a great transporta- 
tion structure. At Mount Vernon we find vastly more interesting 
things than a good house, a garage, a barn for horses and cows, an 
electric water supply, a lawn with a rubber hose, and a garden. 
We find, as we should expect, a very large acreage of cultivated 
land and of woodland sufficient to sustain the Washington house- 
hold and all the workers. In Washington's time there were large 
herds of sheep and cattle, many draught and saddle horses, swine 



and fowls. Over a hundred plantation laborers were engaged 
in ploughing, cultivating, harvesting, threshing, grinding, smoking 
meat, pumping water, grooming horses and shoeing oxen, building 
carts, ploughs, farm gear, making harness, and carrying on all 
the thousand interesting activities necessary for the support of 
the laborers and of their master. There were extensive flower and 
box gardens which were in scale with the needs of the immediate 
family, but the gardens for produce were in scale with the needs 
of the hundreds of artisans and laborers and their families. Scores 
of buildings were needed to shelter these workers, to house the 
animals, tools, wagons, coaches, and the shops of the carpenters, 
blacksmiths, cobblers, and overseers. 

The modest size of the Washington mansion and its simple 
practical architectural design attest the caliber of the man who 
made Mount Vernon a delight to all those, including the humblest, 
who dwelt there. Washington's interest in the loveliness of Mount 
Vernon did not absorb him to such a degree as to make him 
forget its practical use. The skill with which the house and 
grounds were arranged to meet the needs of the Virginia climate, 
a hilly topography, and the operation of a great plantation mark 
him as a man of broad understanding. The needs of a gentle 
family and of a circle of cultivated friends coming from the ends 
of the English- and French-speaking world were met also by 
Mount Vernon, but not to the exclusion of the needs of the great 
plantation. 

The accompanying pictures and the plan of Mount Vernon 
show the orderly grouping of the mansion and its near gardens 
and those few plantation buildings which still stand after the 
lapse of over a century. The stately approach is shown. The 
trees which were planted by Washington's own hand are shown 
and they tally in location and in kind with the methodical descrip- 
tion of them which he entered in his journals, with notes regarding 
the weather at the times of planting, the day and month, and the 
probable usefulness of the species to other planters. Washington 
was the first American to study farming and gardening from a 
scientific point of view to increase the yield and to improve the 
quality. 

The mansion was placed on high ground which overlooked the 
Potomac River and which at the same time permitted an axial 
view of the house itself to be seen from the straight approach of 
about a half mile. This high ground was gentle in slope on the 
side toward the garden, but abrupt on the side toward the stables, 
coach house, cow yard, and the near pastures. Though moderate 
in size, the mansion thus overlooked and pleasantly dominated the 
plantation. This result was not accomplished by bold cutting or 
filling of the ground or by sacrificing the convenience of the daily 
life of the great farm. Whether selected by George Washington's 
father or his older brother Lawrence the site lent itself to all prac- 
tical needs and also to a stately appearance. Pleasantness of outlook 
and attractiveness of ground at the very door were found. 

The flower or box garden was made on level ground and it 
conformed along its curved edge to the shape of the approach 
lawn. On the opposite side the edge of the balancing garden and 
paddock exactly mated with the curve of the garden. Though 



Colonial Gardens 



191 




Courtesy of Mount Vernon Ladies' Association of the Union 

The Flower Garden 



Photograph by Leet Brothers 




The Vegetable Garden 
THE GARDENS AT MOUNT VERNON 



192 



Colonial Gardens 



partly curving, the garden was laid out without an attempt to 
secure a "natural" effect. Walls, fences, and outbuildings hemmed 
it in. The paths ran parallel to these. The box hedges and the 
rows of trees in the garden followed the lines of the paths. Every 
line was simple and understandable. Today, after all the decades 
which have passed, its simplicity, its freedom from "smartness," 
and its intimate relation to its own work buildings and to the 
mansion make it an appealing vision of use and loveliness. Not 
striving for attention, it attains the ideals of a garden which was 
made to satisfy mind and heart. 

The widely dispersed arrangement of buildings and gardens at 
Mount Vernon would not have been practical for use in a cold 
climate like that of New England, but in warm Virginia buildings 
are more conveniently used and are more comfortable when widely 
separated. The symmetrical placing of the wings and outbuildings 
at Mount Vernon is characteristic of Virginia planning; irregular 
placing of wing buildings and ells as used in New England was not 
considered practical or pleasant in Virginia. 

If we compare the Virginia places of Washington's time with 
places in England, the Virginia places were in general as large or 
larger, somewhat less in cost, less complete in detail, built in many 
cases for as great permanency, not mellowed by time, of course, or 
by history, but rapidly mellowed by a bland atmosphere. Virginia 
houses and outbuildings were often built of brick but not of half- 
timbered work. Though wood was at hand, brick was generously 
used for construction. Retaining-walls were rare, but walls for 
seclusion, if not for privacy, were common. Courtyards were in- 
frequent. Crofts (called "yards") were almost universal. Long 
axial vistas and long axial approaches were also almost universal in 
Virginia country places and farms. 

The preservation of the mansion, the gardens, and a very large 
acreage of Mount Vernon has been accomplished. This patriotic 
achievement has been brought about by a group of ladies, the Mount 
Vernon Ladies' Association of the Union, who raised the necessary 
funds for the purchase and who maintain Mount Vernon for the 
instruction and the delight of the Nation. The United States 
Government has just completed the construction of a National 
Parkway leading from Washington to the edge of the Mount Ver- 
non domain. This modern road and the great parking spaces do not 
enter the interior of the grounds, but they permit visitors on leaving 
their cars to approach the mansion and the gardens by a walk of 
two or three minutes. 

Symmetry in the placing of outbuildings in Virginia at this 
Washingtonian period is seen at "Stratford," the ancient Lee place 
on the lower Potomac. Stratford owes its preservation, first, to 
the permanence of the brick which forms its massive walls, and 
second, to the efforts of those who have guarded it as a memorial 
of the Lee family and of General Robert E. Lee. General Lee knew 
it well in his early boyhood. In his later life he often referred to his 
memories of the place with a feeling of tenderness which is strong 
in Southern men. These men understand deeply the significance of 
the old plantations in the history of our country. 

Reference to a plan of this remarkable place would show the per- 
fect axial balance of the near "kitchen" on the right and the "cot- 
tage" on the left. The balance of the "old school" and the "office" 
left and right on the far side of the mansion is no less striking. In 
ancient times the Potomac was opened to the view of the mansion 
by the removal of the trees which now hide the river. The owner 
of Stratford is the Robert E. Lee Memorial Foundation, Inc., and 



all of the restoration work is being done under their jurisdiction. 
A number of other organizations are assisting, among which are the 
Garden Club of Virginia, the National Society of the Colonial 
Dames in the State of Virginia, and the United Daughters of the 
Confederacy. 

The old garden which is to be restored was rectangular. No 
attempt was made in those days to copy that wilderness of woods, 
brushland, winding path, and irregular pasturage which surrounded 
the mansion. Pleasure lay in a garden which showed man's con- 
trol of that wilderness. Around the garden were walls, the many 
outbuildings, and the impressive towering pile of the mansion. 
Straight paths, hedges straight or arranged in the simple geometric 
patterns of those days, straight rows of old-time trees, and flowers 
of old kinds arranged in the manner of the Southland, — all these 
were a part of the picture. Box hedges bordered some of the 
paths. No one could upon other ground copy such a garden or 
make a new one like it. Without the presence of the old mansion 
itself, without the facts of the ancient design upon the true site, 
without the ancient trees, and without the traditions of the Lee 
family culminating in the affection which General Lee held for 
this now sacred plot of ground, there could be no garden like 
this one. 

In the reader's mind the question will arise at once as to what 
were the surroundings and the plans of the small place of the Vir- 
ginia man of relatively small means at the time of Washington 
and upon the small plots of ground in towns where there could 
be no large acreage for development. Brief study shows that all 
the utility areas and the utility structures which made existence 
possible to the isolated places are present (on a small scale to be 
sure), but the buildings for the journeymen carpenters, smiths, and 
cobblers are absent, because those artisans were available in the town. 

In the small lots of the Virginia towns (lots of about 100 feet 
frontage and having two or three times as great a depth) we find 
that the house is usually placed about at the middle of the front 
street line and set back to give a small fenced dooryard. A central 
door at the back opens upon a path which leads to the rear of the 
lot and usually abounds with right-angled or nearly right-angled 
paths branching to lateral buildings always set on or very near the 
sides of the lot. These buildings include a kitchen combined with 
a servant's room, a smoke house, dairy, wood house, necessaries, a 
barn for cows and horses, a hen house and yard, a well-house, and 
other structures. Sometimes, as shown in the accompanying plan, 
a fence was arranged across the lot near the house to enclose a 
garden or a working yard alongside the rear of the house. Some- 
times the garden lay near the house. There were usually rows of 
fruit trees and a vegetable garden. The charm of these small in- 
tensively developed places, with widely spread and somewhat sym- 
metrically placed outbuildings, fences, paths, and trees, is manifest. 
In many towns the use of box in the gardens was almost universal. 

Among these small places, as in the great plantations, there was 
no attempt to secure "natural" appearing grounds by the use of 
scattered beds of shrubbery, scattered trees, winding paths, or ir- 
regular lawns. No attempt was made to build rambling houses of 
picturesque appearance. Sometimes when the original house be- 
came inadequate through the size of a growing family, wings and 
ells were added. These often varied the symmetry of the original 
house plan and its elevation. Picturesque building groups thus came 
into existence, but they came by indirection to meet a need and not 



Colonial Gardens 



193 




Courtesy of Virginia State Chamber of Com 



Stratford Hill 




1 *k^^$tom? ?5S!9^!?iil??^ 









A Suggested Restoration of the Garden 
STRATFORD 



194 



Colonial Gardens 



with the aim to make a fanciful or picturesque effect. Similarly 
a certain departure from symmetry creeps into the gardens, but 
not by first intention. 

Washington's interest in trees and shrubbery did not single him 
out among Virginians and men of other parts of the South. All 
Southern men have shown great interest in such matters. The 
letters of Colonial times and the diaries refer constantly to the 
names of plants i.nd to their origin. From these scattered sources, 
from Washington's own journals, and from the ancient plants 
which we find growing in the old places, we are able to gather lists 
of trees, shrubbery, and flowers which indicate the flora of the old 
places. Within the limits of this chapter copies of these lists can 
not be included. 

In general, in Colonial times in the South they depended on the 
natural flora of the country though they imported some plants 
from England, France, Spain, and the Mediterranean. In those 



days, the vast number of plants originating in Africa, China, Japan, 
and California were unknown. To many persons these horticul- 
tural limitations add especial interest to the ancient Southern gar- 
dens. Nowadays you will find many who are discarding "modern" 
flowers, trees, and shrubs in the effort to make their flora corre- 
spond to the one with which George Washington and his contem- 
poraries were familiar. 

A glance at the generous Southern places with their many build- 
ings for the offices of the household gives a hint of the hospitality 
of the Southern man. He took pains also to arrange his approaches 
and to place his gardens with an eye to the good appearance of 
the house and the pleasantness of home. He built his place with 
thought for the comfort and the delight of friends. Certainly 
there is no part of our country in which hospitality shows itself 
more fully and more sincerely than in the South. 

Arthur A. Shurcliff. 




A TYPICAL TOWN PLACC 
I N VIRGINIA 



Colonial Gardens 



195 



CHAPTER IV 

Gardens and Places of Colonial Philadelphia 



The Eighteenth Century marks a period of prosperity for 
Philadelphia that might be said to have reached a culmination 
when the city was selected as the seat of our newly established 
Federal Government. Located in a country rich in natural re- 
sources, and settled by thrifty, industrious people, the community 
developed rapidly. Commerce, wealth, and culture combined to 
make it foremost among the cities of the North American colonies, 
and developed among its citizens that degree of elegance and 
civility which is ever manifested in a greater regard for gardens 
as an ultimate expression of culture and refinement. 

Colonial Philadelphia was more sparsely built up than our 
modern suburban towns, and so is comparable to these rather than 
to a city. Contrary to the tendency of modern suburban zoning 
laws, Philadelphia houses of Colonial days usually were built di- 
rectly on the street, although the lots were large, sometimes com- 
prising several acres. High enclosing walls gave the greater 
privacy desirable for city residences, and the maximum area of 
the lot was left for the use and enjoyment of the owner. With 
the growth of the city the gardens have disappeared but fortu- 
nately many of the houses are still standing, and bear witness to 
ancient prosperity. 

The view of Washington's residence at 190 (now 5 28) Market 
Street gives a good idea of the appearance of old Philadelphia, 
though it reveals nothing of the arrangement of grounds other 
than house site and drive entrance. Presumably there was a garden, 
a stable, and possibly other structures, but we have still to discover 
landscape plans of this or any other city home and so we must 
rely upon descriptions to give us an idea of the appearance of 
the grounds. Washington's residence is gone, but the Powel house, 



where he was a constant visitor, still stands. We may never hope 
to see the replica of the extensive grounds surrounding it adorned 
with allees and statuary, with orange, lemon, and citron trees and 
other exotics. 

Confining our discussion of town houses to two further 
examples, one of the earlier, the other of the later Eighteenth 
Century, we find that Clarke Hall, built about 1700, was laid 
out "in the old style of uniformity, with walks and alleys nodding 
to their brothers." Such a description clearly indicates a formal, 
symmetrical plan. The Bingham house on Third Street above 
Spruce was built about 1790, after a visit that the owner made 
to London. A description which says: "The grounds about the 
house, beautifully diversified with walks, statuary, shade trees and 
parterres," would indicate gardening of the formal type; while 
another reference using the term "clump," a familiar form of 
planting developed under the naturalesque influence of Eighteenth- 
Century England, indicates an informal arrangement. The lot 
was of sufficient extent to permit both types of embellishment. 

In Germantown the lots were narrow but extended far back 
in the country for farming purposes. The houses were built close 
to, or directly on, the one existing street, and a community de~ 
veloped that appeared closely built. Low walls or fences gave 
enclosure and presented a less conventionalized aspect than did the 
high garden walls of Philadelphia, but as a type we may class 
them the same, owing to the constricted character of the grounds 
in proximity to the houses. 

Among the more famous places in Germantown that still retain 

'a portion of their old grounds, "Wister's Big House" (1744), 

"Cliveden" (1761), and "Wyck" (1690) are the best known. 






s e H S 9 , 

tlftlB 

If -II 




Courtesy of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania 

Washington's Residence, Philadelphia 



196 



Colonial Gardens 



<a* 




Courtesy of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania 



"Wister's Big House," Germantown 
A Home of the Old Philadelphia Region 



Cliveden was the country seat of Chief Justice Chew, but we 
have no records that give us any satisfactory picture of the 
grounds as they existed in his day. It is not known when the 
garden was built at Wyck, but its "old style" suggests greater 
age than any documentary evidence proves, and we may believe 
that it existed when Washington lived in Germantown. 

While the garden at Wister's Big House, better known perhaps 
as "Grumblethorpe," has suffered neglect, it was well kept up 
until comparatively recent years. The squares formed by box- 
bordered walks are a usual motif of gardens dating from the earlier 
half of the Eighteenth Century. (An exceptionally well-preserved 
one is at "Ury House," Fox Chase.) Such gardens were not 
necessarily flower gardens, but sometimes were used for fruits or 
vegetables as well. In an old record book are Daniel Wister's 
notes carefully listing Carnations, Tulips, Narcissus, etc., in ac- 
cordance with "beds" in which they were planted; so, although 
we do not know when it was originally built, we have an authentic 
record for the years 1773-1776. 

Scattered widely around the Philadelphia district country places 
were developed not only for permanent residence but for sojourn- 
ing. In these we find examples indicating the probability that 
definite plans were made, but only one actual plan has been found, — 
that of "Solitude," an estate on the west bank of the Schuylkill 
about two miles from City Hall. It is now the site of the 
Zoological Gardens. John Penn, born and bred in England, came 
to America in 1784, being concerned with family claims. With 
apparent intent to remain, he built Solitude shortly after his arrival. 
Penn's taste for the English fashion of landscape gardening is 
quite evident, with the "ha-ha" wall, the irregular flower garden, 
the "vista" south of the house, and the clump of trees east of 
the house. All these features bespeak "Capability" Brown and 
the "landscape gardeners" of contemporary times in England. 
Solitude is not American, but many of its English fashions had 



already appeared here, and more were destined to hold supremacy 
in landscape design of the Nineteenth Century. Though essen- 
tially foreign, mention of Solitude is warranted if only as a strik- 
ing example of the lasting quality of planned landscape. The map 
of Fairmount Park made in 1870 clearly shows the ha-ha wall, 
the vistas, and the "clump," and the limits of developed property 
are identical with the original map. The establishment of the 
Zoological Gardens has destroyed all but the dwelling house. 

The same lasting quality of planned landscape is seen in the 
topographic map of "Mount Pleasant," made in 1870. Mount 
Pleasant, built in 1761 by John McPherson, on the opposite bank 
of the Schuylkill and a mile or so higher up, is known as the 
Arnold Mansion, but Benedict Arnold, though owner, probably 
never occupied it. The extent of the grounds is quite apparent 
in the 1870 map, as well as the development of mansion grounds 
distinct from the farm lands. Full advantage is taken here of the 
necessity for numerous buildings by grouping them as a termi- 
nation for the long straight entrance drive. The rows of trees 
along this drive had lost their regularity of spacing by 1870, but 
the formality of the scheme is evident. West of the house the 
contours clearly show the terraced garden which was replanted a 
few years ago (under the supervision of the Pennsylvania Museum) 
and so has again assumed a semblance of its original state. 

Perhaps no country place was more familiar to Washington than 
"Belmont," the home of Judge Richard Peters, of the Board of 
War, during the Revolution. Belmont Mansion is almost directly 
opposite Mount Pleasant, overlooking a broad reach of the river. 
Peters inherited this property from his father who, about 175 5, 
erected a new house adjacent to the old one. Apparently the old 
house faced a garden, and the advantage of this prospect, together 
with the advantage of relationship to an existing development, may 
be reason for the close proximity of the two buildings as we see 
them today. More recent extensions and additions have created a 



Colonial Gardens 



197 







PLAN 



/,/ 






^\ 



* -X * 















V 




From original in possession of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania 



£Jn<Hi>vn0 £fch£Uu</< t/ie QJca/ &P jc/n c^rn^v fun' ' &<£* r 




SOLITUDE 



198 



Colonial Gardens 




£) - ^ tzvafens vHfJi> terraces 



Z%7%jij£Z? cMouat &/&iJa*i6 



{& /870 




Courtesy of the 



ia Museum of Art, Philadelphia 

The Mansion from the Flower Garden 
MOUNT PLEASANT 






Colonial Gardens 



199 




Clair- voyee on lower terrace of garden 
THE GRANGE 



confused hodge-podge of structures, and there is almost nothing to 
indicate how the gardens or grounds were arranged. From old 
descriptions of the gardens we know that there were two summer 
houses, a green, a labyrinth, a wilderness, and "a most perfect 
sample of the old taste of Parterres.""" There was also a famous 
avenue of hemlocks, not less than a quarter of a mile long, which 
terminated at a masonry obelisk. Extending from the house to 
the river was another avenue of cherry trees. In all, Judge Peters' 
taste was evidently one that appreciated the formal manner, rather 
than the more "modern" fashions, though he included the feature 
of a "wilderness," a naturalesque type of garden with shrubs and 
trees. 

We can not omit mention of Bartram's Garden, for none of the 
several arboretums established in the neighborhood of Philadelphia 
in the Eighteenth Century is so famous or so well preserved. With 
his chief interest centered in establishing a collection of plants, we 
doubt whether Bartram considered the arrangement of the grounds 
as carefully as one less interested in arboriculture. Conventionality 
is apparent in terraces close by his house, but the general aspect 
of his property was undoubtedly naturalesque. 

An elaborate description remains of the gardens developed by 
John Cruickshank in 1770 at "The Grange" in Haverford Township. 

Nothing could be more picturesque, beautiful and elegant than this 
highly favored spot. The gardens, the fountains, the Bath in a private 
garden with walks skirted with boxwood and the trumpet creeper in rich 
luxuriance overhanging the door and gateways, where the water was so 
intensely cold that few entered in. The Green houses and Hot houses, 
the Dairy, the extensive orchards of every variety of fruit; and then the 
long dark walk seven-eighths of a mile in extent, shaded by tall forest 
trees, where the tulip poplar abounded, and where the sun scarcely dared 
to penetrate. On one side a ravine through which a creek flowed, 
gurgling, and reflecting the sun beams shut out from the dark walk, with 
the sloping meadows beyond, all presenting a picture never to be forgotten. 



* From the original manuscript letter of Deborah Log: 
the Pennsylvania Historical Society. 



the possession of 



Near the beginning of this dark walk Mr. Ross [son-in-law of Joha 
Cruickshank] had caused to be constructed, on a spot ten or twelve feet 
above the walk, a seat capable of holding twenty persons and a place for 
a table. On the Fourth of July and other warm days of summer he 
would take his friends there and iced wine would be served. A bell wire, 
communicating with the house, was arranged to call the servant when 
wanted and avoid his constant presence.** 

The "Bath" was within a building, part of whose walls still 
stand. The formal garden by the house was in three terraces whose 
lengths ran parallel to the main prospect from the house. Walks 
on two terraces were terminated by openings in the high enclosing 
end-wall, giving a wide view over the country. Such features, 
known as "clair-voyees," are said to have been introduced to Eng- 
land from Holland in the Seventeenth Century. The Grange was 
famous for its hospitality, and Washington was numbered among 
the guests upon one occasion at least, when tradition says that 
upon his departure he collided violently with one of the gate posts. 

In conclusion, we find that, where communities develop with 
people of similar ideals and a common cultural and religious back- 
ground, as in Virginia, there is a similarity of expression that is 
lacking where, as in the district of which Philadelphia was the 
center, such a miscellaneous assortment of nationalities as Swedes, 
Welsh, Germans, and English colonize. The religious beliefs of 
these settlers were even more varied than their nationalities, but 
the problem of existence created a spirit of community, and a fairly 
rapid development of an architectural style is apparent. 

In landscape design there is less that may be considered typical. 
The self-dependence which pioneer life imposed upon the people 
required a greater number of buildings for residence in the country 
than is the case today, and the Colonists' first concern was the rela- 
tionship of these to each other and to the site. An orderly arrange- 
ment was sought, and this order, related to the irregularities of 
rolling country, by no means tended toward a symmetrical group- 
ing of buildings. It is questionable whether great consideration 



From a letter written by Miss Elizabeth Mifflin, granddaughter of John Ross. 



200 



Colonial Gardens 



would be given to such architectural grouping where the majority 
of places were the result of gradual growth with a gradual accumu- 
lation of wealth. Such a pretentious development as Mount Pleas- 
ant signifies the possession of wealth at the outset and a regard for 
country living as recreation. 

Avenues of trees and formal gardens retained their popularity 
in a land so close to wilderness, even after the romantic fashions 
of 18th-century England began to be adopted. In America there 
was no surfeit of conventionality that cried for relief. 

One type of garden alone reappears to a degree that may make 
us consider it characteristic, although this perhaps belongs more 
properly to the first half of the Eighteenth Century: the simple 
box-bordered squares forming a geometrical pattern. At least it 
combines practical considerations with esthetic possibilities; adapt- 
able to the confines of a small lot, its development was possible 
with a minimum amount of grading. The square enclosures were 
large enough to devote to small fruits or vegetables, or could at 



any time be transformed into a box-patterned knot or a flower 
garden; or by the simple expedient of combining a circular central 
bed with four surrounding square beds, a more effective pattern 
was developed. 

The latter half of the Eighteenth Century witnessed more elabo- 
rate developments in landscape design, and of surprising variety. A 
catholicity of taste is apparent. Earlier tradition has not been ruth- 
lessly cast aside where practical considerations favor conventionality, 
nor was conventionality of plan enforced where nature offered the 
greatest opportunities for embellishment in the romantic spirit of 
landscape gardening. 

In the Philadelphia region at least, our forefathers showed dis- 
crimination in their gardens that is uncommon today. They ac- 
cepted that which was sound in the English theories of the 
Eighteenth Century without discarding the equally sound tradi- 
tions of earlier Colonial days that harked back to Tudor England. 

Robert Wheelwright. 




Garden walk on the upper terrace 
THE GRANGE 



Colonial Gardens 



201 



\i£ 




Simple box-bordered squares at "Winter's Big House" in the late 1X90' 




A box-patterned knot at Ury Housj, Fox Chase, Pennsylvania 
TWO ANCIENT GARDENS OF THE PHILADELPHIA REGION 



202 



Colonial Gardens 








<> 



^^ 



^^ssss^ 



GARDENS OF 
NEW AMSTERDAM 

Somerndick's Bouwerie 

From a "plan of the north-east en- 
virons of the city of New York, per- 
formed by the order of his Excel- 
lency, the Earl of Loudon, &c, &c, 
by Sam'l Holland, 17th Sept., 1757," 
reproduced from Old-fashioned Gar- 
dening 



Courtesy of Robert M. McBride & Co. 



The White Hall 
Governor Stuyvesant's City House 




From the Cosmopolitan, January, 1892 



Colonial Gardens 



203 



CHAPTER V 

Homes and Gardens of Old New York 



The region of New York has always been identified with the 
richest examples of old-time gardens and country places. In the 
early days the situation of the city itself was distinctively beauti- 
ful. With its wide harbor with long water views, its shores with 
luxuriant vegetation and thickly wooded slopes, its lowlands with 
background of rolling country and lofty hills, Manhattan Island 
had every possible variety of the most attractive scenery. The 
Hudson River, flowing past Manhattan on the west, one of the 
most beautiful water courses in the world, has been bordered for 
many generations with some of the finest country homes to be 
found in the United States. 

In Washington's time New York was easily one of the most 
consequential settlements in the country. While its size — a popu- 
lation of some 20,000 at the time of the Revolution — had not 
grown to be impressive, its importance was nevertheless significant. 
As early as 1748 a visitor (Peter Kalm, the Swedish botanist) men- 
tioned "its fine buildings" and "its opulence." The streets were 
spacious and most of them were paved. The chief trees were the 
locust and "Water Beech, or Linnaeus 's Platanus occidentalis,"* 
and there were also many lime (linden) and elm which roofed the 
sidewalks. 

At the time of the Revolution, the greater part of the country 
places were situated on Manhattan Island bordering the East and 
Hudson Rivers, though there were a few also on Long Island. In 
1774 John Adams, stopping in New York on his way to attend the 
first Congress in Philadelphia, gave expression to his admiration of 
the "elegant country seats on the Island."! 

The majority of the wealthy citizens of Manhattan were inter- 
ested in the shipping business, and many lived in considerable luxury. 
It was an era of particularly good taste and refinement which showed 
itself in the character of the homes, both in their architectural 
design and in their outdoor cultivation. Describing this period, 
an author writes (in 1871): "There was in that day none of the 
show and glitter of modern times, but with many of the [New 
York] families ... an elegance which has never been rivaled in 
other parts of the country. "t 

In the time of the early settlement of New Amsterdam, the first 
home grounds of Dutch New York were naturally of limited scale. 
The city itself was compressed into a small space, surrounded by a 
stockade for protection against the Indians. The dwellings were 
set close to the street line, usually with the gable end fronting the 
street, and often there was no space between them. The plots were 
not large and the garden areas were more or less confined. Within 
such a limited space and in conformity with Dutch precision, the 
gardens were laid out symmetrically, consisting primarily of straight 
paths and rectangular beds with perhaps an occasional departure 
from straight lines to form circular or curved details. The Castello 
Plan of New Amsterdam, made in 1660, shows occasional garden 
layouts, some of which have fairly ornate designs, but these plans 
were probably drawn largely from the artist's imagination rather 



than from known details. After all, New Amsterdam was primi- 
tive, and utility was the most important consideration, means being 
not abundant to indulge in great luxury or decoration. 

In these gardens were planted fruit trees and vegetables, and 
flowers were planted with them, in some cases perhaps in separate 
beds, but in others between the vegetable rows. Holland, the most 
advanced European country of the time, was noted for its culti- 
vation of flowers and fruits, and the ships of the West India Com- 
pany brought many of them to this country. The love of the 
Dutch for flowers and their knowledge of them, their tendency 
toward regular and formal garden design, their preciseness which 
enabled them to make the most out of the smallest area of ground, 
— all this undoubtedly had great influence on the later Colonial 
gardens which followed. 

Although Holland relinquished New Netherlands to the English 
in 1664, the Dutch influence on the home life, architecture, and 
gardens of the Colony continued well beyond the early part of the 
Eighteenth Century. 

Apart from the simple homes of the average settlers in old New 
York and the country places of the well-to-do, the institution of 
the Manorial Estates had a great bearing on the life of the times. 
In the early settlement of New Netherland, privileges were granted 
to individuals which would permit them to take up land sixteen 
miles on one side of the river (Hudson) or one-half that distance 
on both sides, extending "so far into the country as the situation of 
the occupiers will permit,"* — under the condition that each 
"Patroon" should plant a colony of fifty souls above fifteen years 
of age. A number of such manors were established along the 
river, which were remarkable on account of the vastness of their 
domains, the most noted being those of Van Rensselaer, Van Cort- 
landt, Livingston, and Philipse. The Van Rensselaer Manor was the 
only one to be more than temporarily successful, but all of these 
estates were memorable and their proprietors wielded great influence. 
Other large land grants were awarded in New York during these 
early periods, and the homes of their owners were of correspond- 
ing elegance. 

During the period of Washington many of these manorial estates 
were still flourishing. In aspect and character they differed to a 
considerable degree from the plantation estates of the South. The 
character of the Northern country, especially along the Hudson 
River, was bolder and more rugged. Apart from the difference in 
physical characteristics, the Northern system of development was 
entirely unlike that of the South. While there were slaves in the 
North, they were comparatively few, and the lands were cultivated 
principally by tenants. The domestic grounds of the patroons' 
estates and those of the lesser large-property holders were presum- 
ably in most cases laid out after the style of the English Park. 
The scale was so great, the landscape so imposing, the topography 
so irregular, that attempts at pronounced formal design in the ar- 
rangement of the grounds would have been in most cases incon- 
gruous. But what these manor-house grounds lacked in symmetry 
of design as compared with those of the Southern plantations, they 



* Travels into North America. By Peter Kalm. London, 1772. 
t The Olden Time in New York. By W. I. Kip. New York, 1872. 



t Old -fashioned Gardening. By Grace Tabor. New York, 1913. 



204 



Colonial Gardens 




MAIZELAND 
A COLONIAL ESTATE ON THE HUDSON 



The Old Mansion 




Courtesy of Doubleday, Doran & Co. 

The Pleasaunce, a grass-covered avenue 



Colonial Gardens 



20S 




PMHILKPSE MANOIJ, HOUSE AND G2£,©UK 
im\,oivn. A. §uiivey made in a 8 47 



A garden that Washington often visited 












Courtesy of Charles W. Leavitt & Son 
The "naturalistic" English style — a place at Duanesburgh, New York, about 1800 
TWO COUNTRY SEATS OF THE NEW YORK REGION 



206 



Colonial Gardens 



made up in their wonderful natural and cultivated woodlands, in 
their broad sweeping vistas over hill and valley, and in their mag- 
nificent space and scale. 

While treating in some detail of the homes and gardens of New 
York during the Washington period, or particularly that just pre- 
vious to the Revolution, it is necessary to dwell primarily upon the 
more pretentious country seats because it is of these that we have 
the clearest record. In their gardening features they were naturally 
models for the smaller home grounds, and without doubt they in- 
fluenced the style of gardens in general. During the later Eighteenth 
Century there was a decided tendency to depart from the formal 
style then in fashion; instead, the naturalistic English style became 
popular. Nevertheless, the Georgian type of architecture of the 
period fostered formal garden design, and this was found in most 
instances. A description of the main characteristics of some of 
the more important country places should help to picture the gen- 
eral garden conditions of the period. 

In 1745, when the Philipse Manor House grounds (in Yonkers) 
were improved by the grandson of the original owner, a formal 
garden with box-bordered paths was laid out adjacent to the house. 
Every available tree and plant which would grow in the climate 
was imported and planted. Landscape gardening was the hobby 
of Frederick Philipse, the third Lord of the Manor, and it is pos- 
sible that Washington who was a frequent visitor, possibly begin- 
ning with his first Northern journey, in 1756, may have recalled the 
gardens of Frederick Philipse when making plans for the ultimate 
development of Mount Vernon. 

Van Cortlandt Manor contained two individual estates at this 
time, one located at Kingsbridge and the other at Croton. The 
original Manor contained 200,000 acres. Both Manor Houses still 
stand. The former is now within the New York City park system, 
but the grounds have been changed to such an extent that the origi- 
nal condition can not be traced. The new garden occupies the site 
of the old one, but obviously can not be similar to it. It is said 
that in the older garden the terrace on the east was planted with 
flowering shrubs such as althea, snowball, lilac, and flowering cur- 
rant, and on the west was planted with apple, plum, and pear trees. 
Planted across the top of the north terrace to keep the north wind 
away from the garden, ran a hedge of box trees which grew to 
huge size. Washington dined at the house in July, 1781, and, 
on the evacuation of New York by the British, spent a night 
there in November, 1783, preparatory to riding in to the city. 

An old garden still exists on the Van Cortlandt Estate at Croton. 
While its age can not be exactly determined, it has been called the 
old Dutch Garden and is probably one of the oldest in this section. 
Pierre Van Cortlandt, the proprietor of this estate during the Revo- 
lution, was a close friend of Washington, who stopped at the house 
several times, memorably in 1781. 

The Beverly Robinson estate opposite West Point on the Hudson 
should be mentioned owing to the fact of its having been a fre- 
quent headquarters of Washington. The mansion was erected in 
1750 and the estate contained 60,000 acres, fashioned after the 
country seats of England with "gardens, lawns, fruit orchards, 
broad cultivated fields and great deer parks. "* Arnold was 
quartered there. 

The Jumel Mansion still exists in the Bronx, facing the Harlem 
River. It was built about 1765 by Lieutenant Colonel Roger 



Morris, Loyalist. Morris had been a personal friend of Washing- 
ton, having fought with him in the French and Indian War. The 
mansion served as a headquarters for a number of British officers 
during the Revolution, but was also occupied by Washington at 
another time. This property is shown on the British Headquarters 
Map of New York and Environs (1782) where extensive gardens 
are indicated. 

The estate of Sylvester Manor, Shelter Island, at the eastern end 
of Long Island, was acquired in 1652 by Nathaniel Sylvester, the 
existing residence being built in 173 5. This is an interesting exist- 
ing example of a Colonial estate, and it has an attractive formal 
garden with box-bordered beds and hedges. There are fine old 
trees on the property and wide vistas of lawn flanked by woodland 
growth. The garden dates back considerably over a hundred 
years. 




The l hums a) America. liy Martha J. Lamb. New York, 1879. 



Courtesy of Landscape Architecture 

A boxwood path 
Board-Zabriskie Garden, New Jersey 

Another old garden of which there is definite record is that of 
the former Board-Zabriskie House on the Paramus Road, New 
Jersey, near the New York border, in the heart of an early Dutch 
settlement. This house was built about 1747 and is of the Dutch 
Colonial type, showing, however, Georgian influence. Having been 
recently acquired for Country Club purposes, the grounds and 
house have been greatly altered. Up to a few years ago. however, 
there was an interesting old formal garden, with box borders and 
several interesting garden houses and arbors. 

There is also still in existence the old Manice garden in Queens, 
now the property of the Turf and Field Club, and here is noted a 
distinctly formal design. The garden is laid out in close conjunc- 
tion with the house, and while the flower beds take intricate geo- 
metrical forms, yet the remainder of the grounds are laid out in the 
style of the English naturalistic landscape. This garden is known 
to be over a hundred years old and, with its box borders and other 
characteristics somewhat like those of Sylvester Manor and others 



Colonial Gardens 



207 




Courtesy of Doubleday, Doran & Co. 

Box-bordered garden paths, Sylvester Manor, Shelter Island 




Manice Garden, now part of the Turf and Field Club, Queens, Long Island 
GARDENS CHARACTERISTIC OF THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 



208 



Colonial Gardens 



that have been mentioned, a type is pictured which may be a fair 
representation of the style of the home gardens of the later 
Eighteenth and early Nineteenth Centuries. 

Of the other Hudson River manorial estates little can be said of 
the gardens, as there is scant existing evidence of their original 
features. The Van Rensselaer Manor has long since disintegrated, 
and the last manor house, built in 1765, was moved about thirty- 
five years ago to Williamstown (Mass.). An early description 
states that "its simple architectural elegance even now, with its fine 
park and magnificent trees, gives it an aristocratic air in keeping 
with the period of high sounding titles and lordly possessions." :: " 
The Manor of Rensselaerwyck covered an area of 1000 square 
miles. t Livingston Manor was partitioned long ago, but several 
of the old Manor Houses (erected by descendants of the original 
proprietors) overlooking the Hudson still remain, although their 
original beauties have largely departed. The original Livingston 
Manor comprised 160,000 acres. | 

As the effects of the War wore off and prosperity and wealth 
increased, people began again to interest themselves in their gardens 
and in the development of their country places. At this time the 
number of good books available on Landscape Gardening had in- 
creased, and while the home owners still looked to Europe for 
guidance in fashioning their gardens and country homes, many of 
them were their own planners. In some cases, however, it has been 
shown that master gardeners were brought from Europe to lay out 
the more pretentious estates. 

Pierre Charles L'Enfant, Major in Washington's army during the 
Revolution and later the designer of the plan of the city of Wash- 
ington, was perhaps ithe principal artistic authority of the period 
immediately subsequent to the Revolution. He made his home in 
New York for a time, and while the records of his activities in this 
city are chiefly connected with architecture and land subdivision, 
nevertheless, as he later is known to have laid out gardens in the 
South, it is not illogical to believe that he was also consulted in this 
capacity in New York. 

Andre Michaux, born near Versailles, came to this country from 
France in 1785, and established a nursery in Charleston, and one 
in the "Bergen" section, New Jersey (near New York). His in- 
fluence in horticultural matters was pronounced, and he apparently 
designed gardens as well, such as that of Richard Varick at "Pros- 



* The Homes of America. By Marth 
t Manors and Historic Homes of thi 
Philadelphia, 1924. 



J. La 

Huds 



lb. New York, 1879. 

t Valley. By H. D. Eberlei 



pect Hall," in what is now Jersey City, and which was referred to 
as "containing rare flowers and grotesquely shaped beds and espe- 
cially one long avenue of imported plum trees. "i 

L'Enfant and Michaux were followed after the turn of the 
century by Joseph Ramee, architect, in 1811, and in 1824 by 
Andre Parmentier; both engaged in the planning of country places. 
It is curious to note that these men were French or of French 
descent, and they must have brought French gardening ideals with 
them, for L'Enfant was well known to be inclined to formal design, 
as very likely also was Michaux. 

In spite of the considerable general data on this subject, there are 
no known existing gardens, or complete plans of such gardens, of 
the New York Colonial period, of which the design may be unquali- 
fiedly placed earlier than the beginning of the Nineteenth Century, 
although it is safe to believe there was scant difference between 
those gardens of the early 1800's and those of the half century 
preceding. 

In drawing conclusions from the available data on the Homes 
and Gardens of Old New York, it is quite apparent that the love 
of the Dutch for flowers, their experience in horticulture, and their 
general personal characteristics of orderliness and precision, without 
doubt influenced the development of a distinct type of garden. 
This garden, originally a system of regular beds and paths, planted 
in fruits, flowers, and vegetables, together with the Dutch innate 
of love for flowers and sense of orderliness, must have affected the 
style of development of the many noteworthy gardens that appear 
in Manhattan in Colonial times. 

While, in the case of the many pretentious layouts of New York 
country seats of the Washington period, many favored in design 
the style of naturalistic English landscape, it is probable that in 
most cases the grounds immediately adjacent to the house took a 
formal character largely on account of the Georgian type of archi- 
tecture then predominant. The gardens themselves were in general 
box-bordered and in some cases contained beds laid out in geomet- 
rical patterns. Probably most of them contained fruit trees, and 
in some cases vegetables also. 

As a concluding thought, it is interesting, first, to remember 
that Washington visited many of the country seats in New York, 
especially during the time of the Revolution, and second, to specu- 
late as to how much he may have influenced details of their de- 
velopment or may in turn have been influenced by them in making 
his plans for Mount Vernon. 
Richard Schermerhorn, Jr. 

* Historic Houses of New Jersey. By \V. Jay Mills. Philadelphia, 1902. 



/KXTcn Plan or Flowcl garden ~ The boaild no vje. ~ 

• Jcale » - - iZ £. it 5? 




Courtesy of Landscape Architecture 

An Old Colonial Garden in New Jersey 



Colonial Gardens 



209 




A SALEM GARDEN 



210 



Colonial Gardens 



chapter VI 

Gardens of Old Salem and the New England Colonies 



George Washington's early experience as a surveyor of land and 
his later experience in military operations made him an observer of 
topography. The journals of his ordinary travels from Virginia to 
New England contain many entries regarding the contour of land, 
its exposure to the sun, the steepness of roads, and other matters of 
strategic interest to the farmer, to the landscape architect, and to 
the architect, as well as to the topographer and soldier. In his later 
years he became a close student of trees. His Mount Vernon diaries 
abound in the most tireless records of his tree-planting experiments 
and of his letters to Europe and to New England inquiring about 
new kinds of plants. If we review the old places of New England 
as Washington saw them, we must keep constantly before us the 
facts of topography, exposure, soil, and vegetation. 

The New Englander, like the men of the South, based the 
planning of places and gardens on the remembered plans of the 
fatherland of England. Fortunately for us, however, the memory 
of the old places across the Atlantic was not always accurate. 
Moreover, the Colonists were not ready to sacrafice their comfort 
in a new bleak land to the mere copying of English traditions, 




too 









10 a© £0 



though these were revered. Thus, fortunately, the New England 
places and gardens present many interesting departures and adap- 
tations even though the "feeling" of the designs is English. Natur- 
ally enough, the adaptations which were made by New Englanders 
were not the same as those made by Virginians, because the climate 
and building materials, as well as the manners and the customs, 
were not the same in these distant parts of our country. 

If we compare the New England places of Washington's time 
with places in England, the New England places and gardens were 
in general smaller, less in cost, much less elaborate in detail, and not 
built for great permanency; they have not been mellowed by the 
centuries of time and history, or by the bland atmosphere of the 
Old Country. New England houses and outbuildings as a rule 
were not made of masonry, or exposed half-timbered work, or of 
brick. Wood was at hand in unlimited quantities and therefore it 
was commonly used for construction in New England. Retain- 
ing walls were rare. High walls for privacy were almost unknown. 
Courtyards, crofts, long axial vistas, and long axial approaches 
were rare even in the largest country places of New England. 




^ 

1 



MtUUWlb=llMUUIl£=^ 



A 8 * 



Figure 1. An ancient box-garden 

GARDEN PATTERNS OF THE 



Figure 2. A town residence 
REGION OF OLD SALEM 



Colonial Gardens 



211 




A portion of the farm group 



ARRANGEMENT OF FARMYARDS AND BUILDINGS 

THE WILMS K DANIELS r-ATWfTOSEPH rKEEMAW~Ar> 1800] 
COB.H13H -W-H- >■ J 

S«Lr: WET 

60 80 




FACED MSAJUR6ME-NTS 

ARTHUR A- SXURTLeFT 

JUNE + SEPT-IJI7 



■*■ o BEE HIVES 




T 3 ' ^ H H B I 



1 -First house- built about i«oo. P-HEN ho USE -Afterwards carriage shed 

2 -NEW HOUSE-) 855 10- WAGON SHED- PASSAGEWAY 

3 '-MILK ROOM -HONEy STORAGE- 11-5HEEP BARN-TOBACCO L0FT-)S05 
-^-V/OODSHED U-FIXED GRINDSTONES — 13-MEN HOUSE 

5-COR.N HOUSE, FEED, WOOD 14--5HED -15-.5UGAR HOUSE +SOAP B01L1N<5~I805~ 

6-CARRIAGE HOUSE ~BuiLt)B50- 16-BEEH|><E5 5 FRAMES/SUPERS',WAX 5 ETC. 
7-WAGONS UMDER- 17" BRICK SMOKE HOUSE -STORAGE For. WOOD ASHES- 

8~"L0NG BARn" COWS~HORS£S~)8o5- 18~CL0TH£S LlKES-19-SUN D)AL~20-V£GETABLES~ 

Aiq OCT 



A NEW ENGLAND FARMYARD 



212 



Colonial Gardens 



In comparing New England places and gardens with those of 
Virginia and the South in Washington's time, we must remember 
the colder climate of New England with its long winters, the more 
searching winds, the lower sun, the more broken and stony soil, the 
less dependence upon agriculture. Under these conditions the New 
Englander placed his buildings near together; a widely spaced ar- 
rangement was out of the question for reason of the cold and the 
deep snow. Thus he was forced into a thrift of space and of work 
which was not wholly unnatural to his temper. The New England 
man, by and large, did not understand long vistas, long axial ap- 
proaches, symmetrically placed buildings, axially placed gardens. 
The climate and the soil ran counter to them. Therefore the Eng- 
lish traditions regarding these desirable things lapsed to the number 
of exceptions sufficient to prove the rule. 

The climate of New England made an isolated though well- 
rounded life like that of the Southern plantation much more diffi- 
cult. True, there were isolated farms in New England, but as a 
whole the farms were nearer to one another than in the South and 
nearer to the villages, towns, and to the mills. The places were 
built close to the highways for convenience in the deep snow season 
when the towns "broke out" the highways with ox ploughs. For 
reasons of comfort men of great wealth also built near the high- 
ways and usually in or near the outskirts of the towns. In the 
isolated farms the smoke house, cobbler's shop, milk house, car- 
penter's shop, the weave house (usually an attic room), and other 
utility structures were built; but with the very small opportuni- 
ties to get labor, all the structures were small and were often com- 
bined under very few roofs. Naturally, therefore, the New Eng- 
land places were small, compact, unsymmetrical; but because of 
these very limitations they were exceedingly interesting in the 
records of our Colonial times. 

Let no one think there was gloom in the gardens of this land of 
long winters and of consequent thrift. Far from it. When April 
came the earliest wild flowers were later than the common flowers 
of the gardens. Long before the countryside came into leaf the 
dooryards were blooming with the honeysuckles, the azaleas, and 
the cornels which had been brought from England to these shores. 
Then followed the glory of the plum, cherry, pear, apple, lilac, and 
quince. Delights of this kind were later than the same delights in 
Virginia, but in New England they came one by one from April 
through June and not with a rush through a shorter season. The 
early New England pictures, the needlework, the May Day cus- 
toms, the curious laconic poetry, even the terrible sermons hot 
with a fire lacking in the sun, portray a love for gardening and for 
flowers which was the more intense because of the cold winters 
and the austere doctrine which, with all their goodness, nipped it 
somewhat while making it real. 

Old Salem, Massachusetts, is mentioned in the title of this brief 
paper not because it was unique among New England towns, but 
because it is typical (like Marblehead, Newburyport, Portsmouth, 
Windsor, Greenfield, Hatfield, and a score of others) in possessing 
Colonial places which have come down to us from the time of 
Washington, with some of the ancient glamour of interest and 
charm still clinging to them. The students of those times well 
know their ignorance of the exact lineaments of the ancient places. 
We are all in danger of being far too sure that what we attribute 
to the old layouts actually existed in the old days. In this dilemma 
we are safer in describing the oldest of the places as they existed 
according to measurements as recent as a third of a century ago, 



than to attempt to go back a century and a half by imagination, 
where far less complete records are available. 

Scattered through New England are many old houses which 
have been kept in a fair state of repair, and which, therefore, have 
survived wind, rain, and snow since Colonial times. Few of these 
old buildings still possess the ancient ells, sheds, barns, gardens, 
fences, pumps, and other structures which once stood near at hand. 
Money and care have not been available to keep those lesser struc- 
tures in repair and they have fallen to ruin and to dust. Few of 
the ancient trees of Colonial times have survived, few of the shrubs, 
and fewer of the flowers. The hedges of the garden paths have 
vanished, and the paths have become lost in the grass sod. I shall 
pass by the depleted places of this type and refer the reader to 
places richer in material even though later. The assumption is 
made that these places have retained much of their ancient appear- 
ance and have copied an earlier mode of the same locality. 

The accompanying plan (see page 211) of the John Freeman 
farm, built before 1800, shows a typical New England farm group 
of the usual irregular plan. The composition faces south. All the 
out-buildings, except the shed, sugar house, and smoke house, can 
be reached from within-doors. The pattern of the garden, the 
position of the beehives, and all the other appurtenances are shown. 
The driveway's three contacts with the town highway show to what 
large extent this farmer, like his neighbors, depended upon the 
highway for his most intimate approach. The cold climate of 
Cornish, New Hampshire, restrained the Daniels family from ex- 
tensive gardens, but the love of flowers and the efforts to secure 
an orderly axial and rectangular relation to the house is expressed. 
The hen-house (see 13 on the plan) is turned exactly south to se- 
cure the maximum sun in the winter. The wings of the house also 
extend toward the south to receive the warmth. The heavy plant- 
ing of trees at the north was arranged to break the force of the 
winds. 

The Marblehead plan (see page 213) shows an axial approach on 
the north and a curious attempt to secure an axial approach on the 
south. The lofty site of the building on a series of terraces is indi- 
cated by the cross sections. By placing the stable on the main 
highway it was possible